1475 1564

The Minds Of: The Renaissance (1450-1550)

Southern(Italy and Whatnot) Renaissance:

  • Giovanni de’ Medici: (d. 1429) Merchant and banker of Florence, foundee of the Medici dynasty. He could be considered one of the world’s first modern people.
  • Cosimo de’ Medici:(1389-1464) Unofficial ruler of Florence Republic for awhile
  • Lorenzo The Magnificent: (1449-1492) Ruler of the Republic, official patron of the arts, he wanted to live life rather than wait for its fulfillment after death
  • Filippo Brunelleschi: (1377-1446) studied Roman buildings and built cathedrals
  • Leon Battista Alberti: (1404-1472) Filippo Brunelleschi’s buddy kinda thing cause they did the same shit
  • Lorenzo Ghiberti: (1378-1455) sculpted a set of bronze doors for the Florentine baptistery with not only crowds of human figures but the illusion of depth
  • Giotto: (1267-1337) painted walls on florentine buildings and created the illusion of depth and movement
  • Masaccio: (1401-1428) used light and shadow, nude figures, and the illusion of perspective.
  • Sandro Botticelli: (1444-1510)n painted themes from classical mythology such as his Birth of Venus
  • Raphael: (1483-1520) is considered one of the greatest painters of his era; he epitomizes the Renaissance style
  • Leonardo da Vinci: (1452-1519): “The Renaissance Man”; painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, writer, scientist
  • Michelangelo Buonarroti: (1475-1564) sculptor whose sculptures are often credited with the most perfect marble statues. He also did paintings in the Sistine Chapel
  • Dante: (1265-1321) standardized Italian speech and language which also helped create “modern” writing because it was finally out of Latin! That dick
  • Petrarch: (1304-1374) considered first “modern” writer
  • Boccaccio: (1313-1375) THIS BITCH WROTE THE DECAMERON, entertaining that reflect upon the human condition
  • Leonardo Bruni: (1370-1444) chancellor of the Republic of Florence, he wrote the first modern history, an account of the development of Florence
  • Baldassare Castiglione: (1478-1529) The Book of The Courtier, a manual for the manners of the modern gentleman
  • Niccoló Machiavelli: (1469-1499) he wrote The Prince as the first meaningful treatise on political science; how governments rule without moral judgement or exhortation.
  • Laura Cereta(1469-1499) humanist and early feminist; she (might) have taught at the University of Padua, she is often criticized for her Epistolae familiares cause people got upset about the “gender bias” she had.

Northern Renaissance:


  • Johann Gutenberg: (1400-1468) invented changeable, movable type for the printing press
  • Regiomontanus(Johann Muller 1436-1476) ALONG WITH Nicolas of Cusa(1401-1464): laid foundation for science and mathematics {fuck them right?}
  • Copernicus: (1473-1543) kinda like proved heliocentric system
  • Martin Behaim(1459-1507) and Thomas á Kempis(1380-1471) mysticism {a person alone could talk to God}
  • Gerard Groote: (1340-1384) Dutch preacher created “Bro’s of Common Life” a modern devotion
  • Erasmus(1456-1536): Gradual Reform of the church, nut still be loyal to it
  • Albrecht Dürer(1471-1528) artist(portraits and woodblock prints) also a fucking mathematician
  • Pieter Brueghel the Elder: (1520-1569): focused his painting and prints on ordinary people. Which challenged the whole Renaissance
  • Christopher Marlowe: (1564-1593) dramatist who helped form modern English
  • Edmund Spenser: (1552-1599) poet who helped form modern English
  • Francis Bacon (1564-1616) scientist who also helped form modern English
  • William Shakes-a lot-spear (1564-1616) yall know this dick right? if not, he is a writer
  • Sir Thomas More (1478-1535):  helped with contemporary English(also wrote blueprint for perfect society)


  • Rabelais (1494-1553): attacked French society and church while advocating reform
  • Montaigne (1533-1592) fucking formated the essay, you dick


  • Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) sarersed societys anachronistic glorification of chivalry and medieval institutions in Don Quixote
  • Lope de Vega: wrote hella dramas
  • Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (idk) painted magnificent religious pictures
  • Doménikos El Greco(1541-1614) painted magnificent religious pictures
  • Diego Valázquez(1599-1660): painted magnificent religious pictures
  • Francisco Suárez (idk): wrote hella admired works on philosophy and law


  • Jan Van Eyck(1385–1441) Dutch painter
  • Rembrandt van Rijn(1606-1669) Dutch master (chiaroscuro)
  • Hieronymus Bosch (c.1450-1516) dutch painter symbolism, sin, moral failing

Michelangelo (1475-1564)
“Rachel” and “Leah” (1545)
High Renaissance
Located at the tomb of Pope Julius II in the San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy


September 13th 1501: Michelangelo begins on ‘David’

On this day in 1501, Italian sculptor Michelangelo began work on his statue of David. Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni was born in 1475, and at a young age was apprenticed to a notable painter in Florence. He ingratiated himself with the prominent Florentine Medici family, known for their support of the arts, eventually living in the household of patriarch Lorenzo de’ Medici. Michelangelo then traveled Italy, living in Bologna and Rome, all the while  perfecting his sculpture work. His ‘Pietà’ in 1497 cemented his fame, and when back in Florence in the first years of the sixteenth-century he produced his masterpiece - ‘David’. Florence’s rulers requested Michelangelo create a statue of the biblical hero portraying him as a symbol of Florentine freedom. Michelangelo crafted the statue out of marble, and spent two years working on the large statue, which was unveiled in September 1504. Between 1508 and 1512 Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican, which catapulted him to fame as one of Italy’s most renowned artists. Michelangelo’s ‘David’ is on display in The Gallery of the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence, where the iconic statue attracts thousands of visitors.

Art History Resource List: Early European Art to Late 20th Century

To Request a resource list for your discipline, you can request HERE. My resource list for classics can be found HERE or anthropology HERE. 

See disclaimer at base for sources. This is an extensive list of the thousands of resources available to Art History Students, please add to it if something is missing.

http://arthistoryresources.net/ is a valuable resource list for students. It is very thorough, and my list is based heavily off this list. I have altered many sources for the sake of space and convenience. I do not take credit for this list, it is the property of Dr. Christopher L.C.E. Witcombe!

Useful Links: 

  • Art webgraphie
  • Lita Annenberg Hazen and Joseph H. Hazen Center for Electronic Information Resources 
  • ArtSource 
  • ArtHistory.net
  • Voice of the Shuttle 
  • Mother of All Art History Links Pages 
  • Art on the Web 
  • CODART list of museums 
  • Art History Index, through World Wide Art Resources
  • Art History
  • Chinese and Japanese Art History WWW Virtual Library
  • Architecture and Building Web Resources 
  • Architecture Web Sites 
  • Aesthetics and Visual Culture 

Keep reading

Young Man in Bust Length in Exotic Costume (the so-called Persian Boy)
Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1475–1564
Red chalk, 8 1/16 x 6 ½ in.

A postcard from “Michelangelo: Divine Draftsman & Designer” at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in NY. 

Michelangelo Buonarroti (Caprese Michelangelo, 1475 – Roma, 1564)

Volta della Cappella Sistina

1508-12, Vaticano

affresco, m 41 x 13,5 circa


Quanno che er papa Giulio II je chiese de dipigne er soffitto daa Cappella Sistina, a Michelangelo je prese un mezzo coccolone, che nun j’annava pe gnente, primo perché se sentiva scurtore no pittore, seconno perché daa tecinca d’aaffresco nun se sentiva tanto sicuro, terzo perché co sto papa ce stava sempre a litigà. Ma dopo du anni de tira e molla finarmente mise mano ar pennello: e pe dilla tutta, popo na ciofeca nun j’è venuta.

Pe quattr’anni se ne stette sull’impalcature mezzo sdraiato caa pittura che je cascava in faccia, ma ce prese gusto, tanto che da na ventina de figure che doveva da fà all’inizio, aa fine ce ne stanno più de trecento.

Pe falla breve, che co te na parola è poca e du so troppe, tutt’attorno, drento quii triangoli e nee lunette sopra ‘e finestre, ce stanno l’antenati de Gesù, daa famija de Davide, no Davide er Patata ma Davide re de Israele, che Gesù era ebreo, anche se a vorte quanno ‘o dici a gente te guarda come a dì “ma che me stai a pijà per culo?”.

Poi, ce stanno dee figure più granni, sedute, ommini e donne: l’ommini sò li profeti sempre de Israele, che stanno naa Bibbia, tipo Isaia, Geremia, così, mentre ‘ e donne sò ‘e Sibille, che verebbe come a dì profetesse Greche e Romane; che seconno li cristiani sia l’uni che l’antre nee loro profezie parleno de Gesù che deve arivà. Come a dì, nun solo l’Ebrei staveno a aspettà er Messia, che però poi quanno è arivato nun l’hanno riconosciuto: ma pure li pagani ‘o staveno a aspettà pure senza sapello. Morale daa storia: quello che te capita, o nun è quello che t’aspettavi, o nun sapevi de aspettallo. Che aspetti a fa?

E infine, tutto lungo er centro der soffitto, ce stanno ‘e storie daa Genesi, che sarebbe er primo libro daa Bibbia ndo se recconta popo l’inizio der monno: e vedi Dio che da principio se mette là e divide luce e ombra, poi fa ‘e piante, er sole, ‘a luna, i mari, ‘a tera, e infine er primo omo che se chiamava Adamo. E dopo avè fatto Adamo soo guarda e dice: “Bè, bè, sò stato bravo eh, come prima prova: mo famo sur serio e tiramo fòri er modello delux.” E te fece ‘a donna. E poi finarmente se riposò. E ‘a donna iniziò a spiccià casa e nun s’è fermata mai. No aspè: quella è ‘a punizione pe er Peccato Origginale, che disobbedischeno a Dio e se magneno sta mela che era er frutto daa conoscenza, che forse in effetti era mejo prima, che nun se sapeva gnente, no? Innocenti come pupi. Anvece quanno inizi a capì sò cazzi amari, perché vedi er bene e er male, sai che devi fà er bene, ma spesso fai er male uguale. Dio se incazza e ‘i caccia via. Basta giardino dell’Eden, tajatevi sti capelli, metteteve du stracci addosso che nun ve se pò vede, e annate a lavorà.

E ‘a storia finisce co Noè, che anfatti Dio je manna er diluvio all’umanità perché da che hanno lassato er Paradiso Terestre l’omini nun sò mijorati, anzi. Però a Noè ‘o sarva, lui e ‘a famija sua. E lì pe lì Noè je dice pure grazie a Dio, je offre sacrifici, dice “bada vojo faje vede a Dio che io sò bravo, me metto de impegno a lavorà”, e inizia a cortivà ‘a tera, e scopre ‘a vite, e ce fa er vino… bono! Bevine uno bevine due, poraccio, che ne sapeva d’eeffetti collaterali, insomma daje e daje se imbriaca. E gnente: semo irecuperabbili, Signò, scusece tanto, gna potemo fà.