18th and western

Diego Luna Appreciation Post

This weekend I saw a movie that made me get that I had forgotten how incredibly cute is fellow Mexican Diego Luna.

Just TOO cute, and I had to make a list of nice (mainly period) films to share the love with you all:

Originally posted by devotedlypleasantmilkshake

First a friendly reminder that he used to be a fat kid in the telenovelas world:

“El Cometa”, 1992 - After his early telenovela days he grew up and went skinny and too cute in this pre-revolution costume drama with (very young) Ana Claudia Talancón.

“Before NIght Falls”, 2000 - Sharing credits with Javier Bardem, Sean Penn and Johnny Depp in a biopic about Cuban poet Reinaldo Arenas. You go Glen Coco.

Originally posted by domhnallgleeful

“Y Tu Mamá También”, 2001- Not a period film BUT it’s very likely this is THE movie everyone recalls watching and thinking “ooooh, that’s Diego, that’s Gael” and that was the big international break for both of them. A road movie that if you have never seen it, go see it now. Go. Really. I’ll wait.

Originally posted by lotsofbutts

“Frida”, 2002. Not a fan of the painter, but this film has such a personality that I totally love it. And Diego Luna is Frida’s first boyfriend Alejandro González Arias.

“Open Range”, 2003. Westerns are my soft spot. And westerns always need a kid in the cast.

“Dirty Dancing: Havana Nights”, 2004. Next to Romola Garai, in this film set in the 1950s, they dance and dance and… well dirty dance.

Originally posted by kanjinai

“Fade to Black”, 2006. A murder in old fashioned Hollywood. And suspenders.

“Mister Lonely”, 2007. Not period but probably one of the most charming films you’ll see: a bunch of impersonators come together in a commune in Scotland: Michael Jackson, Marilyn Monroe, Charlie Chaplin, James Dean…

Originally posted by televandalist

“Milk”, 2008. Do the 70′s count as period? If so, opposite Sean Penn again in the worst fashions of the 1970s.

“Gritos de Muerte y Libertad”, 2010. This TV series with a VERY cheesy title is about the Mexican Independence in 1810 and follows 13 historical characters stories from 1810 to 1821. He’s Guadalupe Victoria, Mexico’s first President, in very historically questionable tailoring.

“Casanova”, 2015. Yes. This. Diego Luna in 18th century costume playing the hot guy in the film. Thank you.

Originally posted by diegolunadaily

“Rogue One”, 2016. I JUST CAN’T WAIT TO SEE THIS!!!

Originally posted by whenthesmokeisgoingdown

AP Human Geography: Agriculture Review
  1. What is the difference between subsistence and commercial agriculture?

    1. Subsistence agriculture is the production of only enough food for your family and not for sale. In LDCs.

    2. Commercial agriculture is the production of food for sale. It is in MDCS. The system of commercial farming in MDCS is called agribusiness.

  2. What is the difference between seed and vegetative planting?

    1. Seed agriculture is the reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds.

      1. 3 Hearths in Eastern Hemisphere   

        1. western India, northern China, and Ethiopia.

        2. From western India, it diffused to Southwest Asia, where wheat and barley were first domesticated; these two grains later fed Europeans and Americans.   

        3. In southwest asia, also domesticated herd animals such as cattle, sheep and goats.

        4. from southwest Asia, seed agriculture diffused through Europe and North Africa.

        5. diffused eastward to northwestern India and the Indus River Valley. From the china hearth, millet diffused to South Asia and Southeast Asia.

        6. millet and sorghum were domesticated in ethiopia.

      2. 2 Hearths in Western Hemisphere

        1. southern Mexico and northern Peru

          1. Southern Mexico- squash and corn/maize   

          2. northern Peru- beans, cotton, and squash

    2. Vegetative Planting is the reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots.

      1. the first plants domesticated in Southeast Asia - roots like taro and yam and tree crops like the banana and the palm.

      2. From the Southeast Asia hearth, it diffused northward and eastward to China and Japan, and westward through India, Southwest Asia, tropical Africa and the area around the Mediterranean Sea.

      3. Other hearths- West Africa and northwestern South America.

        1. West Africa- palm trees and yams

        2. South America- manioc, sweet potatoes and arrowroot

      4. From South America, it diffused to Central America and eastern areas of South America.

  3. What are the three steps of shifting agriculture?

    1. Cut down vegetation and clear the land

    2. The land is burned to remove vegetation, drive away pests, and this gives nutrients for planting.

    3. Immediately begin planting in the ashes and left alone for a while.

  4. Where were the first plants cultivated? How?

    1. Southeast Asia through vegetative planting. Plants- roots like the yam and taro and tree crops like the banana and the palm.

  5. What is the township and range survey system?

    1. The American system

    2. encouraged settles to disperse evenly across interior farmlands

    3. grid-like pattern drawn without reference to natural terrain

    4. 1 square mile could be sold as whole half or quarter

  6. What is the difference between vertical and horizontal integration?

    1. Vertical Integration

      1. the company owns everything needed in order to make that product

      2. more control

      3. when end product is successful, higher benefit

      4. less rigorous collaboration

      5. efficiency over flexibility

    2. Horizontal Integration

      1. company has several diff companies under it in order to produce something

      2. less control

      3. more collaboration

  7. What are cons of using GMOs? Pros?

    1. cons

      1. money going into labeling and research

      2. already certified organic foods

      3. no health danger

    2. pros

      1. animal DNA

      2. have the right to know what’s in their food and what companies do to it

  8. What is the significance of the first agricultural revolution?

    1. The Neolithic Revolution- diffusion of agriculture practices

    2. drastically changed human life

      1. increase in reliable food supplies

      2. rapid increase in total human population

      3. job specialization’

      4. widening of gender differences

      5. settled people vs. nomads

        1. settled people thought their way of life was better

  9. Draw and explain Von Thumen’s theory.

      1. Ring 1: Market Gardening and Dairy

        1. nearest bc perishable and spoil quickly, expensive to deliver

      2. Ring 2: Forest/ Wood

        1. bulky and heavy to transport

      3. Ring 3: Field Crops

        1. less perishable, more of wheat and grains

      4. Ring 4: Animal grazing

        1. needs a lot of space

  10. What are the current trends in organic agriculture?

    1. the presence of chemicals in soils and ground water, people are concerned about the chemicals.

    2. US, Western Europe, and Jpan

  11. What is the significance of the second agricultural revolution?

    1. 18th century in Western Europe

    2. preceded industrial revolution, so it could be possible to feed the growing cities

    3. higher yields

    4. improved crop rotation

    5. improved equipment and better farming methods greatly increased the productivity of European Farms

    6. “the larger the farm and better the production, less farmers needed

  12. Why is slash and burn agriculture unsustainable for the future?

    1. Deforestation

    2. Erosion

    3. Nutrient Loss

    4. Biodiversity Loss

  13. What is the metes and bounds land survey method?

    1. English System

    2. natural and man made features used to show irregular land patterns

    3. used along eastern seaboard of the US

  14. Why has shifting cultivation been practiced for centuries in many places?

    1. used in places where soil is not particularly fertile and where grasslands or forests are present

    2. provides a source of food and income

  15. Why might people be against the Green Revolution?    

    1. Green Revolution: 3rd Agricultural Revolution

      1. 20th century

      2. biotechnology

      3. new higher yields of crops

      4. expanded use of fertilizers


      1. poor countries can’t afford the machinery seeds and fertilizers

      2. fertilizers can lead to groundwater pollution and the reduction of organic matter in the soil

      3. overfishing

      4. Sub Saharan Africa- not enough food

        1. the population is increasing faster than food production

      5. Groundwater depletion

      6. not a balanced diet bc land is devoted to ONE type

  16. What techniques were used in the Green Revolution?

    1. biotechnology

    2. machinery

    3. genetic technology

    4. fertilizers

Old Babylonian Plaque with Nergal, 18th-17th Century BC

A D-shaped baked clay plaque fragment with high-relief figure of a standing god Nergal wearing tall cap, with long curly hair and heard, a pair of bull(?) ears, in left hand holding a mace decorated by a double lion’s head, two daggers secured at the belt, a pair of decoration or weapons with lion head finial to the shoulders.

Nergal was a Mesopotamian god of war, plague and negative aspect of the sun. His domain was the Underworld, where he ruled over death together with other deities and later with his wife Ereshkigal. According to one myth, she had been the sole queen of the underworld into which Nergal was sent to apologize for having offended her messenger. There, he was seduced by her, but managed to trick his way out of her realm. Ereshkigal was angry about the loss of her lover and finally had him brought back to her. From this point onward, they ruled the underworld jointly. In his astral aspect, he was connected with planet Mars. As a god of war and underworld, Nergal controlled a variety of demons and evil forces, who are particularly prominent in the myth of Erra as agents of death and destruction


elizabeth-karenina asked: Eighteenth or Nineteenth Century

Pictured [not in chronological order]:

  • French fashion plate (1700-89)
  • Benjamin Franklin publishes a political cartoon advocating colonial unity (1754)
  • Westover Plantation house constructed in Virginia (c. 1750)
  • François Boucher’s Rococo painting “The Love Letter” (1750)
  • Construction of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoe Selo [outside St. Petersburg, Russia] completed (1756)
  • A General History of the Pyrates published (1724) –the “Golden Age" of Piracy spanned from 1716-1726
  • Old Town, Alexandria, Virginia (originally planned in 1749)
  • The U.S. Declaration of Independence (1776)
  • The Women’s March to Versailles (1789)

i haven’t really seen this come up much within hetalia discourse so i feel the need to discuss it: i don’t think that the personifications are cis or straight, any one of them, and i think there’s enough basis to back that headcanon up (that goes beyond the mere fact that ‘cis’ and ‘straight’ didn’t exist as solid concepts until recently)

i’m not going to really address canon hetalia because that’s…a mess. my argument really isn’t based in canon as much as it is in actual history and queer history, in particular, as well as just the concept of hetalia itself. a quick disclaimer, though: i’m not a historian, nor do i claim to be, so while i’ve done quite an bit of research on the subject of queer history and have engaged with several disciplines that are used to study it, none of what i say is to be taken as fact. 

when one considers how old these personifications are (some far older than even a thousand years!!!) it becomes apparent that they don’t function in the same way that humans do, even though they maintain the appearance of a human and generally follow similar laws. however, they are, inherently, personifications of countries, and my personal take is that they exist thanks to some kind of magic and inhabit more or less human bodies with regenerative capabilities. they’re human enough that they have human bodies, but an entire nation really can’t be perfectly simplified to a single body and a single gender. how can one say that france, for example, is strictly a male country (despite countless historical allusions to france being referred to as a feminine entity) and ukraine is a female country (whereas the ukrainian language refers to home as ‘fatherland’ and gives the country masculine attributes through that.) you really can’t just assign a single gender to a country, because countries don’t inherently have a gender! they’re rocks, they’re soil, they’re people, they’re politics and relations, they’re culture, they’re language, they’re history, but they don’t have a gender, even when they do have a physical form and an assigned sex, as well as individual personalities that may not always align strictly with the country they personify. 

i also find it difficult to believe that any personification would strictly abide to just one specific gender throughout their entire lengthy existence. they may align themselves with one that they prefer (i won’t deny that some might have a preference; they are individuals with autonomy and personality outside of their representative nature) or one that is more convenient (i’m sure a lot of afab countries would be fed up with how they’re treated compared to their amab counterparts veryyyyy quickly) but i don’t think they consistently have to identify with one. some may be genderfluid (like hungary), others may be trans if it benefits them (as is congruent with many instances in history where afab people presented as men to obtain social freedoms and power previously denied to them) or if they simply feel that a gender other than one they were assigned to feels more right (there really doesn’t have to be a reason for them to be trans). i doubt that their gender+presentation would be consistent–every century, hell, sometimes every decade has a different concept of what gender is and how gender should be presented. when one exists for a thousand years or more, it would be clear that the definition of gender, as well as traditional views about what ‘masculinity’ and ‘femininity’ shift constantly. i’ve personally done the most research about the evolution of masculinity in the 18th and 19th centuries in western countries, and that alone is a radical shift–i’m certain there would have been previous shifts like that in earlier history as well that would affect how nations present or think of themselves. 

in the end, there is so much complexity to nations and personifications and history and i feel like a lot of it isn’t explored or even addressed. we’re quick to assign the modern notion of gender to them and ignore the vast history of gender. i think nations would have trouble keeping up with the constantly changing idea of what masculinity and femininity is, they would fail to conform on multiple occasions by accident or on purpose, and would have a very complicated relationship with gender and presentation.

as a final note that’s more just queer history–gender and sexuality has often been closely linked throughout history, so since i headcanon all nations to be pan/bi in the modern conception of the term (it makes sense considering all the alliances and marriages they have), it follows closely that gender would have been quite complicated for them, too. *i might expand on this in a future post since this one is getting reeeeally long and sexuality is another can of worms that i’d rather talk about in detail 

tldr; none of your faves are cis or straight and if you want to further discuss this, please message me!! 


Akkadian Cylinder Seal, 18th-17th Century BC

A carved banded agate cylinder seal with frieze depicting a seated bearded figure (possibly a deity) in flounced robe holding a cup towards a standing figure  in a robe with herringbone pattern, a second figure in flounced robe, a third figure (worshipper) in tasseled robe, lamp with corrugated stand.

There is more to this week’s Trilobite Tuesday than what meets the eye. 

Trilobites have long been used by humans as both decorative art and as sacred talisman. As far back as the 18th Century, some western Native American tribes treated the trilobite specimens they found with the reverence of religious artifacts. Over 200 years ago, the hole in the pygidium of this Elrathia kingi was drilled by a member of the Ute tribe in Utah. Such trilobites were then worn by tribal leaders as powerful totems providing good luck and protection from enemies.

See many more specimens on the Museum’s trilobite website.


My first visit to the Blanton! It’s quite a bit bigger than I initially thought. The Blanton is known for their collection of 20th century Latin American art, so I got to learn about a lot of Brazilian, Venezuelan, and Argentinian artists today! Since we got there a little later than I would’ve liked, I skipped over most of their 16th-18th century Western European art to see their modern art collection–and they had a lot of my favorite abstract expressionists! I haven’t seen a Joan Mitchell painting in over a year, so that was really exciting for me! They also had a room dedicated to the American west, which reminded me a lot of the Amon Carter Museum of American art in Ft. Worth (which you should definitely visit if you’re ever in Ft. Worth, Texas, and like American art!) It was just a really good day, I don’t think I’ve been to an art museum since I was in Vienna last summer. It feels like forever ago.