18-Century

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Living heritage of Kalocsa

The colourful flower motifs of the ornamental painting and embroidery of Kalocsa are known throughout the word and indeed have often been considered an emblematic symbol of Hungarian folk art. This branch of artistic expression has become a unique element of the traditional peasant culture of Kalocsa as well as the surrounding villages of Drágszél, Homokmégy, Öregcsertő, Szakmár, and Újtelek which were established in the 18-19th centuries.

The ethnic group referred to as Pota inhabiting the area known as Kalocsai Sárköz in south-central Hungary on the west bank of the Danube is distinct from surrounding groups in the characteristic dialect members used, their rich folk art and Catholic faith.

The women of Kalocsa who still draw, paint and embroider in the traditional style are the bearers and the perpetuators of the local heritage. Traditional revival groups, folk dance groups, the local museum and folk art centre all contribute to the safeguarding of the characteristic culture and folk art that distinguishes Kalocsa identity. The inhabitants of Kalocsa and the surrounding settlements are devoted to their folk heritage.

They create numerous opportunities for the presentation of their traditional dances and attire: Midsummer Eve Festivities, Danube Folklore Festival, Kalocsa Paprika Festival, village feasts, and harvest celebrations. These events attract people of all ages and provide an excellent opportunity for the transmission of cultural heritage from generation to generation. The role of awareness raising and art education is also of paramount importance in the safeguarding and sustaining of the local heritage.

July 18, 1918: Nelson Mandela is born.

I had no epiphany, no singular revelation, no moment of truth, but a steady accumulation of a thousand slights, a thousand indignities and a thousand unremembered moments produced in me an anger, a rebelliousness, a desire to fight the system that imprisoned my people. There was no particular day on which I said, Henceforth I will devote myself to the liberation of my people; instead, I simply found myself doing so, and could not do otherwise.

- Long Walk to Freedom

Maria Theresa, Queen regnant of Hungary and Bohemia and Archduchess of Austria. Holy Roman Empress, depicted here in 1759
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina (German: Maria Theresia; 13 May 1717 – 29 November 1780) was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma. By marriage, she was Duchess of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany and Holy Roman Empress.

2

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex.

August 18, 1920: The Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified.

The Nineteenth Amendment, which prohibited laws denying U.S. citizens the right to vote on the basis of sex, was first drafted by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton and introduced to Congress in 1878.

A focused American women’s rights movement is traditionally said to have begun thirty years before in 1848, when the Seneca Falls Convention met in Seneca Falls, New York. In the post-Civil War era, groups such as the American Equal Rights Movement began advocating specifically for women’s suffrage, but a schism over support for the Fifteenth Amendment, which prohibited disenfranchisement on the basis of race but not sex, divided the movement. Anthony’s and Stanton’s organization, the National Woman’s Suffrage Association, condemned the Fifteenth Amendment and sought to obtain women’s suffrage through a federal constitutional amendment. 

The initial failure of the proposed amendment (rejected by the Senate in 1887) was followed by a period during which most states in the western United States granted its female citizens full suffrage and many others adopted partial suffrage laws. The amendment was considered in Congress several more times after Woodrow Wilson’s election in 1912, first in 1914, and then in 1915, 1918, and 1919. In May 1919, both houses passed the amendment, whereupon it was sent to the states, who ratified it in succession until the necessary 36th (Tennessee) approved the amendment on August 18, 1920.