19 th century

Molecule of the Day - Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

Trinitrotoluene (C7H5N3O6), better known as TNT, is probably one of the most well-known molecules due to its heavy usage as an explosive since the early 20th century. Under regular conditions, it is a yellow solid that is poorly soluble in water.

Upon detonation, TNT decomposes according to the following equation:

2 C7H5N3O6 → 3 N2 + 5 H2O + 7 CO + 7 C

As seen above, 15 moles of gases are produced for every 2 moles of solid TNT. The large amount of gases produced means that TNT is a powerful explosive. Additionally, the formation of the thermodynamically stable N2 gas makes the reaction extremely favourable.

TNT was first synthesised in the mid-19th century, and was used as a yellow dye. Its potential as an explosive went unnoticed due to its high activation energy. This meant that TNT was not easily detonated and was relatively stable under regular conditions. Consequently, other explosives such as picric acid and nitroglycerine were more frequently used. However, these other explosives were often too flammable or explosive; in fact, the first shipment of nitroglycerine exploded en route to a construction site and killed 15 people.

On the other hand, TNT was relatively safer to handle, and could be easily melted and moulded to form certain shapes and sizes, depending on the application. This is because TNT has a melting point of 80 degrees Celsius, which is below its decomposition temperature of 240 degrees Celsius (see below for a melted sample of TNT).

Additionally, TNT has a high detonation velocity of 6,640 m/s, as well as a energy density of 4.6 megajoules per kilogram, which is still used as a reference figure for bombs.

While TNT has been used for war, we shouldn’t forget that it has also been used to improve human lives - it was used as an explosive to construct tunnels through mountains in the United States, allowing different regions to be connected by trains. Even now, TNT is still sometimes used in the demolition of old buildings to clear old infrastructure for repurposing of the land.

TNT is a suspected carcinogen, and has been linked to anaemia and liver problems. It also irritates skin, causing yellow or orange discolourations.

TNT can be produced by the exhaustive nitration of toluene using a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids, resulting in three successive nitrations of the toluene molecule.

Originally posted by miakodapowerofthemoon

Although I don’t 100% agree, I understand that some people may want to draw a distinction between antisemitism and other forms of racism (Moishe Postone for instance, has interesting thoughts on the subject).

However, I find it deeply unsettling that some people (both on and off Tumblr) seem to be willing to deny any kind of even connection between antisemitism and racism. As if the present racialization of Jews wasn’t at least partly steeped in 19th century Western European racialist and orientalist classifications, as if antisemitism, islamophobia and other forms of racism could be neatly separated and weren’t inextricably linked from a historical standpoint.

I think a big cultural chasm may again be at work here, but in Europe, the fact that historical antisemitic thoughts and theories shaped a lot of present racist attitudes is pretty much inescapable (I might, some people still choose to ignore it, but I think it requires them to deal with some very high levels of cognitive dissonance).

Deciding to draw a distinction between antisemitism and racism is, imho, questionable, but may be a good political strategy, perhaps particularly in the North American context, I honestly don’t know*. But denying the shared history and the common underpinnings of different forms of racial prejudice is doing ourselves a great disservice.

*All I can say is that I think it is a terrible mistake in the French context, but I acknowledge that not everything is applicable overseas.

The Simplest Ghost Quartet Summary I Could Manage

Because tumblr is awful it ate an ask @dicnaprince sent me when I tried to answer it, about Ghost Quartet’s plot, so here’s my attempt at answering that question.

This http://officialvaguepost.tumblr.com/post/148906082025/my-attempt-at-a-linear-synopsis-of-ghost-quartet is the most thorough explanation I’ve read, and it’s very good to read once you kind of know the show. However it’s pretty confusing to take in at first, so here is a slightly simpler (slightly), slightly shorter (still very long, apologies) version:

Essentially Ghost Quartet follows the stories of multiple reincarnations of four characters/souls/ghosts, over numerous centuries, in a non-linear fashion. Each actor plays reincarnations of the same character. There are four main contexts the show takes place in: 17th century Japanese/German fairytale, 14th Century Persia (Arabian Nights), 19th century England (Fall of the House of Usher), and 21st century America. 

The fairytale context involves primarily Rose Red (Brittain), Pearl White (Gelsey), The Astronomer (Dave), The Bear (Brent) as well as The Soldier (also Gelsey), The Miller (also Dave) and The Fiddler (also Brent). Rose Red and Pearl White are sisters, and Rose falls in love with The Astronomer, but he uses her and has an affair with Pearl. In her anger, Rose asks The Bear, a magical being, if he will maul The Astronomer, turn Pearl into a crow and trap them in a cave. He agrees, on the condition she gets him four things: a pot of honey, a piece of stardust, a secret baptism and a photo of a ghost. He gives her the ability to move through the different timelines/incarnations of her soul in order to get these things.

Rose Red seduces The Solider for a pot of honey, and kills her, as The Solider asked her to. She then moves through her incarnations in the Arabian Nights context, the House of Usher context, and the modern day context in order to collect the other things (see below). 

She returns to The Bear, only to find he has tricked her and won’t follow through with her request, and tells her to do it herself (however – he does actually end up killing different incarnations of Pearl in other contexts). Rose then pushes Pearl into the river where she drowns. Pearl’s skeleton is fished out of the river by The Miller, who leaves her bones to dry. The Fiddler finds the bones and makes a fiddle from them, which is handed down the generations of his family until it ends up in the camera shop owned by the modern Pearl.

The Arabian Nights context involves Scheherazade (Gelsey), Dunyazad (Brittain), Shah Zaman (Brent) and Monk (Dave). Scheherazade is wife to Shah Zaman, and tells him and her sister Dunyazad a story each night, in order for him not to kill her. Her stories are recollections from her other incarnations, and her ability to recall/tell them comes from her stardust. Scheherazade also tells Dunyazad that the ghost of Thelonious Monk is living behind a door in the palace. 

Years later, after Dunyazad has died, Rose Red visits this timeline for the piece of stardust. Scheherazade gives this to her by telling her a story of a dream she had about meeting her past self. Eventually Shah Zaman kills Scheherazade and becomes the ‘man in Iran’ mentioned in the song The Astronomer. 

The House of Usher context involves Usher (Dave), Lady Usher (Gelsey), their daughter Roxie (Brittain), and their son, who has no name directly mentioned in the show but is called The Fool (Brent). Roxie is occasionally possessed by Rose Red, who describes herself as a starchild to Roxie and describes the spiritual realm to her. Usher and Lady Usher believe Rose is her imaginary friend, and the things she says about Rose concern them, so they encourage her to ‘put her away’ but she never does. 

Teenaged Roxie has an affair with a reincarnation of The Astronomer, and gives birth to a Rose incarnation, who is Starchild, and has spiritual/magical abilities due to Rose Red’s influence. Rose Red steals the child for the secret baptism, and Roxie falls ill. After her death, The Fool leaves, and has descendants that eventually own the camera shop. Rose Red returns to possess Roxie’s body, but finds her dead, and so kills Lady Usher.

The modern context involves two Pearl incarnations – the camera shop owner and The Victim (both Gelsey), The Photographer (Brittain), The Driver (Dave) and The Pusher (Brent). The Victim plays a game on her phone involving a soldier fighting a bear, and when she strikes the bear, The Pusher is overcome and pushes The Victim from the platform into the path of The Driver’s train. Rose Red possesses The Photographer in this moment and takes the photo of a ghost. She then leaves her, and disgusted, The Photographer throws her camera to the ground and breaks it.

She goes the camera shop, where she meets the owner, who tells her the story of Rose and Pearl, and gives her the new camera. The owner also gives The Photographer the number of The Driver. The two meet and eventually have two daughters. 

Starchild is a Rose incarnation who sort of lives beyond time as a spiritual entity, and is generally pretty confused about what she is and what she can do. 

Ghost Quartet also involves a number of songs which aren’t specific to any of the particular contexts (I Don’t Know, Any Kind Of Dead Person, Four Friends, Prayer, Hero, and Midnight), which take place in a spiritual realm outside these physical contexts. These songs follow the souls/ghosts of the characters exploring and coming to understand their experiences in all their reincarnations, as well as further developing the non-linear way the stories are told.

Hope this is helpful and not too confusing!

André Blum’s diary  

 The world. A single world to translate something so vast. Made in billions  years by the goddess Nahee, now at rest, she used her weakened strenght to give her view : the first one, the right eye, sees the world as positive, meanwhile, the other sees everything as negative. The “two Eyes” were the allegory of stamina, but it’s when trying to make everything as perfect as possible that errors come out : humans endowed of powerful abilities started to appear. Born from the conflict between the “two Eyes”, those superhuman beings were called the “chosen ones” and had powers named “magic”.

In Paris during the 19th century, appears the first ever case of a “chosen one”. Her name is Mélie de Lyrot, and soon, the entire world is turned upside down after this discovery. Under close supervision, going trough a battery of tests and always protected by her faithful valet: André Blum.


André Blum : Libra (Oct. 13th)

A mysterious man always at Mélie’s sides. Protects her at all costs. 

He had a wife that got hospitalized during numerous years and then succumbed. They tried to have a child together and never could. Therefore, considers Mélie like his own child.

Caring and altruistic, he is very selfless when it comes to others’ happiness. Very polite and hardworking, never complains, and passes as an extrovert.

Originally applied to the valet job to raise money for his wife’s hospital’s fees, and soon discovers the ability to manipulate people’s memories.

« I have the power to erase myself from others’ memories, but I, can’t ever forget »


Mélie de Lyrot : Aquarius (Feb. 4th)

A gifted young girl that is the first case of « chosen one » with multiple talents : piano, violin, writing, etc. Able to read people’s minds like an open book and some of their major memories. Lives an abnormal life since her case has been pubicly revealed and just wants to be normal. Comes from a rich family.

« A big house, an enormous room, a gigantic bed, only for a little girl like me, stuff I never ever deserved »


Rheia : Pisces (March 6th)

A sweet girl selfless to the bone always worrying about others’ wellbeing. Lives with her wife, far from everything. She discovered she had magic powers as well, but decided to hide it from most people. She has the ability to give and create life under different forms, but is sterile in exchange. A close friend of André, rescues him and Mélie.

« I have the ability to create life, but not give it with my own body »

Miel : / 

ask-aph-nyo-france  asked:

Hi ! Besides the many famous archeological sites, what influences are left from Ancient Greece (on traditions, language, habbits, etc) ?

Greetings Agathe! Thank you so much for asking me, and for generally participating in this event! I hope you enjoyed :3

To answer your question I have divided my originally four-page long answer into some “sections”. I have managed to shorten the answer, no worries.

So this week’s theme is: Influence

Keep reading

Tasha Tudor….at her Vermont farmhouse…mid 1990s…Ms.Tudor was a very successful and long lived children’s author …beginning in the 1930s…she lived as close to anyone in an early 19 th century lifestyle (( with help.!! ))…photo by Richard Brown …

#StoriesMW from Exhibit Interns Tirza, Ryan, and Jillie!

Who is the man behind the character behind “Fiddler on the Roof”? 

One of the most beloved Jewish stories is based on a series of works about Tevye the Dairyman by Sholem Aleichem.  Born 1859 in Ukraine, Sholem Rabinovitch eventually immigrated to New York and became one of the most prominent Jewish authors known for his unruly and whimsical commentary on late 19th century Jewish life. Aleichem embraced the energy of the Yiddish language and in 1894 created the feisty and loveable Tevye that we all know and love today.

Sholem Aleichem, JMM 1974.9.1

Playbill for “Fiddler on the Roof” with Zero Mostel presented by Harold Prince at the National Theatre, Washington, D.C, September 2, 1964. JMM 1990.103.25

Musée d’Orsay - Rebels on the Fifth Floor

It can sometimes be difficult to imagine art as a form of rebellion. Today, we often associate “painting” and especially “painters” with the attitudes of the refined upper-class and all things prim and proper. Thankfully (for me), this is not always the case. Beginning in the mid to late 19th century, a new form of art began to take form. This new style of art came kicking and screaming into the world to the sounds of staunch criticism, mainly due to its stark with the “academic style” of art which was globally accepted as “good” painting.” At this time, paintings deemed to be “acceptable” focused mainly on realistic imagery, historical scenes or religious depictions. Artists sought to remove themselves from their work leaving few traces pf personality or intended craft. Painters of this new “impressionist” style, such as Claude Monet, Edgar Degas and Edouard Manet have since become some of the most celebrated painters in world history – all because they decided to bend the rules a little.

The Musée d’Orsay holds the largest collection of impressionist paintings in the world. Here, one can find most of the pre-and post-impressionist paintings we are all familiar with – Monet’s “Les Nymphéas” (water lilies), Degas’s famous “Dancer” paintings and sculptures, and even some of Vincent van Gogh’s most famous pieces. The museum itself, formerly a train station, is truly an interesting building considering its current purpose. One look at its curved, high ceiling and it’s apparent that this was definitely a rail station. The hallways and walking paths function much similarly as well – building designers even decided to keep some of the original track arches for a more realistic feel. The impressionist paintings are located on the fifth and uppermost floor of the museum, and as one could expect, this is where most visitors are found.

Inset of “Paysage à Éragny” Camille Pisarro

After visiting the prestigious exhibits in the Louvre and finding myself entranced by the realism and minute replication of human form that is displayed in classical paintings, it is almost difficult to find impressionism as the same form of art. While classical artists sought to remove themselves from their work, impressionist painters made no effort to hide their technique. Lines are blurred, figures are imperfect, and the figures themselves may be “nobodys” – they could even be animals. In this painting, “Paysage à Éragny” by Camille Pisarro, the brush strokes used to create the sunset are visible as is the multiple layers of paint. This, for me, is one of the most realistic sunsets I have ever seen depicted in painting because of its relative obscurity.

Inset of “ Les Dindons” – Monet

I loved this painting – “Les Dindons” – Monet for this exact reason. When compared with the triumphant aura of grand format paintings by people such as Louis David and Eugene Delacroix, “Les Dindons” looks like it could have been painted by a toddler. Many of the features of these turkeys are unclear, out of focus, perhaps even incomplete. For me, this renders the painting approachable and believable. Who really encounters turkeys in nature and is so close that they can examine every minute detail of their face and feathers? Nobody. Monet decided to paint these turkeys as we all seem them – fast moving, blurred shapes darting across your field of vision for only half a minute before they disappear back into the road. It may be less than anatomically correct, but its infinitely more allied to the human experience than a perfectly depicted turkey.

I like that we can think of impressionists as the first “rebels” of the art world. They destroyed the academic, claustrophobic confines of “accepted” art and paved the way for millions to follow them for generations to come – there is no way Andy Warhol or Jean-Michel Basquiat would have been able to create the jarring and ground-breaking works they have become famous for had it not been for this small circle of painters in the late 19th century. The impressionists opened the doors of creativity  so others could enter. For that, we can all thank them.

Myself and “L’Absinthe” - Degas. One of my favorite paintings, which I believe exemplifies the impressionist movement. It depicts a lone woman in a bar drinking a glass of milky green absinthe. She appears to be in tattered clothes, tired, and quite distant. It is moments like these - moments of real life - which interested the impressionists far more than Romans and kings.



Blade: 83cm

Total length: 1m

A 1796 Infantry officers sword by  Henry Osborne in excellent condition. One of the earliest official sword patterns for the British army these blades were replaced at the start of the 19th century. The blade is clean and bright with minimal patina. It is engraved with a patten of oak leaves and military symbols that extends two thirds of the blade. Whilst it is worn in places it is still clear and legible

The brass folding guard is complete and fully functional, a rare find on one of these blades. The hilt and blade are completely solid with no movement.

Unusually for this type of sword the grip is mahogany rather than wire wrapped, making this a unique and peculiar piece


5). Gothicism in “Jane Eyre” and “Northanger Abbey”

During our trip to Northern England and Scotland we had the opportunity to visit the Bronte Parsonage, which was the home where the three Bronte sisters resided for much of their lives. I honestly wasn’t entirely sure what to expect. My only exposure to any of the Bronte sisters was Charlotte Bronte’s novel Jane Eyre which, while an excellent book in my opinion, features a number of Gothic elements that add drama to the story and make it more extraordinary. Given that her book featured a Byronic hero living in a mysterious house with his crazy wife locked in the attic, I wondered what in Charlotte’s life could have inspired her.

As it turns out, the Bronte Parsonage is a fairly normal 19th century home, situated in a charming little town, and surrounded by the lovely English countryside. There isn’t much that’s overly melodramatic about that. While certain elements of the novel might have been drawn from Charlotte’s life (such as going to poorly run school as a child, working as a governess, and potentially even developing feelings for her employer), the more unusual elements don’t seem to have any lived experience behind them.

These kinds of darker Gothic are something that Jane Austen satirizes in her novel Northanger Abbey. This novel follows the adventures of Catherine Morland, a girl who has likely read too many Gothic novels than would be good for her. As a result of her extensive reading, Catherine has developed an overactive imagination, and comes up with all kinds of wild theories for explaining the actually normal things that are happening around her. For instance, she fully expects the eponymous Northanger Abbey to be a much more dark and exotic place than it turns out to be, and she somehow manages to convince herself that General Tilney (the man who owns the residence) murdered his own wife (how she could have come up with all of that in Bath is beyond me, since I have actually been to Bath now, and I can say it is a very lovely and peaceful place). Eventually, all of her crazy ideas are refuted, as she discovers the Northanger Abbey is actually very pleasant and not so mysterious, and that General Tilney obviously didn’t murder his wife. In the end her life is rather happy and peaceful in spite of all of her imagined realities.

Although Northanger Abbey was written quite a bit earlier than Jane Eyre, it still provides an interesting contrast to Bronte’s story. Austen implies that all of the more exciting elements that exist in Gothic novels like Jane Eyre are ultimately unrealistic. While they would certainly make life more interesting, most people will never experience anything like that, so it’s silly to act like they will. Even Charlotte Bronte herself never experienced most of the events that took place in Jane Eyre, and if the two works weren’t placed so anachronistically, it might seem like Austen is kind of criticizing Jane Eyre directly. While that is not the case, Northanger Abbey is certainly a response to the many other Gothic novels that would have been popular while Jane Austen was alive.

Did you notice the hotted new Didone in town? That’ right, we’re talking about Port Vintage by the dopiest ONREPEAT STUDIO!

Featuring, promoting, and supporting this diamond-filled studio, Onrepeat asked us to design a poster using Port Vintage on a context.

Well, we did.

There you go, an experimental editorial usage of this amazing display font: vintage? Sure! 19'th century? Sure! Throw in the Futurist Manifesto by Marinetti and you have a Royal!

What do you say, the letterforms are sublime!