Boreal Woodland Reindeer or Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)
Genetically and physiologically, Reindeer are the same species as Caribou.
The name Reindeer probably came from the Sami (native Laplanders) name for the species, Raingo. The name Caribou came from the Mi'kmaq (First Nations language spoken from Nova Scotia all the way through Boston) name, qalipu, meaning “snow shoveler”, coming from its winter foraging habits.
The species lives throughout the arctic circle, and there are many subspecies, specialized for life on everything from the open tundra, bushy plains, dense woodland, and rocky mountain forests. Both sexes grow antlers that are branching and flat at the end. These are the only Cervidae where all individuals grow antlers. The antlers are crucial to foraging during the winter, when the species subsides off of mosses, fungi, and lichen beneath the snow.
In the wild, golden eagles and wolverines can occasionally take out calves, but the most prolific hunter of both juvenile and adult reindeer is the grey wolf. In native-managed herds, the opportunistic wolverine is the primary threat to the young and injured.
The Wild Beasts of the World Vol II. Frank Finn, 1909.