1921 tulsa race riot



This horrific incident has been well documented, everywhere: from YouTube videos of survivor interviews to PBS Lesson Plans for school teachers. Please do your Google diligence:

  • From May 30 to June 1, 1921, white citizens of Tulsa bombed burned and shot up the “Little Africa” section of Tulsa FOR 18 HOURS STRAIGHT
  • Why would they do that? That same old lame excuse, a Black man supposedly did something to a white woman. But the real reason was ECONOMIC JEALOUSY. Whites may have called it Little Africa derisively, but there is a reason that Black Tulsa is known as Black Wall Street
  • In addition to the 300 Blacks killed, and over 1,000 residential homes burned to the ground, also destroyed were:
  • The Mt. Zion Baptist Church and five other churches; the Gurley Hotel, Red Wing Hotel, and Midway Hotel; the Tulsa Star and Oklahoma Sun newspaper offices; Dunbar Elementary School; Osborne Monroe’s Roller-Skating Rink; the East End Feed Store; the Y.M.C.A. Cleaners; the Dreamland Theater; a drug store, barbershop, banquet hall, several grocery stores, dentists, lawyers, doctors, and realtors offices; a U.S. Post Office Substation, as well the all-black Frissell Memorial Hospital. All told, marauding gangs of savage whites destroyed 40-square-blocks of Black economic and entrepreneurial prosperity!

64 years after the first bombing of an American city was committed against the Black residents of Tulsa… the second bombing of an American city took place in Philadelphia when the city bombed the black members of the MOVE organization. (see the blackourstory archive for details). 

Isn’t it a shame that 76 after the bombing of Tulsa, when Timothy McVeigh blew up the Murrah Federal Office Building in Oklahoma City, most historically illiterate Americans - including American “journalists” - responded as if it were the first time such a horror had been visited on Oklahoma. If only we knew.

While there are many lessons to be drawn from this, a few questions that stick out to me are these:

  • If the answer to Black second-class treatment from whites in America is supposedly to become the ultimate American capitalists…the ‘model minorities’… how do you explain Tulsa 1921?
  • For those Black folk who think that the sole answer to Black people’s problems is simply more Blacks becoming business owners and more Blacks spending money with other Blacks… how did that work out for our people in Tulsa in '21?
  • Considering not only Tulsa, but Rosewood, Florida, and many other thriving all-Black towns that you may know of that all met the same fate at the hands of murderous, envious, lazy crackers… WHEN ARE WE GOING TO ACKNOWLEDGE AND TAKE SERIOUSLY THE IDEA THAT BLACK WEALTH (ESPECIALLY ALL-BLACK WEALTH) WILL NEED TO BE PROTECTED WITH PHYSICAL FORCE?

There is a reason that Marcus Garvey AND Elijah Muhammad had armies of trained Black men as a huge part of their organizations. Many of us Black folk took those great men as jokes, yet NO BLACK LEADERS SINCE THOSE TWO have reached the same heights of economic and ideological success and unity of Black people. 

Not only do we need to LEARN THIS HISTORY, we need to start taking these events men and movements MORE SERIOUSLY, and doing some CRITICAL HISTORICAL ANALYSIS if we are ever to stop being on the bottom rung of every metric in American life. Not just some casual or accidental reading of history; some CRITICAL. HISTORICAL. ANALYSIS.

We’ve had many examples before us, but were often too undisciplined or brainwashed or lazy to follow them. Shame on us. If even one-fourth of the people who claimed to love Brother Malcolm in his day had at least one-tenth of Malcolm’s discipline, he might not have needed to hire an FBI Agent named Gene Roberts whom he didn’t have time to scrutinize properly beforehand, because all the Black folks who gassed him up to leave the Nation of Islam and who joined Brother Malcolm’s MMI were too damned undisciplined and untrained IN ANYTHING USEFUL TO PROTECTING BLACK PEOPLE to even serve as proper security for him. Read it again, in context of this entire post, and let it marinate.

AMERICA NEEDS TO PAY US WHAT THEY OWE FOR ALL OF THIS TORTURE ROBBERY AND MURDER that they’ve visited on us since they brought our people here as captives and bred us for profit.

TULSA 1921 was real. PHILLY 1985 was real. Will it happen again?


June 1st 1921: Tulsa riot

On this day in 1921, the black district of Tulsa, Oklahoma, was destroyed by a white mob. The Greenwood district of Tulsa had one of the most affluent black communities in the United States at this time, earning the nickname ‘Black Wall Street’. On May 30th 1921, a young black man called Dick Rowland rode in an elevator with a white woman; false rumours swirled in the white community that Rowland had attempted to assault her. Rowland was arrested on May 31st, and sensationalist newsaper coverage of the incident fuelled talk of lynching. This led to a confrontation between white and black mobs outside the courthouse, which resulted in a gun being discharged, sparking violence. The following day, June 1st, the Greenwood District was looted and burned by white rioters. The governor declared martial law, and National Guard troops were called to quell the violence. Law enforcement officials imprisoned black Tulsans, with over 6,000 people held for days on end; most white rioters, in contrast, were not arrested. In the wake of the violence, 35 city blocks lay in ruins, thousands of African-Americans were left homeless, and over 800 people had been injured. The dead were buried in mass graves, with the toll initially placed at 36, but revised by a 2001 report which rose the estimation to 300 fatalities. This report, which recommended paying reparations to the survivors and victims’ families, was part of a concerted effort in recent years to end the silence about the event. The scale of the violence was covered up at the time, and the incident was omitted from state and national histories. The Tulsa riot was one of a number of attempted ‘racial cleansings’ by white mobs against black communities in the United States, which had the tacit support of law enforcement and government. It is vital that this event, which saw white mobs destroy an entire black neighborhood, is remembered and placed in the long narrative of systemic racism in the United States.

#Repost @blackhistory with @repostapp ・・・ 93 years ago on this day June 1, 1921, the Tulsa Race Riot began. It is marked as the deadliest race riot in the history of the U.S. & destroyed what was known as, Black Wall Street.

Black Wall Street was the wealthiest black community in the United States, full of black owned businesses consisting of: 
movie theaters 
dental offices
independent newspapers
grocery stores
a bank
post offices
a bus system
law offices 
its own hospital

Racial tension boiled over on May 30, 1921 when a white woman accused a black boy of sexual assault. Late that night, a mob of nearly 10,000 white men launched an all out assault on Black Wall Street systematically burning down every home & business. 
Attacks came from both the ground and the sky as the mobs used planes from World War I to drop firebombs and shoot at residents. African Americans that were captured were held in internment camps around the city by local police & National Guard units.

Blacks who were injured during the 16 hour attack couldn’t seek medical care because the mobs torched the only black hospital in the city.

The attack left about 10,000 African Americans homeless and 35 city blocks burned to the ground. In total, 1,256 houses & 191 businesses (including churches, a middle school & a hospital) were burned. 
In the aftermath, it was estimated that 300 African Americans were killed and many of their bodies were buried in unmarked graves.

The Tulsa Race Riot was taught for the 1st time in Tulsa public schools in 2012. #knowthyself #lovethyself #africanpride #africa #problack #blackart #blacklove #blackisbeautiful #blackexcellence #blackwomen #blackmen #blackkings #blackqueens #blackunity #blackhistory #hotep #ase #sheeple #wakeup #riseup #africa #africanlive #afroncentric #kemet #blackgenocide #mentalslavery #blackconsciousness by 02luvly
Rappers are ACTORS!

Tulsa Pennies: Remembering the Tulsa Race Massacre

Photo caption:  The race riots of Tulsa, Oklahoma, raged through the thriving black community of Greenwood from May 31 through June 1, 1921.  The violence left at least 300 people dead and scores of businesses destroyed. Ninety-three years later, charred pennies collected shortly after the mayhem ended by young George Monroe – a five-year-old survivor of the riots – have come to the NMAAHC.  Here they will help tell a story of race-based horror and African American resilience.

When curators at the National Museum of African American History and Culture search for a symbol of an event or person, they look for evocative connections that will draw visitors to a time and place that they may know nothing about.

With that expectation, Museum Curator Paul Gardullo has collected charred pennies from the Tulsa Massacre of 1921. They were gathered just after the riots by George Monroe, then a 5-year-old who survived the horrors of the country’s worst race riot on record.

Photo Caption: Photographic postcard of Tulsa race riot, 1921. Collection of the National Museum of African American History and Culture. 2011.175.3

The pennies came to the museum from Monroe, donated by historian Scott Ellsworth, who befriended Mr. Monroe when writing one of the first histories on the Tulsa Riots, “Death in a Promised Land.” Ellsworth was a friend of Monroe and a student of the esteemed historian Dr. John Hope Franklin, head of the NMAAHC Scholarly Advisory Committee until his death in 2009.

Dr. Franklin also knew and valued this history personally. His father, Buck Colbert Franklin, lost his law office in the riots and successfully fought to have black businesses rebuild in the riot-torn neighborhood. The violence shook a thriving black neighborhood, anchored by so many successful businesses that it was widely known as “Black Wall Street.”

Photo Caption: Photographic postcard of Tulsa race riot, 1921. Collection of the National Museum of African American History and Culture.2011.175.14

During the riots, both blacks and whites were armed. When a band of white rioters burst into George Monroe’s home, setting fire to the curtains, he hid under a bed with his siblings. When a rioter stepped on his hand, his sister saved his life by putting her hands over his mouth so he couldn’t scream. “When we went outside, there were a lot of bullets flying, commotion and a lot of fires. I remember that as if it was yesterday,” Mr. Monroe recalled when interviewed in the late 1990s before he passed away. Young George and his siblings survived but the family business, a skating rink, was destroyed. When the fires subsided, George Monroe and other boys went up and down the burned out streets picking up pennies.

“Though these objects are humble, Mr. Monroe’s pennies are powerful touchstones that will allow people to remember this violent episode in our nation’s history,” says Gardullo. “Through them and other objects and stories collected from Tulsa families, visitors will come face to face with personal stories of both pain and violence, survival and resilience that will be part of the Museum’s inaugural exhibition focused on “The Power of Place”.

Written by Jackie Trescott.

Tulsa Oklahoma Black Wall Street aka Little Africa

Greenwood is a neighborhood in Tulsa, Oklahoma. As one of the most successful and wealthiest African American communities in the United States during the early 20th Century, it was popularly known as America’s “Black Wall Street” until the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921.

For all you economics freaks and boycut freaks study to show yourself approved. The point is you don’t need economics you don’t need unity. You must first have power to protect the economics and the unity.

THE BLACK (NEGRO) WALL STREET The “Black (Negro) Wall Street” was the name given to Greenwood Avenue ofNorth Tulsa, Oklahoma during the early 1900’s. Because of strict segregation, Blacks were only allowed to shop, spend, and live in a 35 square block area called the Greenwood District. The “circulation of Black dollars” only in the Black community produced a tremendously prosperous Black business district that was admired and envied by the whole country. Oklahoma’s first African American settlers were Indian slaves of the so-called “Five Civilized Tribes”: Chickasaws, Choctaws, Cherokees, Creeks, and Seminoles. These tribes were forced to leave the Southeastern United States and resettle in Oklahoma in mid-winter over the infamous “Trail of Tears.” After theCivil War, U.S.-Indian treaties provided for slave liberation and land allotments ranging from 40-100 acres, which helps explain why over 6,000 African-Americans lived in the Oklahoma territory by 1870. Oklahoma boasted of more all-Black towns and communities than any other state in the land, and these communities opened their arms to freed slaves from all across the country. Remarkably, at one time, there were over 30 African-American newspapers in Oklahoma.

Tulsa began as an outpost of the Creek Indians and as late as 1910, Walter White of the NAACP, described Tulsa as “the dead and hopeless home of 18,182 souls.”Suddenly, oil was discovered and Tulsa rapidly grew into a thriving, bustling enormously wealthy town of 73,000 by 1920 with bank deposits totaling over $65million. However, Tulsa was a “tale of two cities isolated and insular,” one Black and one White. Tulsa was so racist and segregated that it was the only city in America that boasted of segregated telephone booths. Since African Americans could neither live among Whites as equals nor patronize White businesses in Tulsa, Blacks had to develop a completely separate business district and community, which soon became prosperous and legendary. Black dollars invested in the Black community also produced self-pride, self-sufficiency,and self-determination. The business district, beginning at the intersection of Greenwood Avenue and Archer Street, became so successful and vibrant that Booker T. Washington during his visit bestowed the moniker: “Negro Wall Street.”

By 1921, Tulsa’s African-American population of 11,000 had its own bus line, two high schools, one hospital, two newspapers, two theaters, three drug stores, four hotels, a public library, and thirteen churches. In addition, there were over 150 two and three story brick commercial buildings that housed clothing and grocery stores,cafes, rooming houses, nightclubs, and a large number of professional offices including doctors, lawyers, and dentists. Tulsa’s progressive African American community boasted some of the city’s most elegant brick homes, well furnished with china, fine linens, beautiful furniture, and grand pianos. Mary Elizabeth Parrish from Rochester, New York wrote:

“In the residential section there were homes of beauty and splendor which would please the most critical eye.” Well known African American personalities often visited the Greenwood district including: educators Mary McCloud Bethune and W.E.B. DuBois, scientist George Washington Carver, opera singer Marian Anderson, blues singer Dinah Washington, and noted Chicago chemist Percy Julian.T.P. Scott wrote in “Negro City Directory”:  

“Early African American business leaders in Tulsa patterned the development of Tulsa’s thriving Greenwood district after the successful African American entrepreneurial activity in Durham, North Carolina.” After the Civil War, former slaves moved to Durham from the neighboring farmlands and found employment in tobacco processing plants. By1900, a large Black middle class had developed which began businesses that soon grew into phenomenally successful corporations, especially North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. Charles Clinton Spaulding was so successful with the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company that he was able to create a real estate company, a textile and hosiery mill, and the “Durham Negro Observer”newspaper. Durham Blacks also created a hospital, Mechanics and Farmers Bank(1908), North Carolina Training College (1910), Banker’s Fire Insurance Company(1920), and the National Negro Finance Company (1922).  However, living conditions in Durham were so substandard and working conditions so poor that the1920 mortality rate among Blacks in Durham was three times higher than the White rate. As of 1926, 64% of all African Americans in Durham died before the age of40. These perilous working and living conditions were not present in Tulsa.

On May 31, 1921, the successful Black Greenwood district was completely destroyed by one of the worse race riots in U.S. history. A 19 year old Black male accidentally stumbled on a jerky elevator and bumped the 17-year-old White elevator operator who screamed. The frightened young fellow was seen running from the elevator by a group of Whites and by late afternoon the “Tulsa Tribune”reported that the girl had been raped. Despite the girl’s denial of any wrong doing, the boy was arrested and a large mob of 2,000 White men came to the jail to lynch the prisoner. About seventy five armed African Americans came to the jail to offer assistance to the sheriff to protect the prisoner. The sheriff not only refused the assistance but also deputized the White mob to disarm the Blacks. With a defenseless Black community before them, the White mob advanced to the Greenwood district where they first looted and then burned all Black businesses, homes, and churches. Any Black resisters were shot and thrown into the fires. When the National Guard arrived, they assisted the others by arresting all Black men, women, and children,and herding them into detention centers at the Baseball Park and Convention Hall. As many as 4,000 Blacks were held under armed guard in detention.

Dr. Arthur C.Jackson, a nationally renowned surgeon and called by the Mayo brothers (of Mayo Clinic fame) “the most able Negro surgeon in America,” was shot at the Convention Hall and allowed to bleed to death. The “Chicago Tribute” Newspaper reported that Whites also used private airplanes to drop kerosene and dynamite on Black homes. By the next morning the entire Greenwood district was reduced to ashes and not one White was even accused of any wrong doing, much less arrested. The race riot of Tulsa, Oklahoma was not an isolated event in American history. On May 28, 1917, a White mob of over 3,000 in East St. Louis, Illinois ravaged African American stores, homes, and churches. Eyewitnesses reported that overone hundred Blacks were gunned down as they left their burning homes including a small Black child who was shot and thrown back into the burning building to die. Seven White police officers charged with murder by the Illinois Attorney Generalwere collectively fined $150. During the “Red Summer” of 1919, over twenty-fiverace riots, where White mobs attacked black neighborhoods. were recorded. In the1919 race riot at Elaine, Arkansas, White mobs killed over 200 African Americans and burned their homes and businesses. Federal troops arrested hundreds of Blacks trying to protect their possessions and forcibly held them in basements of the city’s public schools. Twelve Blacks were indicted (no Whites) and convicted of inciting violence and sentenced to die. The NAACP persuaded the U.S. Supreme Count for the first time in history to reverse a racially biased Southern court.

Director John Singleton exposed the horror of the Rosewood, Florida massacre of 1922 in his film entitled “Rosewood.” A White mob burned down the entire townand tried to kill all of its Black inhabitants. In April 1994, the Florida legislature passed the “Rosewood Bill,” which awarded $150,000 to each of the riot’s nineeligible Black survivors.
 After the Tulsa riot, the White inhabitants tried to buy the Black property and force Black people out of town. No Tulsa bank or lending institution would make loans in the riot-marred Greenwood district, and the city refused all outside assistance. However, racial pride and self-determination would not permit the Greenwoodowners to sell, and they doggedly spend the entire winter in tents donated by the American Red Cross. Rebuilding was a testament to the courage and stamina of Tulsa’s pioneers in theirstruggle for freedom. Most of the buildings along the first block of Greenwood Avenue were rebuilt within one year. Henry Whitlow wrote: “A little over adecade after the riot, everything was more prosperous than before.” In 1926,W.E.B. DuBois visited Tulsa and wrote:

 “Black Tulsa is a happy city. It has new clothes. It is young and gay and strong. Five little years ago, fire and blood and robbery leveled it to the ground. Scars are there, but the city is impudent and noisy.It believes in itself. Thank God for the grit of Black Tulsa.”

Like Black Tulsa, African Americans can continue to survive by self-pride, self-help, and self-determination.

Brown, R. (1975) Strain of Violence: Historical Studies of American Violence and Virgilantism. New York: Oxford University Press.

Butler, W. (1974) Tulsa 75: A History of Tulsa. Tulsa: Metropolitan Tulsa Chamber of Commerce.

Debo, A. (1982) Tulsa: From Creek Town to Oil Capital. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Ellsworth, S. (1943) Death in a Promised Land: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Franklin, J. (1974) From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans. New York: Alfred Knopf.

Franklin, J. (1980) The Blacks in Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Gates, E. (1997) They Came Searching - How Blacks Sought the Promised Land in Tulsa. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press.

Johnson, H. (1998) Black Wall Street: From Riot to Renaissance in Tulsa’s Historic Greenwood District. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press.

Teall, K. (1971) Black History in Oklahoma: A Resource Book. Oklahoma City: Oklahoma city Public Schools.

Waskow, A. (1967) From Race Riot to Sit-In. 1919 and the 1960’s: A Study in the Connections Between Conflict and Violence. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Williams, L. (1972) Anatomy of Four Race Riots - Racial Conflict in Knoxville, Elaine (Arkansas), Tulsa and Chicago. The University and College Press of Mississippi.

From: The Truth About: Black People and Their Place in World History, by Dr. Leroy Vaughn, MD, MBA

Watch on therealbornfree.tumblr.com

Black Wall Street Tulsa Oklahoma 1921 Full Documentary

The Tulsa Race Riot was a large-scale, racially motivated conflict on May 31 and June 1, 1921, in which whites attacked the black community of Tulsa, Oklahoma. It resulted in the Greenwood District, also known as ‘the Black Wall Street’ and the wealthiest black community in the United States, being burned to the ground. During the 16 hours of the assault, more than 800 whites were admitted to local white hospitals with injuries (the black hospital was burned down), and police arrested and detained more than 6,000 black Greenwood residents at three local facilities, in part for their protection. An estimated 10,000 blacks were left homeless, and 35 city blocks composed of 1,256 residences were destroyed by fire. The official count of the dead by the Oklahoma Department of Vital Statistics was 39, but other estimates of black fatalities have been up to about 300.

The events of the riot were long omitted from local and state histories. “The Tulsa race riot of 1921 was rarely mentioned in history books, classrooms or even in private. Blacks and whites alike grew into middle age unaware of what had taken place.” With the number of survivors declining, in 1996, the state legislature commissioned a report to establish the historical record of the events, and acknowledge the victims and damages to the black community. Released in 2001, the report included the commission’s recommendations for some compensatory actions. The state has passed legislation to establish some scholarships for descendants of survivors, economic development of Greenwood, and a memorial park to the victims in Tulsa. The latter was dedicated in 2010.

In today's Black History you didn't learn in school, there was a Tulsa Race Riot in 1921. An entire city was burned to the ground due to a racial disturbance and retaliation. It is estimated that more than 300 people were killed overnight during the riot. The thriving city that was once called "Black Wall Street" has never regained its status.
Black Wall Street & The Tulsa Race Riot Of 1921 - the biggest race riot in U.S history they never teach you about

The Tulsa race riot was a large scale racially-motivated conflict between the White and Black communities of Tulsa, Oklahoma, including aerial attack, beginning…

I think I’ll show this in class today. Know the history - our history. The biggest race riot in U.S history they never teach you about


top: 1921 Tulsa Race Riots in O.K.

 When a Black shoe shine man, Dick Rowland, apparently stepped on the foot of Sarah Page, a white elevator operator, causing her to scream, the Tulsa Tribune the next day erroneously reported that he had attempted to rape her. When a white mob tried to disarm of group of 75 Black men, including World War I vets, a shot was fired and the riot had begun. The angry white mob ultimately destroyed more than one thousand homes and businesses in the Greenwood community, according to the Oklahoma State University library. Death toll: Credible estimates of riot deaths range from 50 to 300

middle: 1992 Rodney King Race Riots in L.A.

After Rodney King led police on a high-speed chase through Los Angeles and his beating by four police officers was caught on tape, the officers were acquitted of excessive force. The verdict set off a riot in the Black and Hispanic communities. Death toll: 53 people, with 2,000 injuries.

bottom: 2014 Michael Brown Race Riots in M.O.

White police officer Darren Wilson shot and killed an unarmed 18-year old black man named Michael Brown. Wilson was not indicted for the murder. The verdict set off riots in Ferguson and across the nation. Death toll: Not yet determined.

It didn’t begin with Michael Brown. If we do not continue to demand justice, it will not end with Michael Brown.

#BLACKHISTORYMONTH: Olivia J. Hooker: Coast Guard Pioneer, Fordham Professor and Activist

Olivia J. Hooker became the first black woman to enlist in the U.S. Coast Guard when her sorority started a push for integration. Today, 70 years later, the Coast Guard is scheduled to name a building on Staten Island in honor of Dr. Hooker, a retired psychology professor who is 100 years old.

ABOVE: Dr. Hooker was surprised with a party celebrating her 100th birthday. PHOTO: PETER J. SMITH FOR THE WALL STREET JOURNAL

Olivia J. Hooker joined the U.S. Coast Guard 70 years ago as an act of defiance.

She hadn’t considered a career in the military but said she signed up when her sorority at Ohio State University started a push for integration. In 1945, she became the first black woman to enlist in the Coast Guard.

“I thought well, we campaigned for it,” said Dr. Hooker, who served about a year. “We helped to build this nation, but we didn’t get paid. We ought to be a part of everything.”

On March 12, the Coast Guard is scheduled to name a building on Staten Island in honor of Dr. Hooker, a retired Fordham University psychology professor who recently turned 100 years old.

“I was astonished,” Dr. Hooker said as she celebrated her birthday Feb. 12 with friends—along with a Coast Guard color guard and a happy birthday note from President Barack Obama—at a church near her home in the Westchester County town of Greenburgh. “I never would have expected anything like that to happen.”

Dr. Hooker has made history and she has witnessed it, too. As a girl, she survived what she simply calls “The Catastrophe”: the Tulsa, Okla., race riot of 1921.

Her father and his business partner had a department store in Greenwood, a prosperous African-American section of Tulsa.

On May 31, 1921, a white mob gathered outside a courthouse where a black man accused of raping a white woman was being held and called for him to be lynched.

A group of black war veterans arrived to stop them, and violence broke out, according to the Tulsa Race Riot Commission, created by the Oklahoma Legislature in 1997.

Police deputized members of the white mob and encouraged them to attack black residents.

Educator, activist
Retired Fordham University psychology professor.
First black woman to enlist in the U.S. Coast Guard, in 1945.
Survivor of the Tulsa, Okla., race riot of 1921.

Dr. Hooker said her mother and grandmother hid the children under a table in their home. Her father and brother were taken away by the mob and held at a nearby baseball field with other black men, she said.

She remembered watching in horror as men with torches entered her backyard and set fire to doll clothes hung out to dry.

The looters came inside, she said, ransacking the family’s belongings, smashing music records and taking a hatchet to her sister’s piano, which her father had specially built by a piano-maker in Arkansas.

By the time the rioting stopped on the afternoon of June 1, at least 100 people had been killed, thousands left homeless and Greenwood had been burned to the ground. Historians call it the deadliest incident of racial violence in U.S. history.

Decades later, Dr. Hooker joined the Tulsa Race Riot Commission and was among survivors who in 2003 filed a unsuccessful federal lawsuit seeking reparations.

Dr. Hooker said she remained baffled by some of what she saw that day. “I still don’t know why they bothered to burn up a little girl’s doll clothes, but they did,” she said. “And that’s what made me very, very afraid. That was a startling thing for a child. It took a while to get over.”

‘I’m no longer able to march. … But still, you do your part. The world is looking at this country.’

But she did move on, earning a master’s degree in psychology from Teachers College at Columbia University and a doctorate from the University of Rochester. In 1963, she joined Fordham as a senior clinical lecturer and climbed the ranks to associate professor. She retired in 1985.

In the Coast Guard, Dr. Hooker was stationed in Boston. She performed administrative duties and earned the rank of Yeoman Second Class in the Coast Guard Women’s Reserve—nicknamed SPARS.

Next month, the Coast Guard is renaming the galley at its base on Staten Island after Dr. Hooker. Coast Guard officials said they chose the galley because it was among the most popular buildings on the base.

Generally, the Coast Guard names ships and buildings after people who have died. But military officials said they obtained a waiver to honor Dr. Hooker’s “distinguished service to the Coast Guard and her wonderful efforts in serving and helping others.”

Women in the Coast Guard today say Dr. Hooker remains an inspiration.

“I’ve modeled myself after her,” said Commander Zeita Merchant, special assistant to the Vice Commandant of the Coast Guard, who is black. “There aren’t a lot of women in this position who look like me.”

Of 42,190 active-duty Coast Guard members today, 6,076, or 14%, are women and 428 active-duty members are black, or 1%, according to officials.

“We do recognize that the numbers are low and we have to increase the number of minority females, not only entering but reaching the higher ranks,” Commander Merchant said.

Dr. Hooker still tracks the issues of the day. She watched the protests last fall over the case of Eric Garner, the unarmed black man who died on Staten Island after a New York Police Department officer arresting him placed him in an apparent chokehold.

“I’m no longer able to march,” she said. “I know it’s hard to lie on a stone floor in a die-in. But still, you do your part. The world is looking at this country.”

Source: Mara Gay for Wall Street Journal


The Tulsa riot of 1921 began as so many of these other disturbances did: A White person took offense at something a Black person is alleged to have done and Whites went crazy.

Believed to be the single worst incident of racial violence in American history, the bloody 1921 Tulsa race riot has continued to haunt Oklahomans to the present day. During the course of eighteen terrible hours on May 31 and June 1, 1921, more than one thousand homes and businesses were destroyed, while credible estimates of riot deaths range from fifty to three hundred. By the time the violence ended, the city had been placed under martial law, thousands of Tulsans were being held under armed guard, and the state’s second-largest African American community had been burned to the ground.


The Top 10 Original Photo Sets That You Reblogged This Past Year:

  1. Learn About the Black Panther Party (42,350)
  2. The MOVE Bombing (28,459)
  3. The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 (26,591)
  4. Jim Crow Signs (12,786)
  5. For Those Of You Who Asked (Jim Crow Signs 2) (11,195)
  6. Smiling Faces (Lynching) (8,598)
  7. Be Inspired (Assata Shakur) (5,166)
  8. Don’t Forget (Enslaved in Shackles) (4,232)
  9. *KKK Stone Mountain 2 (3,826)
  10. *Selling Africans (Reparations) (3,413)

I notice that you all like the compelling visuals. The BPP post worked so well, I think, because I found images that also contained textual information which allowed the photo set to ‘teach for itself.’

The same formula as above also worked for the MOVE bombing photo set. Which was new information to many.

The Tulsa (Greenwood, technically) Race Riot Set I created after seeing the popularity of the MOVE set. I mentioned Tulsa - sort of - in the MOVE commentary, so it was a natural next set. Although… Tulsa didn’t take off until very recently. I’m learning that reblogging several times is key. And that basically Tumblr seems to be a numbers game: the more followers you have, the more people there will be who will love and then reblog something.

I put very little forethought and no commentary beneath my first Jim Crow signage photo set (the one ending with the color image of the Black woman and child under the sign, by Gordon Parks), and that one took off. But I created it awhile ago and it hasn’t resurfaced for a minute.

Now that other Jim Crow signage set, titled For Those Of You Who Asked… is STILL burning up the charts. And that’s because of the commentary from Tumblers of all races. I purposely set out to differentiate this set from the first one by finding signs to show that white folks at one point kept a strict lock on who they let into their whiteness club. And I think you all got that message loud and clear, judging by the numerous POC who shared how they felt about the set. I hadn’t really anticipated that; it has been a pleasant and welcome surprise.

Smiling Faces - my first and most reblogged lynching photo set - speaks for itself. To me the real impact is felt, though, when you click each photo and zoom in on THE FACES. Not to be spooky but… I promise you that if you do that you WILL see some straight up demons in the crowds. Try it and get back to me on this one.

Assata Shakur’s autobiography is the book that woke me up, which is why I title her photo set Be Inspired. I love her and her story and her sacrifice and example. And so do many of you, apparently.

Don’t Forget… was kind of a throwaway for me. Or rather, a 'throw out’ set. Meaning that I put very little forethought into the set beyond noticing that I had the images in my files and throwing them out there into the Tumblrverse. And that one, like For Those Of You Who Asked, received a lot of diasporic and POC love. Again, I wasn’t expecting that and am very pleased by that.

The 3-image Stone Mountain, GA, KKK set is called #2 here because I did that same subject much earlier. But the earlier one was a full 10-photo set with some detailed commentary by me for context. And that one I reblogged after seeing how much love this 3-photo KKK Mountain set was getting, thinking that you all would like the original better. You don’t, apparently. Perhaps because I start the set with the KKK Banner or because of my brash commentary (or both). Either way, the original set kind of shows my emphasis on Stone Mountain, GA, being a 70% Black city, population wise, and yet Klan Mountain being frequented largely by Black people. Well THIS shorter set has a lot of commentary from people who are talking about the KKK generally. Which is cool too, I guess. The people discuss what moves them.

Last but not least, I tried something different with the Selling Africans Was A Well-Planned Capitalist Venture set: I created a full original photo set, added commentary and questions, but I ended this set with a jump link to the Ta-Nehisi Coates article in that special edition of The Atlantic. So it’s purposely deceptive. I think Coates is one of the best public intellectuals and BEST WRITERS dealing with Black history in the mainstream, as of right now. If you haven’t read his reparations piece yet, go ahead and invest in your own knowledge by doing so.

Thanks, once again, everyone, for making this a wonderful first year!

Oh - and a note to my non-Black followers and rebloggers: thank you, too, for respectfully commenting and sharing the information I post. I probably shouldn’t put this out there but… I have never received even one nasty or racist trolling comment or question in my inbox. I don’t know why not but I’d like to think that it’s because the nature and tone of what I blog and reblog here is USUALLY serious enough that you all recognize who my PRIMARY audience is, and you respect that. And for that, I respect you too.

Peace and Love Y'all.

anonymous asked:

It blows my mind that I never learned of the Tulsa race riot of 1921, until well into my adult years. That ought to be among the first lessons public schools teach about race relations in the United States.

The next person who claims only Black people riot is going to make me scream. Ferguson is not even close to the worst race related riots we have seen in this country. Before you start spouting bullshit claims, educate yourself on the following two events: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 and the New York City Draft Riots of 1863, not to mention the White people who flood into the streets after football and Hockey games and set the streets on fire. Ignorance may be bliss, but there is no excuse for it. Instead of using your time to post satire articles you think are real about President Obama being from Kenya, maybe you should do some actual research and learn some things. Seriously… Google those two riots right now and compare it to Ferguson.