Zheng Zhenxiang (b.1929) is one of China’s first female archaeologists. She is a leading expert on the Shang Dynasty of China (1600-1046 BCE).
She is best known for her excavations at Yinxu, where she discovered the tomb of Lady Fu Hao, the wife and military general of King Wu Ding. Lady Fu Hao’s tomb is still to this day the only Shang royal tomb excavated by archaeologists that was intact and undisturbed.
Zheng’s work at Yinxu not only confirmed the historicity of Fu Hao (whose existence was previously only known through the Oracle Bones), but provided valuable insight into the material culture of Shang Dynasty China. It is this reason that she has been referred to as the “First Lady of Chinese Archaeology.”
Zheng Zhenxiang is affiliated with the
Institute of Archaeology at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.
Mycenae is an archaeological site in Greece, located southwest of Athens. From the hill it is placed on, one can see across the Argolid to the Saronic Gulf. In the second millennium BCE, Mycanae was one of the major centers of Greek civilization, a military stronghold which dominated much of southern Greece. The Mycenae was continuously inhabited from the Early Neolithic down through the Early Helladic and Middle Helladic periods. The period of Greek history from about 1600 BCE to about 1100 BCE is called Mycenaean in reference to the fortress. At its peak in 1350 BCE, the citadel and lower town had a population of 30,000. [x]
I rise like the sun above olive trees, like the moon above date palms. Where there is light, I shall be. Where there is darkness, there is none of me. I rise like the moon above date palms. I am counted as one among stars.
Moon vine (I. alba) sap was used for vulcanization of the latex of Castilla elastica (Panama rubber tree, Nahuatl: olicuáhuitl) to rubber;
as it happens, the rubber tree seems well-suited for the vine to twine
upon, and the two species are often found together. As early as 1600 BCE, the Olmecs produced the balls used in the Mesoamerican ballgame.
The Edwin Smith surgical papyrus, c. 16th century BC The Edwin Smith papyrus, the world’s oldest surviving surgical document. Written in hieratic script in ancient Egypt around 1600 B.C., the text describes anatomical observations and the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of 48 types of medical problems in exquisite detail. Plate 6 and 7 of the papyrus, pictured here, discuss facial trauma.
Beam of light, sun and moon. Shining beast, man and woman. I am passing through. Come outside among the people. I am light. Gaze on me. Moon in darkness, sun in morning. Light is what I will on earth, along the Nile, among the people.
The younger snake goddess, from the palace of Knossos. Heraklion Archaeological Museum.
Snake Goddess indicates figurines of a woman with an owl pearched atop her head and holding a snake in each hand found during excavation of Minoan archaeological sites in Crete dating from approximately 1600 BCE. These figurines were found only in house sanctuaries, where the figurine appears as “the goddess of the household”, and they are probably related with the Paleolithic tradition regarding women and domesticity. Read More
Reproduction of a Mycenean dagger, inlaid with cats hunting ducks, a river with fish and papyri. Circa 1600 - 1500 BCE.
(It is a reproduction because no Iron Age artifacts survived in such good condition.)
Copper statue of the Sun God Shamash, dating back to 1700-1600 BCE. Shamash, the Babylonian god of justice, is depicted on the famous Code of Hammurabi. The sun is named after him in Arabic, Hebrew and Syriac. Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY.
Ra Rising Be silent o priest. Be quiet all and listen. Ra is in the wind. He speaks when the earth is silent and he alone existed until he named the names of things. River, he said, and River lived. Nile. Mountain. Beetle. Fisherman. From his tongue spring words of water. The river quakes with the sound of his voice. Air escaping from his nose. Breathe deep. The wind a sigh from his mother. Such things are made everyday: Duck, Mandrake, Raisin. Grape, Pomegranate, Melon. Cypress, Palm, Osiris.