1925 germany

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Knaak combination rifle

Manufactured by Georg Knaak in Berlin, Germany c.1907~25.
7,92x57mm Mauser five-round integral bolt magazine, Mauser G98 bolt action repeater, 16 gauge single shot shotgun barrel with side lever break action and external hammer.

A one of a kind combination gun with a sexy look, for a hunter that didn’t know if he liked rifles or shotguns the best.

Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf (1852 - 1925)

“War is conducted by people. Whoever wants to understand war must therefore above all get to know the individual in his reaction to physical and mental influences.”

Austro-Hungarian chief of staff from 1906, Conrad von Hötzendorf started his career in the military academies at Vienna, where he proved himself an overachiever and a rapidly-rising star.  Conrad distinguished himself early on in the occupation of Bosnia-Herzogovina in 1878 and quickly received promotion after promotion. 

Conrad distrusted Austria’s non-German minorities and despised its Slavic rivals, especially the Serbs.  He embraced the aggressive tenants of social Darwinism and argued that Austria would have to fight to survive. The assassination of his close friend Archduke Franz Ferdinand in July 1914 confirmed his belief that Serbia needed to be destroyed. 

A pessimist who idolized Schopenhauer, Conrad feared that the Habsburg Empire would fall apart before he had a chance to destroy its enemies, and he was a chief aggravator for war in 1914.  However, his plans for mobilization were needlessly complex and his armies under-supplied and inexperienced.  He gave in to German pressure to shift troops from the Balkans to Galicia, and in consequence many Austrian troops spent the first weeks of August in trains rather than on the battlefield.  Conrad failed to concentrate his forces against either the Serbs or the Russians and his armies were hammered throughout 1914.  By the end of the year, Austria had lost most of its capacity for independent action, and the German generals complained about being “chained to a corpse”, for which they largely blamed Conrad.

A spring offensive in 1915 recaptured territory from the Russians, but a following Russian counterattack caused massive Austro-Hungarian casualties.  The German high command lost any remaining confidence in Conrad and took command over the war in Serbia, while an Austrian attack in Italy floundered without German support.  By the autumn of 1916, the Austrians had been forced to accept German authority on all fronts, and Conrad was demoted in early 1917.  Following a further failed attack on the Italians in July 1918, Conrad was finally dismissed all together.  He died on August 25th, 1925, at Mergentheim, Germany.

Conrad’s poor reputation is not entirely deserved.  He was a gifted general, but an unlucky one, and the soldiers he commanded were not up to his ambitious plans. Supremely confident in himself and his armies, Conrad favored pre-emptive attacks on the enemies of his nation.  A tactician rather than a strategist, the realities of war sometimes escaped him.

anonymous asked:

Do you know what are the major treaties we should remember?

Well there are a whole bunch of important ones but teh key ones are:

Peace of Augsburg (1555) 

  • gave German Princes the right to chose their own religion for their region (cuius regio euius religio) 
  • only allowed to chose between Catholicism of Lutheranism 
  • NO CALVINISM WAS ALLOWED 

Edict of Nantes (1598) 

  • put into plac by politique Henry IV 
  • gave religious tolerance to french protestants (Huguenots) 
  • revoked by Louis XIV - because of his belif in reliious unity 

Peace of Westphalia (1648)

  • ended Thirty Years War 
  • recognized Calvinism as a acceptable religion 
  • recognized independent authority over 200 German states 
  • Germany was politically still fragmented and torn apart 
  • Sweden gained territory and became a major power 
  • Netherlands were recognized as independent 

Peace of Utrecht (1713) 

  • ended Louis XIV’s attempts to dominate Europe 
  • Charles V was on the throne in Spain but couldn’t hold the French crown as well 
  • Spanish Netherlands (the Catholic ones) were given to Austrian Habsburgs 
  • England got a whole bunch of new territories 

Pragmatic Sanction (1713) 

  • guaranteed that Maria Theresa would be the successor to HRE Charles VI 
  • indivisibility of lands 
  • Broken when Frederick the Great of Prussia invaded Silesia 

Congress of Vienna (1815) 

  • post French revolution 
  • settlement that was equal to France and the other powers 
  • Balance of Power that would exist till the Unification of Germany 
  • used legitimacy to restore the Bourbons to the thrones 
  • Belgium + Netherlands = Kingdom of the Netherlands
  • loose confederation of 39 German states 

Berlin Conference (1884-1885)

  • led by Bismarck 
  • established rules over the “scramble for Africa” 
  • a country would have to establish control for that colony to be theirs 
  • Congo Free State was given to Leopold III

Treaty of Versailles (1919)

  • Both Germany and Communist Russia were NOT allowed to participate in the negotiations 
  • Germany was guilty and had to pay for all reparations 
  • Austro-Hungarian empire divided into states  ( Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia) 
  • League of nations created to settle disputes 
  • bitterness and resentment between the victors and Germany 

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918) 

  • ended Bolshevik Russia’s participation in the war 
  • negotiated by Vladimir Lenin who did’t want to continue a war that could not be won 
  • there were heavy payments but he wanted out 
  • it was repealed following Germany’s defeat

The Locarno Pact (1925)

  • France and Germany acknowledge and reinforce the borders set by the Treaty of Versailles 

Kellogg-Briand Pact (1925)

  • war is no longer a means of national policy 
  • violated during the 1930s 

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (1939)

  • Stalin and Hitler agreed on a 10 year nonaggression pact 
  • also secretly decided to divide Eastern Europe between them 

North Atlantic Pact (1949)

  • established NATO 
  • implemented Truman’s policy of containment 

Treaty of Rome (1957)

  • created the European Economic Community (EEC) 

Helsinki Accords (1975) 

  • ratified territorial boundaries after WWII 

Maastricht Treaty (1991) 

  • created the European Union (EU) or the Common Market 
  • established the Euro in 1999

Good Luck!

-Shireen 

ARUP Associates, IBM Headquarters, Johannesburg, South Africa, 1976
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Louis Kahn, Olivetty-Underwood Factory,  Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, 1966-1970
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Meinhard Von Gerkan, Airport Parking Garage, Hamburg, Germany, 1989-1990
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Mario Botta, TCS Offices Noida, New Delhi , India, 1996-2002
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Oscar Niemeyer, Sul America Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1952
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Alvar Aalto, Experimental House, Muuratsalo, Finland, 1953
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Sverre Fehn, Villa Busk, Bamble, Norway, 1990
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Basilica di San Lorenzo Maggiore, Milano, 3rd century bc
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Alvar Aalto, Sanatorium, Paimio, Finland, 1929-1933
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Castle of Büdingen
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Arne Jacobsen, Danmarks Nationalbank, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1965-1971
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John Hejduk, One-Half House, 1966 (unbuilt)
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Mario Botta, Cattedrale della Resurrezione, Evry, France,1988-1995
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Ivan Leonidov, House of industry, Moscow, Russia, 1930
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Walter Gropius, Bauhaus Building, Dessau, Germany, 1925-1926
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Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Inland Steel Building, Chicago, USA, 1956-1957
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Yakhchāl plan
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Louis Kahn, Fisher House, Hatboro, Pennsylvania, USA, 1967
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Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, National Commercial Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 1983
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Great Mosque of Samarra, 848-851
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Louis Kahn, City Tower, Philadelphia, USA, 1951-1953
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Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Macy’s Rego Park, New York, USA, 1955