16th c. iran

Jahangir’s Dream (c. 1620) by Abul Hassan

Jahangir, on the right, hugs Shah Abbas, the Safavid ruler of the Persian empire. They stand on top of the world, on the backs of a lion and a lamb. A lion and a lamb together represents peace and harmony. This image suggests that the two rulers are at peace with one another. It also suggests, due to the submissive posture of Shah Abbas, that Jahangir, the Mughal Indian emperor, is in charge here. He is the one that stands on top of the world. Shah ‘Abbas is secondary.

4

The Jenkinson Map

from Anthony Jenkinson’s explorations on the land route to China, 1558-1560

“ SAILING ON THE CASPIAN - [The] Volga hath seventy mouths of falls into the sea: and we having a large wind, kept the Northeast shore and the eleventh day we sailed seven leagues east-northeast, and came unto an island having an high hill therein, called Accurgar, a good mark in the sea.

From thence east ten leagues, we fell with another island called Bawhiata, much higher then the other. Within these two islands to the northwards, is a great bay called the Blue Sea. From thence we sailed East and North ten leagues, and having a contrary wind, we came to an anchor in a fathom water, and so rid until the fifteenth day, having a great storm at southeast, being most contrary wind, which we rid out. Then the wind came to the north, and we weighed [i.e., raised anchor], and set our course southeast, and that day sailed eight leagues. …

The 21st day we passed over a bay of 6 leagues broad, and fell with a cape of land, having two islands at the southeast part thereof, being a good mark in the sea: & doubling that cape the land trended northeast, and maketh another bay, into which falleth the great river Yem [=Emba], springing out of the land of Colmack [=Kalmyks]. The 22nd, 23rd [and] 24th days, we were at an anchor. The 25th the wind came fair, and we sailed that day 20 leagues, and passed an island of low land and there about are many flats and sands: and to the northward of this island there goeth in a great bay, but we set off from this island, and winded south to come into deep water, being much troubled with shoals & flats, and ran that course 10 leagues, then east-southeast 20 leagues, and fell with the mainland, being full of copped hills, and passing along the coast 20 leagues, the further we sailed, the higher was the land. ”