1779

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Girardoni 1779 system Windbüchse

Designed in 1779 by Austrian inventor Bartholomäus Girardoni, copied and manufactured in Great Britain c.late 18th century.
.48/12,2mm caliber barrel, 20-round tubular magazine, gravity-fed repeating air rifle, leather-bound brass pressurized air tank fitted as the stock.

Hailing from the soon-to-be-extinct Holy Roman Empire, the Girardoni air rifle might be famous to American readers as one of the weapon brought by Lewis and Clarke on their expedition into the untamed West.

Possibly that exact same rifle, manufactured c.1795.

The rifle adopted in 1780 by the Austrian army was a .46~.51 caliber design fitted with a 20-ball gravity magazine and a 30-shot air tank made of sheet iron. These characteristics gave it a high rate of fire, a low muzzle report, no smoke upon shooting, and made it the very first repeating gun in military service, as well as one of the very first tubular magazine designs. Reloading was made through the forward end of the tube, after which the rifleman would be good to shoot 20 rounds by simply holding the weapon skyward and work the spring-loaded breech block to the side. Each soldier was equipped with two air tanks - not counting the one currently screwed on, a full magazine, 80 extra shots in 20-round tin tubes as well as a cleaning kit and a hand pump.


Staying in limited service throughout the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, the Girardoni rifle had a few defaults that prevented its widespread usage, foremost of which was its stock/air tank. Although very difficult to manufacture in 18th century factories, it wasn’t tough enough for military service, and every dent would render it useless. On top of that the pump issued with it required upward of 1500 hand strokes to fill it completely if no specialized utility wagon was available

It also comes in pistol size.

boys in 2017: send nudes

boys in 1779: Cold in my professions, warm in [my] friendships, I wish, my Dear Laurens, it m[ight] be in my power, by action rather than words, [to] convince you that I love you.

Strip Tutoring // Jeff Atkins // requested

Request : please do a jeff atkins imagine but please dont let him die there iM BEGGIN U

This imagine doesn’t mention his death or the party or anything! Just a regular ‘dating Jeff Atkins’ imagine. Lol

Requests are closed. xx

Warnings : not really smut but… stripping ?…. cheeky!Jeff

Pairings : Jeff x Fem.Reader

Originally posted by jeffreysatkins

Originally posted by ardevaas88


Walking into the library, my eyes scanned over everyone’s faces until I saw my boyfriend sitting with Clay. He looked irritated and pinched the bridge of his nose. Taking a seat at the table, Jeff’s eyes lit up.

“Hey babe.” He smiled. 

I grinned, “How’s he doing, Clay?”

“Depends. Did Abraham Jefferson write the Declaration of Independence?” Clay responded smartly. 

Keep reading

“Portrait of Maria Luisa of Spain, Holy Roman Empress” (1770) (detail) by Anton Raphael Mengs (1728-1779).

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Nock pepperbox musket

Manufactured by Henry Nock’s company in London c.~1800 - no serial number.
.44 ball, smoothbore manually indexed six-barrel cluster, self-priming flintlock.

A considerable upgrade on his 1779 seven-barreled volley gun, Nocks uses the revolving technology of American gunsmith Artemus Wheeler and adds to it a self-priming mechanism of his own design, which would later be the basis of Elisha Collier’s famous designs. This firearm would allow its user to fire a shot, lock the barrel cluster into its next position, cock the hammer, lower the frizzen and take another shot, up to six times in a row. It was a considerably faster rate of fire than any musket at the time.

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Three Times Laurens Generally Addressed His Love to the Military Family and the One Time He Explicitly Addressed His Love to Hamilton

adieu_ my love to our dear Colleagues_ - John Laurens to Alexander Hamilton, July 14, 1779

present my Respects and Love to our excellent General and the family_ - John Laurens to Alexander Hamilton, December 12, 1779

My Love to the Family_  Adieu_ - John Laurens to Alexander Hamilton, July 30, 1780

My Love as usual_ Adieu. - John Laurens to Alexander Hamilton, December 18, 1779

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The Romanov women who were celebrated as great beauties in their day:

Empress Elizaveta I Petrovna (1709-1762)

“She is a beauty the like of which I have never seen … an amazing complexion, glowing eyes, a perfect mouth, a throat and bosom of rare whiteness. She is tall in stature, and her temperament is very lively. One senses in her a great deal of intelligence and affability, but also a certain ambition.”


Empress Elizaveta Alexeievna (1779-1826)

“Her features were fine and even, and her face a perfect oval; her beautiful complexion was not high in colour but its delicacy was totally in keeping with her expression, one of angelic sweetness. Her fair ash coloured hair floated about her neck and forehead. She was dressed in a simple white tunic, gathered by a belt knotted simply around a waist slender as a nymph´s. This young woman appeared exactly as I have described her, standing against the backdrop of an appartment ornamented with classical columns and draped in pink and silver gauze; she looked so ravishing I cried out, “Psyche!” It was in fact Princess Elisabeth, wife of Alexander.” 


Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna (1798-1860)

“The Empress is a tall graceful figure … her little head beautifully set and her expression pleasing and features regular, her hands and arms beautifully shaped and an air of imperial dignity and grace I never saw before. Her dress was perfect - simple and of dazzling whiteness, with a necklace, fringe, drops, etc. that I can only compare to dark blue glass eggs for never did I see their like.”


Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna (1822-1892)

“The Grand Duchess Olga, the second of the emperor´s daughter, has no rival in beauty among the Princesses of Europe, an in this instance, flattery, in asserting her to be the loveliest girl in her father´s dominion, scarcely outstrips the truth.”

Grand Duchess Alexandra Iosifovna (1830-1911)

[Alexandra] loved the Russian extravangance and magnificence, which was entirely in keeping with her extraordinary beauty, her marvelous hair in particular. A few considred that she resembled Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, whose style of dress Sanny copied. All of Europe spoke of her astonishing jewels, of her pearl necklace, in which each pearl was the size of a nut. … [She] always took a passionate interest in anything which related to the beauty of other women. With typical feminine jealousy she would ask: “Who is the more beautiful, the Empress of Austria or I?” The Empress´s beauty was much praised, and the Grand Duchess Konstantin worried: “Is my hair as fine as the Empress´s? Don´t you think we have the same figure?”


Grand Duchess Elizaveta Fyodorovna (1864-1918)

“I like Ella very, very much. She is so feminine; her beauty is something I will never tire of. Her eyes are extraordinarily beautifully defined and her look is so calm and gentle. Despite her gentle nature and her shyness, one sense in her a certain self-assurance, a recognition of her own strength … [Her husband] was talking to me about his wife and he was enraptured by her, full of her praises.”

Princess Irina Alexandrovna (1895-1970):

“One day when I was out riding I met a very beautiful girl accompanied by an elderly lady. Our eyes met and she made such an impression on me that I reined in my horse to gaze at her as she walked on … [Another time] I had plenty of time to admire the wondrous beauty of the girl who was eventually to become my wife and lifelong companion. She had beautiful features, clear-cut as a cameo, and looked very like her father." 


Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna (1897-1918)

“She’s a grand princess from head to toe, so aristocratic and regal. Her face is pale matte, only the cheeks are slightly rosy, as if pink satin is trying to escape from just under her thin skin. Her profile is flawlessly beautiful, as if cut from marble by a great artist.  The widely set eyes provide uniqueness and originality to her face.”


Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna (1899-1918)

“Maria Nikolaevna can easily be called a Russian beauty. Tall, healthy, with sable eyebrows and a bright blush on her open Russian face, she is especially lovely to a Russian heart. You look at her and involuntarily imagine her dressed in the Russian boyar’s sarafan; snowy muslin sleeves around her hands; on the highly decorated bodice semi-precious stone; and above her white brow, a kokoshnik with the traditional pearls. Her eyes illuminate her entire face by a unique, radiant luster; they sometimes seem black as long eyelashes throw shadows over the bright blush of her soft cheeks.”

The Queen is enchanted with [Madame Elisabeth] and tells everyone that she never met anyone so lovable, that she was only now learning to know her, that she had made a friend of her, and that the friendship would last as long as a lifetime. 

–Madame de Bombelles on Madame Elisabeth and Marie Antoinette, after their shared convalescence from measles in 1779. [image: detail from a painting depicting Marie Antoinette embracing Madame Elisabeth]

A Brief History of the Spork

The most grievous and recurrent misconception about the spork is that its name is a portmanteau of “spoon” and “fork.” Being part spoon and part fork this seems like the most obvious origin, but in fact the spork was invented by Edwin C. Sporke in New Orleans. Sporke invented the Spork in 1776, and the year is no coincidence. The story of the Spork is in fact, the story of the United States of America.

The year was 1773 and the industrial revolution was in its first decades. The colonists that would form the government of the United States were just arriving in the 13 colonies. At the age of 21, Thomas Jefferson had just been fired from his job in tech support at the University of Oxford. The only record of his duties there suggests that he mostly cleaned the old valuable globes, clocks, compasses, and the Ancient Abacus of Ankh-Ent-Ah-Baccus, where he is noted as having done a substandard job at removing abacus lint from the device. With no job and no prospects in England, Jefferson moved on up to the colonies in America, where he could begin a new life.

Jefferson came to America with only $7 to his name, and those dollars were worthless as the U.S. Treasury would not be formed for another 25 years. He arrived at the port of New Orleans, which was at the time called “Orleans-To-Be.” He had at the time no interest in politics, and applied to work at the only English-speaking establishment in the town. His days at McDonalds were unproductive. He slaughtered the cattle for beef, he peeled the potatoes for french fries, and he ground the bones for bread, which was made from bone powder before the evolution of wheat. But one important thing happened in his years at the restaurant: He met Edwin C. Sporke.

Sporke had arrived from Norway the year prior, and changed his name from Edvald Cornelius Sporkbeklagerdenfalskenorskenavnet to Edwin C. Sporke. Jefferson first saw him when he picked up his order for a Mutton McGruelbowl. Sporke sat down and, to Jefferson’s dismay, began trying to eat the liquid gruel with a fork. Curious, he brought the man a spoon and asked why he wasn’t using it instead. Sporke explained that spoons had been banned in Norway for hundreds of years owing to the infamous “Blood Spooning” of Vikings, from whom the Christian monarchy wanted to distance themselves. Jefferson encouraged Sporke to try, but he was hesitant. Finally, he agreed to eat the gruel with both at the same time, overlapping. The spork was born.

Because it could eat gruel more efficiently than a spoon or fork on their own, Raymond McDonald immediately began producing the utensil. This was done at first by having Jefferson weld spoons to forks, a job he so detested that he left for the east coast, taking the idea with him and keeping (most of) Sporke’s name attached, promising him royalties. Upon his arrival, Jefferson saw the next thing that would revolutionize the way we eat: The assembly line.

Famous entrepeneur- entrepeneuer– entreprenur—- famous businessman Henry Ford was living in New York, growing very rich with his mass constructed horse drawn carriages. Jefferson was impressed with the method, and immediately endeavored to accomplish a mass produced spork by means of his diligence, hard work, and persistence in buying slaves to do his real work for him. Among his early customers was Benjamin Franklin, who would go on to play so an integral role in the founding of the United States that well over 0.04% of Americans can tell you his role even today. Franklin loved the idea of the spork and showed it to George Washington, who could only eat gruel owing to the loss of his teeth in bad poker game in 1771. The men got along splendidly, and the rest, as they say, is history.

For Jefferson and the country at least. Records of Edwin Sporke are fewer and less revolutionary. Sporke never got any royalties. Whether Jefferson never sent them or whether they were stolen by railroad bandits en route will never be known, but as railroads only began delivering mail after 1804, most historians suspect Jefferson cheated Sporke out of his share of the profits. The only thing we now know for certain about Sporke is that he died in 1779, stabbed to death with his own invention during an argument over whether zebras were striped or spotted. Sporke not only died in the encounter, but made a fool of himself by claiming that the animals were spotted, having been tricked at a local zoo that displayed a dalmatian claimed to be the elusive African zebra.

But thankfully we now know his name, and his fate, and his integral role in the building of both the U.S.A. and the spork that bears his name. In this respect he remains far more fortunate than Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Nafzawi, who invented the spork in 1211 in Tunisia and is not remembered in any European history books at all for obvious reasons.