1798 rebellion

gayprincepeach  asked:

Out of curiosity, why *do* the Irish wear green? I don't trust the sources that Google presented to me.

From what I can recall, it goes waaaaaay way back to the Irish Rebellion of 1798, which (if memory serves) was one of many short-lived attempts to overthrow British rule in Ireland. The wearing of green cockades or clothing was one way of showing support for the rebel faction. It didn’t always end well for those wearing it, and the rebellion was put down within six months, but like so many things in Ireland, the events live on in song and sartorial adornment.

See also: Dublin street ballad, “The Wearing of the Green

myth-stakesweremade  asked:

Hi! I've just recently started listening and I love it!!! I was wondering which songs were sung in the various episodes? I think it's Mabel singing them? I'm not sure but I recognised the parting glass but not many of the others

Are you ready for this?


Episode Two:

  • 0:47: Folk song, variously A Brisk Young Sailor, A Bold Young Farmer, Died for Love, I Wish, I Wish, etc. The story of a young unmarried pregnant woman. “And at my breast lay a snow-white dove / to let the world know that I died for love”. Sung by Anna Limon.

Episode Four Point Five:

  • [Spoken, not sung]: A modified excerpt from the Scottish ballad Tam Lin, the story of a knight set to be sacrificed for a faery tithe and the young woman who ransoms him back from the faeries. Read by Anna Limon.

Episode Five:

  • 11:45: The Well Below the Valley. Folk song about the fate of a woman whose six children are buried outside the local churchyard. “You’ll be seven years ringing the bell at the well below the valley-o / green grows the lily-o / right among the rushes-o”. Sung by Anna Limon.

Episode Seven:

  • 7:00: The Stolen Child by W. B. Yeats. Poem about a faery abducting a small child. Arranged and sung by Mabel Martin.

Episode Nine:

  • 10:00: Little Bird. American children’s folk song. “Fly through my window, sugar lump / buy molasses candy.” Sung by Anna Limon.

Episode Thirteen:

  • 8:10: A modified version of Hind Etin. Ballad about a woman stolen away by an ‘etin’, a faery king/erlking/forest king/supernatural entity of some kind. “For slighting my command / an ill death may you die”. Modified, arranged and sung by Anna Limon.

Episode Fifteen:

Episode Sixteen:

  • 12:20: Tá Mé Mo Shuí. Irish folk song about a person who can’t sleep due to unrequited love. “Casadh bean-sidhe dom thíos ag Lios Bhéal an Átha / d’fhiafraigh mé di an scaoilfeadh glas ar bith grá” - “I met a fairy woman down at Lisbellaw / I asked her to remove from me my love”. Sung by Anna Limon.
  • 17:22: Continuation of Tá Mé Mo Shuí. Sung by Anna Limon.

Episode Twenty:

Episode Twenty-Two:

  • 0:58: Portion of a rhyme entitled “Ana’s Prayer”, popular on ‘pro-ana’ websites in the early 2000s. “I’ll take you in and fill you up with a lack of being fed.” Arranged and sung by Anna Limon.
  • 5:23: Modified version of several nursery rhymes. Used either as a jump-rope chant or a reminder of polite dining etiquette. “Mabel, Mabel, strong and able, you are trapped inside this fable…” Modified by Mabel Martin, arranged and sung by Anna Limon.

Episode Twenty-Three:

Causes to the Irish Rebellion of 1916

In order to fully understand the Irish Rebellion of 1916, one must first comprehend the causes; the first of which being the failed Irish Rebellion of 1798. In that year, 1798, the Irish led an unsuccessful upbringing against the British imperialists which led to all the leaders being hung in public and resulted in the British closure of Irish parliament. Due to this, any grievances or sufferings Irish people endured were disregarded. This is a significant cause to the rebellion more than a century earlier because now, not only were the Irish under completely control, and utterly shut out from any say in parliament. This was similar to Britains past colony rallying with “no taxation without representation” which also led to a revolt decades earlier. 

In 1800, England also passed the “Act of Union” which fully merged Ireland with Great Britain without Irish permission or negotiation. Because there no Irish representation in parliament, they were unable to have a dictation. John Edward Redmond, an Irishman at the time stated, “…We know that eighteen years after the solemn declaration it was disregarded, and the Irish parliament, which lasted for five hundred years, was destroyed by the Act of Union… the Act of Union was carried by force and fraud by treachery and falsehood” (Redmond). In the quote, Redmond illustrated how unlawfully the Act of Union was passed into commission as well as how it paid no heed to Irish requests for independence. He mentions the “fraud” of how it came into existence. The act would lead to justification of the 1916 rebellion because they were unable to voice their reasons and British injustices. 

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comicalterror  asked:

Fun facts about Rufus King?

  • When he was ten years old, after the Stamp Act 1765 was imposed, a mob ransacked his house and destroyed most of the furniture. Nobody was hurt, but the next year the mob burned down his barn.
  • King graduated from Harvard in 1777 and began studying law soon after but this was disrupted when he joined the militia in 1778. 
  • At the Constitutional Convention he was one of the youngest members, however, was one of the most powerful orators. 
  • It was Alexander Hamilton who convinced him to quit his law practice and move to New York. 
  • King was indirectly responsible for the passing of the ratification of the Constitution in Massachusetts. 
  • King was a famous and vehement opponent of slavery.
  • During the Jay Treaty controversy, King published his defense of the document with Alexander Hamilton in a series of essays in New York under the pen name of Camillus.
  • King was outspoken against potential Irish immigration to the United States in wake of the Irish Rebellion of 1798 in which the leaders were publicly hanged. 
  • In 1808 Rufus King and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney were the candidates for Vice President and President of the declining Federalist Party
  • In September 1812 during the War of 1812, King led an effort at the Federalist party caucus to nominate a Federalist ticket for the presidential election that year.
  • King was an avid supporter of Hamilton and his Fiscal programs and unsurprisingly that he would find himself also become one of the directors of the Hamilton-sponsored First Bank of the United States. King however found himself denying the reopening of the Second National Bank in 1816.
  • King was first elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1805, and was also elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814. In 1822, he was admitted as an honorary member of the New York Society of the Cincinnati.
  • He ran for president one more time but lost to James Monroe. 
  • At the time of his death in 1827, King had a library of roughly 2,200 titles in 3,500 volumes. In addition, King had roughly 200 bound volumes containing thousands of pamphlets. 

anonymous asked:

Would you tell us a bit about James mcfucking Callendar, pretty please?

Callender was born in Scotland in 1758 although an exact date is unknown. He did not gain a formal education, but secured employment as a substitute clerk in the Edinburgh Sasine office where he kept record. While working in that office, Callender published satirical pamphlets called “Deformities of Samuel Johnson”, criticizing writer Samuel Johnson and was published anonymously. Later he wrote others pamphlets in which he attacked political corruption. Callender’s political writings were filled with radical ideology on democratic and Scottish nationalism accompanied with a pessimistic view of human nature. Callender admirered of Jonathan Swift. Pampheteers, he boasted, are the “van of every revolution”  and “the first rank in storming in storming the ramparts of oppression.”

After clashes Callender lost his job. In 1791 Callender wrote a pamphlet criticizing excise tax and denounced the current parliament as “a phalanx of mercenaries” and the English constitution as “a conspiracy of rich against the poor.” His writing attracted Francis Garden and Lord Gardenstone. Lord Gardenstone exposed him as the author; the journalist’s reputation was ruined. In 1792 he published The Political Progress of Britain, where he criticized war, imperialism and corruption. Soon after, he fled to Ireland and after that to the United States to avoid prosecution. Soon after arriving in America, Callender gained a position as a Congressional reporter in Philadelphia, and wrote anonymously for the press. His first American article blasted a pro-war sentiment. Soon after, he fled to Ireland and after that to the United States to avoid prosecution. Arriving in Philadelphia in 1793, he got a job taking notes of debates in the House of Presentatives for newspapers. There he me John Beckley. When the job ended, he felt he knew James Madison well enough to write a letter asking if he caould find work as a schoolteacher in Virginia. Nothing came of it. By 1794 Callender freely commented on American politics in the press mainly for the Democratic-Republican party. 

During this time, he produced pamphlets where he advocated for the government’s duty to progressive taxation, economic independence from Europe, and the promotion of industry. His writings attacked with reasonable arguments and satire. He printed scoop to Beckley. His first pamphlet challenged the excise tax on commerce. In his History of 1796 in 1797, he exposed the adulterous relationship between Alexander Hamilton and Maria Reynolds as well as claims that Hamilton had been untruthful in the treasury department. Callender had come into contact with the affair via John Beckley, the clerk in the Democratic-Republican House of Representatives. 

In Sketches of the History of America published in 1798 he wrote Hamilton worked James Reynolds in “corrupt financial dealings”. After publication of the Reynold’s Pamphlet, Callender believed it was just a diversion of Hamilton’s to focus on the affair and not the financial qualities of his claims. Late June 1797, Callender caught the eye of Thomas Jefferson who was praised him as “a man of science Feld from persecution”. Jefferson stopped by Callender’s lodgings and personally bought copies of his scandalous History. With the recall of James Monroe as Diplomat to France, Callender was particularly instanced by his treatment. “The unfounded reproached heaped on Mr. Monroe form the immediate motive to the publication of these papers,” Callender declared. 

By 1798 Callender’s fortunes were in the tank and he was forced to seek poor relief, after his wife died of yellow fever in 1797. His rival pamphleteer was William Cobbet. He fled from Philadelphia to Virginia soon afterwards, leaving his three children behind. Callender found temporary living quarters at the plantation of Senator Stevens Thomas Mason. This is due to his fleeing of the acts against him on sedition, after calling out Hamilton. Thomas Jefferson sought to use Callendar’s talents against John Adams. He met him in Philadelphia, began to support Callender financially and provided feedback. Unfortunately, Jefferson was not as careful in his dealings with Callender than Madison and thought him to be “a man of genius”. Another paper that Callender worked for was the Aurora in Philadelphia which specialized on attack at John Adams. With dangerous rumors being spread over immigrants from Ireland who were seeking refuge after the failed Rebellion of 1798 against Great Britain, Callender began being seen as a person of interested even though he was a Scot. 

Sometime in 1799 James Callender published an account telling lies that John Marshalll had sought votes by telling Republicans that he and all of the Federalists saw “eye to eye” and could “[dance] around bonfires” by spending “five or six hundred dollars upon barbecues. In Callender’’s words, Marshall as “the paymaster of strong liquors, the barbeque representative of Richmond.”

In another newspaper he was working of, the Richmond Examiner, he praised Jefferson as “an ornament to human nature” and proceeded to assault John Adams in a series of essays that would soon be in a book entitled The Prospect Before Us. June 1800, after publishing The Prospect Before Us, Callender was prosecuted under the Sedition Act by the Adams administration. In this pamphlet he called Adams a “hideous hermaphroditical character” and a “repulsive pedant” a “gross hypocrite” and “in his private life, one of the most egregious fools upon the continent.” Adams was “that strange compound of ignorance and ferocity, of deceit and weakness,” a “character which has neither the force and firmness of a man, nor the gentlenesss and sensibility of a woman.” “The reign of Mr. Adams,” wrote Callender, “has hitherto been one continued tempest of malignant passions.” Once, according to Callender, Adams had become so enraged, he tore his wig off, threw it to the floor, and stomped upon it. By what “species of madness” had America submitted to accept such a man as president?

“The historian will search for those occult causes that induced her to exalt an individual who has neither that innocence of sensibility which incites it to love, nor that omnipotence of intellect which commnands us to admire. He will ask why the United States degrades themeless to the choice of a wretch whose soul came blasted from the hand of nature, of a wretch that has neither the science of a magistrate, the politeness of a courtier, nor the courage of a man.”

Adams’s sole objective was to make war on France, Callender asserter. The choice was clear–Adams and war, or Jefferson and peace. To all this, Jefferson gave his unfaltering approval and told Callender in a letter that the tract “cannot fail to produce the best effect.” His trial began in May after his arrest and was presided over by Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase, who was later impeached, in part due to his handling of the Callender trial. At Jefferson’s suggestion, James Monroe arranged for Callender’s defense, and engaged Republican lawyers William Wirt, George Hay and Philip Norborne Nicholas. He was tried in a federal court in Richmond where the jury convicted him. Callender was fined $200 and received the longest jail term of the journalists who had been prosecuted under the Sedition Act–nine months in jail. He was released in March 1801, pardoned by Thomas Jefferson and repayed him the $200 fine. 

Callender wanted pure vindication and asked Jefferson to appoint him Postmaster of Richmond, Virginia, warning Jefferson if he did not, there would be consequences. He felt “hurt” by the “disappointment” of not having his fine repaid, “I now begin to know what ingratitude is,” he said. He wrote to James Madison, “I was extremely happy to hear that you have accepted of an office under the new presidency because … I was interested in having one person among hem whom I could without hypocrisy profess to feel an attachment for.” He followed this letter with a visit to James Madison in Washington. Jefferson and Madison at this point to suspect their supporter. The secretary of state replied to Callender that he shouldn’t get his hopes up. “Do not let my name be connected with the business,” he advised to James Monroe. Callender went to see Monroe and he was in such a state go “agitation” that Monroe asked him to return another day. At first Monroe was tempted to advance Callender the money but, sensing his disturbed state and nature, held back lest the disgruntled propagandist use this against Monroe who was Governor at the time. He warned Jefferson and Madison that they must be more cautious when dealing with Callender who was on his way to Washington to apply for an office of some type. 

Callender believed Jefferson was conspiring to deprive him of money owed to him by the government. However, by Jefferson, Callender was instead put in a position in Federalist Richmond and told his secretary Meriwether Lewis to send Callender $50 on May 28th, 1801. When Callender failed to obtain office, Monroe quoted him temporarily by arranging a private subscription to enable the editor to study law. Callender began working as editor of the Richmond Recorder. Callender targeted Jefferson with his pen, revealing Jefferson had funded his writings. Jefferson denied it and Callender published Jefferson’s letters. Although he had originally expressed anti-slavery sentiments when he first arrived in the United States, he eventually adopted Jefferson’s view in his Notes on the State of Virginia. Callender published Jefferson’s attempt to seduce the married Betsy Walker whom he fancied decades before. Callender reported Jefferson’s “relationship” with Sally Hemings. 

“It is well known that the man, whom it delighteth the people to honor, keeps, and for many years had kept, as his concubine, one of his own slaves. Her name is SALLY. The name of her eldest son is TOM. His features are said to bear a striking… resemblance to those of the president himself. The boy is ten or twelve years of age. His mother went to France in the same vessel with Mr. Jefferson and his two daughters. The delicacy of this arrangement must strike every person of common sensibility. What a sublime pattern for an American ambassador to place before the eyes of two young ladies!… By the wench Sally, our president had had several children. There is not an individual in the neighborhood of Charlottesville who does not believe the story; and not a few who know it… Behold the favorite, the first born of republicanism! The pinnacle of all that is good and great!… ‘Tis supposed that, at the time when Mr. Jefferson wrote so smartly concerning negroes, when he endeavored so much to belittle the African race… We give it to the world under the firmest belief that such a refutation never can be made. The AFRICAN VENUS is said to officiate, as housekeeper at Monticello. When Mr. Jefferson had read this article, he will find leisure to estimate how much had been lost or gained by so many unprovoked attacks upon J.T. CALLENDER.”

Italics added to several sentenced alluded to the sixth chapter of the Book of Esther, in which the villainous Haman thinks that Ahaseurus, King of Persia, delighteth to honor him, whereas the king actually delights to honor Haman’s enemy, the Jew Mordecau; when Mordecai received the upper hand, Haman and his sons were hanged. The journalist hoped to turn Jefferson into an American Human. As Abigail Adams as later tell Jefferson bluntly, it was as though the “serpent” he had “cherished and warmed” had turned and “bit the hand that nourished him.” Jefferson wrote to James Monroe on July 14th with “I am really mortified as the base ingratitude of Callender.” His concern, Jefferson said, was that his own “mere motives of charity” might be misunderstood. Jefferson supporters then spread rumors Callender abandoned his wife to die of a sexually transmitted disease. Then also attacked Callender for his “apostasy, ingratitude, cowardice, lies, venality, and constitutional malignity.” He later struck in Recorder on Wednesday, September 1st, 1802 with another attack at then President Jefferson under the title “The President Again.” John Adams wrote privately that “Callender and Sally will be remembered as long as Jefferson as blots on his character.”

November 16th, 1801, Alexander Hamilton published a paper coined The Evening Post which was “to defuse among the people correct information on all interesting subjects, to inculcate just principles in religion, morals, and politics, and to cultivate a taste of sound literature.” The paper soon won plaudits for its legible print, high-quality paper, and lucid, trenchant writers. None other than James T. Callender bestowed kind words upon Hamilton’s publication: This newspaper is beyond all comparison, and most elegant piece of Wormanship that we have seen either in Europe or America.”

Callender was brought it to provide testimony for a New York trial, The People vs. Croswell, which involved charges against publisher Harry Croswell, who printed claims Thomas Jefferson paid Callender to defame George Washington. Croswell’s lawyer was Alexander Hamilton. Callender’s children joined him in Richmond and he had a falling out with the Richmond Recorder over money. Summer of 1802, one said of Callender: “He is precisely qualified to become a tool, to spit the venom and scatter the malicious patriot, pretended “man of the people” would imply to plunge the dagger or administer the arsenic.” In another article, it said, Jefferson paid Callender for calling Washington a traitor, a robber, and a perjurer; for calling Adams a hoary-hearted incendiary; and for most grossly slandering the private characters of men whom he well knew were virtuous.” In a surprise attack in December 1802, George Hay, one of his former defense attorneys and James Monroe’s future son-in-law clubbed him in the head with a walking stick in retaliation for an article about an international incident of which Hay was involved. In March, the offices of the newspaper were attacked by young Republicans from Hay’s law firm. Meriwether Jones published an open letter to Callender in December 1802:

“The James River you tell us, has suffered to cleanse your body; is there any menstrum [solvent] capable of cleansing your mind… Oh! could a dose of James river, like Lethe, have blessed you with forgetfulness, for once you would have neglected your whiskey.”

On Sunday July 17, 1803, ten months after publishing the Sally Hemings account, Callender was found floating in the James River, dead. A coroner’s jury rued that he had drowned accidentally, bathing while drunk. Callender did drink but some speculated others had “helped” him into the river to silence him for an eternity. He had been seen earlier wandering the town in a drunken state, but the circumstances of his death were unknown. 


James Madison by Richard Brookheiser

Jefferson and Hamilton: The Rivalry That Forged A Nation by John Feeling

John Adams by David McCullough

Thomas Jefferson: The Art of Power by Jon Meacham

Alexander Hamilton by Ron Chernow

John Marshall: Definer of a Nation by Jean Edward Smith

James Monroe: The Quest For National Identity by Harry Ammon