Greek Bronze and Gold Short Sword and Dagger, C. 1450-1300 BC
The daggers and early swords of the Aegean Bronze Age represent some of
the most striking artifacts of the period in terms of their opulence,
craftsmanship and display of technical virtuosity. Whilst some were used
solely for ceremonial use, many were functional instruments of war,
attested by the clear developments in form, according to fighting
preferences and practices. The short sword, which developed from the
dagger, is one of the most interesting innovations of the Bronze Age,
often signifying social status in societies in which hierarchy and
one-on-one combat were primary concerns. The present dagger and short
sword probably originate from Crete, in the locality of the great
palaces at Knossos, or from Mycenae. The Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations were renowned for their wealth, richness of culture,
technical sophistication, and strong influence across the Greek world
for centuries to come. These are the weapons of the fabled heroes of
Troy, the great treasures of powerful kings like Agamemnon, who ruled
over the kingdom of Mycenae.
It has been suggested that the name of the site is linked to the Celtic festival of fertility known as ‘Beltane’, the anglicized name for the Gaelic May Day festival, commonly held on May 1st and historically observed throughout Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man.
Beltany is a neolithic stone circle that dates from around 1400-800 BC and comprises 64 stones around a tumulus situated at the summit of Tops Hill. One stone is decorated with cup marks and many of the stones stand at an angle after being disturbed around a hundred years ago. There may originally have been about 80 stones. A single stone about 6.5 feet high stands to the southeast of the circle. It probably had some function related to the rites or ceremonies in the circle. A stone head was found at Beltany, probably carved between 400 BC and 400 AD. This may indicate that the stone circle was used for many centuries.
- Muhammad and buddha aren’t seen as deities
- Sub saharan trade is gold and salt
- South American trade is cash crops (like sugar)
- Globalization was in the late 1400s bc of fuckboy Chris
- Colonization was in the 1700s and 1800s
- Focus on the dbq essay
- Don’t underline your thesis!!!! Ever!!!!!
- if you have incorrect information they just cross it off and don’t count it
- make shit concise and then just spill put all the information you have neatness means nothing
Pythia, also known as the Oracle of Delphi, was the name of any priestess at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus ( thought to be around 1400 BC).
The Pythia was widely credited for her prophecies inspired by Apollo. It is said that she predicted the Trojan War (The Delphic Sibyl).
The usual theory has been that the Pythia delivered oracles in a frenzied state induced by vapors rising from a chasm in the rock, and that she spoke gibberish which priests interpreted as the enigmatic prophecies preserved in Greek literature.
To prepare for prophesying, the Oracle of Delphi would bathe in a spring of Castalia for cleansing. Then, she would drink from another stream. After that, to see if the Pythia was ready to foresee the future and accept Apollo’s powers, a priest would pour ice water over a goat. If the goat was to shake from being cold, then Apollo was present and had invested powers in her. If the water didn’t phase the goat at all, that meant the Oracle was not ready. Lastly, the Oracle of Delphi would inhale the gas emitting from the chasm near the temple, and after a frenzy, she was ready to give seekers their prophecies.
It is now believed that the vapours were hallucinogenic gases, while others say the hallucinations come from snake bites, or by burning bay leaves.. However, other scholars challenge this theory and state that the ancient sources show the Pythia speaking intelligibly, and giving prophecies in her own voice.
From a late myth that deviates from much older ones, when young, Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python, named Pythia in older myths, but according to some later accounts his wife, Pythia, who lived beside the Castalian Spring, according to some because Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. The bodies of the pair were draped around his Rod, which, with the wings created the caduceus symbolic of the god. This spring flowed toward the temple but disappeared beneath, creating a cleft which emitted vapours that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophecies.
It is reputed that the last prophecy the Oracle gave predicted it would be her final one. A Roman emperor wanted to revive classic Greek culture. He went to the Pythia and she said: “Tell to the king that the cavern wall is fallen in decay; Apollo has no chapel left, no prophesying bay, No talking stream. The stream is dry that had so much to say.” That prophecy could be interpreted as a sign that Apollo has died and the time for reviving Greek culture is over.
Another prophecy from the Oracle of Delphi was given in 594 BC, to an Athenian lawgiver; Solon. Solon wanted to capture the island of Salamis and so he asked the Pythia for her advice. She said: “First sacrifice to the warriors who once had their home in this island, Whom now the rolling plain of fair Asopia covers, Laid in the tombs of heroes with their faces turned to the sunset.” Following the advice of the Oracle, Solon was able to claim the islandof Salamis, and gave much credit to the Oracle for her fulfilling advice.
The Oracle also told the Athenians that a wall of wood could protect them. They followed her advice, winning that battle, but it was hopeless for the Spartans. The Pythia told the Spartans before the battle of Thermopylae (in the words of Herodotus): “Hear your fate, O dwellers in Sparta of the wide spaces; Either your famed, great town must be sacked by Perseus’ sons, Or, if that be not, the whole land of Lacedaemon Shall mourn the death of a king of the house of Heracles, For not the strength of lions or of bulls shall hold him, Strength against strength; for he has the power of Zeus, And will not be checked until one of these two he has consumed.” Every last Spartan who fought in the battle that the Oracle foresaw as doomed died, making even the most skeptic of people become believers of the Pythia’s powers.
This famous ring from the Isopata tomb, near Knossos, is a masterpiece of Minoan gold work. The bezel depicts four female figures, richly clad in characteristic Minoan garments, moving through a landscape of lilies. Three of them dance in ecstasy, their arms raised in the air, while the fourth one, placed in the centre of the scene and slightly higher than the others, makes a gesture - possibly of benediction.
Late Bronze Age, 1600 - 1400 BC Place of discovery: Knosos, Isopata grave Dimensions: diameter: 0,021 m Material: Gold. Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture