1370s

The oldest surviving crown of an English queen, 1370-80. Gold, enamel, sapphires, rubies, emeralds, diamonds, pearls. Recorded in England in a list of jewels and plate drawn up in 1399. Probably belonged to King Edward III or Anne of Bohemia, the wife of King Richard II, who was deposed that year by Henry IV. Henry’s daughter, Princess Blanche, married the Palatine Elector Ludwig III in 1402 and the crown passed to the Palatine Treasury in Heidelberg as part of her dowry.

20 Out Of This World Facts About The Universe That Will Sweep You Off Your Feet

We’ve compiled a list of the 20 most incredible facts about the universe you will ever come across. The infinite expanse of stars and galaxies are riddled with mysteries which leading scientists and experts are yet to explore. In their quest to unearth the hidden secret of the universe, startling facts and information have emerged - 20 of which we’ve featured below.

1. When you look into the night sky, you are looking back in time.

Originally posted by apparently-artless

 When we gaze at stars in the night sky, we are actually looking into the past. This happens because light emitted from a star has to travels many light years ahead to actually become visible to our eyes. For  example, Orion is 640 light-years away, so the light left the star around 1370 is what we are seeing now.


2. The Hubble telescope allows us to look back billions of years into the past

Originally posted by dreamofthedragon

NASA releases some incredible images of space, from time to time, and it’s made possible with The Hubble Telescope. Here’s an image which is a collection of 10,000 images captured by The Hubble. 


3. You can watch the Big Bang on your television

Cosmic background radiation is an after effect of the Big Bang, the event that allegedly gave birth to the universe. This can actually be seen on television where the old fuzzy noise we saw contains 1% of the same radiation. 


4. There’s a giant cloud of alcohol in Sagittarius B

Sagittarius B, is a huge cloud of vinyl alcohol whizzing in space near the Milky Way. It’s important as it leaves crucial information for scientists about how early life forms originated in space.


5. There’s a planet-sized diamond in Centaurus named after a Beatles song

Originally posted by iclalove

A planet , made completely of diamond, which has been called Lucy by scientists after the Beatles song, “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds,”  can be found 50 light years away in Centaurus and weighs in a mind boggling 10 billion-trillion-trillion carats. 


6. It takes 225 million years for our Sun to travel around the galaxy

Originally posted by toomanythoughtanddreams

While our planets in the solar system circumnavigate the Sun, the star itself it on a orbit around the Milky Way. And if we’re counting in humans years, it takes 225 million years to complete the journey. 


7. Our solar system’s biggest mountain is on Mars

The tallest mountain in our solar system is Olympus Mons, located on Mars. It’s calculated  to be three times taller than Everest, spanning 600 kilometers across and 26 kilometers in height. 


8. Uranus spins on its side, with some rather strange results

Originally posted by spaceplasma

Uranus is not just unique because of its strange spinning, but the consequences of that effect results in 42 consecutive years of summer sunlight followed by another 42 consecutive winter darkness.


9. A year on Venus is shorter than its day

Originally posted by spaceplasma


Venus is the slowest rotating planet in our solar system - it takes longer to finish a rotation on its axis than orbit the entire Sun!


10. Neutron stars are the fastest spinning objects known in the universe

The fastest spinning known pulsar, a neutron star which emits a radiation beam as light, cycles on a whopping 70,000 km per hour speed.


11. A spoonful of a neutron star weighs about a billion ton

Neutron stars are unimaginably dense, in fact one spoonful of one such star would weigh around a billion tons!


12. The Voyager 1 spacecraft is the most distant human-made object from Earth

In 1977, the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were released into space as an ambitious project and are still cruising the outskirts of our galaxy and maybe beyond to help us explore space even further.


13. Voyager 1 captured the most distant photograph of Earth

The same spacecraft, Voyager 1, took the most distant photograph of Earth: Voyager 1 took a shot of the Earth from the far reaches of space in 1990, and the small speck at the end of the image that is the world we’re living on right now became known as the Pale Blue Dot. Astronomer Carl Sagan noted,“From this distant vantage point, the Earth might not seem of any particular interest. But for us, it’s different. Consider again that dot. That’s here. That’s home. That’s us.”


14. Scientists are looking for evidence of extraterrestrial life on Earth

Originally posted by ajshostak

One of the most exciting mysteries of the universe is a quest to find aliens, or as termed by scientists a project called The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI), where they are pulling n all data about extraterrestrial life on other planets through evidence they have at their hands.


15. It is estimated there are 400 billion stars in our galaxy

Originally posted by thelucidnation

Our own Sun is one of 400 billion others, some astoundingly larger, some smaller, in the Milky Way alone. 


16. There could be 500 million planets capable of supporting life in our galaxy

“Goldilocks Planets” are  habitable planets which fall into a specific zone around the star to make life sustainable on it. Many factors come into play to get this perfect distance such as temperature, atmospheric content, water, chemical compounds on the surface etc. 


17. There are probably more than 170 billion galaxies in the observable universe

Based on extensive calculations, using data from the Hubble Telescope and as far as it can see into space, there’s a probable 170 billion galaxies besides our own Milky Way.


18. There could be an infinite number of universes

Originally posted by sci-universe

Speculative theories in advanced branches of science such as mathematics, quantum mechanics and astrophysics have summed up that we could be living in a “multiverse”- a convergence of an infinite number of universes. 


19. The human brain is the most complex object in the known universe

Originally posted by teapotsandroses

Our brain is a blueprint for the most complex network in the universe, with over a hundred billion neurons and quadrillion connections- this system isn’t even the tip of the iceberg which we know about what our brains have the potential to achieve.


20. We are all made of stardust

Originally posted by drugsruleeverythingaroundme

Carl Sagan beautifully summarises this fact, “The nitrogen in our DNA, the calcium in our teeth, the iron in our blood, the carbon in our apple pies were made in the interiors of collapsing stars. We are made of starstuff.” In fact, every element on Earth transpired from a burning heart of a star.

French Nobility

Originally posted by slainte71

Who are the nobility?

In France, nobility was a quality of the individual, a legal characteristic that could be held or acquired, and conferred some rights and privileges; such as levied taxes in times of war (since the nobility was supposed to fight for the sovereign), or since the 17th century, only weaker taxing exceptions. Also, a number of military and civic positions were reserved for nobility.

How is it inherited?

Nobility was usually hereditary only through the male line; a nobleman could marry a commoner and keep his nobility, but a noblewoman could not. When the nobility was hereditary, even though it was transmitted through the father, a higher percentage of noble blood or a higher number of noble generations in the family could be important as well.

How is nobility acquired?

  • By Birth. Usually from the father since 1370 (only exceptions are nobility in Champagne until the 16th century and Bar until the French Revolution). Bastards of nobles became nobles when legitimated by letters of the sovereign until 1600, after that a separate act of ennoblement was required (except royal bastards, they were always nobles even with no legitimation).
  • By Office. Depending on the office, the holder became noble either after a number of years in office or immediately. This kind of nobility could be personal or hereditary for 2, 3 or more generations. Here we have nobles for fiscal offices (tax courts and state auditors), “noblesse de robe” (for judicial offices, members of the parliament or courts that have been in office for 20 years),  “noblesse de cloche” (municipal offices, the mayors of towns), administrative offices (the places on the household of the king and the secrétaires du Roi) and military commissions (since 1750 officers reaching the rank of general would receive hereditary nobility).
  • By Letters. Meaning, by royal grant, meaning that the king could always ennoble whoever he wished.

Could nobility be lost?

Yes it could. You lose it by failing to your failing duties (this was called “déchéance”, kind of like Athos in The Musketeers BBC series); by practising forbidden occupations (called “dérogeance”), like commerce or manual crafts or farming someone else’s land (farming your own or the King’s land was ok). Funny that medicine, glass-blowing, exploitation of mines, maritime commerce and wholesale commerce was acceptable. Also, if you were a woman and marry a commoner, your nobility is lost.

What about the titles?

To bear a title you had to be noble. And a title is a rank attached to a certain piece of land. So, there could be nobles with no titles.

  • Duc. A duke (from the Latin dux, “leader”) was originally the governor of a province and a military leader. He was the possessor of a “duché” (a duchy).
  • Comte. A count (from the Latin comes, “companion”), originally an appointee of the king governing a city and its immediate surroundings. He was the possessor of a comté (county) or a high-ranking official in the king’s immediate entourage called Counts Palatine (palace counts).
  • Marquis. Originally the governor of a “march”, a region at the boundaries of the kingdom in need of particular protection. He was the possessor of a marquisat (marquessate).
  • Vicomte. A viscount was originally the lieutenant of a count, either when the count was not at home or then the county was held by the King himself. He was the possessor of a vicomté (viscounty).
  • Baron. Originally a direct vassal of the king or another major feudal lord (a duke or count or so). The possessor of a baronnie (barony).
  • Châtelain. A castellan was the commander in charge of a castle. Few chastellanies survived with the title or “Sire” (sir).
  • Prince. Possessor of a principauté (principality). This title was not the same as the rank of Prince and did not give his possessor precedence at the court.
  • Seigneur. A lord, possessor of a lordship.
  • Chevalier. The equivalent of a “knighted” or a member of certain chivalric orders or the head of the King’s guardsmen. Not the same as the rank of Chevalier.

Wait. Titles and Ranks are not the same?

No, they were not. Because French people are crazy and this could not be easy at all. Let’s say that there were two kinds of “titles”: the ones linked to the fifes (the feudal real estates, meaning the duchies and counties, etc) and the personal ranks.

  • Fils de France/Filles de France. The sons and daughters of the King.
  • Petit-fils de France. The grandchildren of the King through the male line.
  • Prince du Sang/Princesse du Sang. A Prince/Princess of the Blood was a legitimate descendant of the King but was not part of the immediate family. Meaning that they were not Fils neither Petit-Fils de France.
  • Prince/Princess Légitimé. The legitimized children of the King or other males of his dynasty.
  • Prince Étranger. A foreign prince naturalized and recognized by the French court.
  • Chevalier. A rank assumed ONLY by the most noble families and the possessors of very high dignities in the court. Note that the ones with the title of Chevalier and the ones with the rank of Chevalier are addressed differently.
  • Écuyer. This rank (squire) was the one of the majority of nobles. It was a member of the nobility with no title.

How are they addressed?

For this section I’ll use an example name, so each way of addressing will be very clear. Let’s use the Marquis de Castelnau: Philippe-François d'Albignac.

  • The simpler way to address a noble is using Monsieur, Madame and Mademoiselle: here, we would address Philippe-Françoise simply as Monsieur.
  • But of course it cannot be that simple, you could not be sure about who and which Monsieur, Madame or Mademoiselle you’re talking about. So, there is a simple formula: Monsieur/Madame + de + last name or house = Monsieur de Albignac.
  • But you can also refer to someone by their title and not their last name: Monsieur/Madame + le/la + title = Monsieur le Marquis.
  • And you can be even more specific, since we wanna know, are we talking about the same Marquis? You’d use: Monsieur/Madame + le/la + title in full style = Monsieur le Marquis de Castelnau.

Those are the general ways, but it can be very tricky or specific according the rank and title. Here is another helping guide:

  • The King. Majesté, Your/His Most Christian Majesty, Your/His Majesty, Monsieur Le Roi.
  • The Queen. Majesté, Your/Her Most Christian Majesty, Your/Her Majesty, Madame La Reine.
  • The Dauphin (the eldest son of the King). Monsieur le Dauphin, His/Your Royal Highness, Monseigneur le Dauphin, His/Your Royal Highness Monseigneur le Dauphin.
  • The Dauphine (the Dauphin’s wife). Madame la Dauphine, Her/Your Royal Highness, Her Royal Highness Madame la Dauphine.
  • The Fils de France. Referred by their main title, except the Dauphin. I.e. Monsieur le Duc d’Anjou.
  • The Filles de France. Referred as Madame+their given name. Except the eldest daughter that was called Madame Royale until she married, and then that style is used by the next Fille de France. I.e. Madame Victoire.
  • The Petit-Fils/Petit-Filles de France. Addressed using their full style titles.
  • Prince du Sang/Princesse du Sang. Usually styled by their main ducal title, but other more precise titles were also used. It could be used: Monsieur le Prince, Madame la Princesse, Monsieur le Duc, Madame la Duchesse, and so on. In writing only the style Serene Highness was used.
  • Prince Légitimé/Princesse Légitimé. They took last names according to the branch of the House their father belonged and after the legitimization they were given a title. Males were given titles from their father’s lands, and therefore addressed as Monsieur and the title or last name; females were given the style of Mademoiselle de “X”.
  • Prince étranger. Basically addresses as Haut et puissant Prince or Your/His Highness. They are tricky to address, since they could have ANY other kind of title (literally any, from Prince to Chevalier, everything in between), then they could be called according to their first title and/or as Highness. Let’s take the example of Hercule Mériadec de Rohan, Duke of Rohan-Rohan; he could be addressed as: Monsieur le Duc de Rohan-Rohan, His Highness Hercule Mériadec de Rohan, His Highness Monsieur le Duc de Rohan-Rohan, His Highness Monsieur de Rohan, Monsieur de Rohan.

Other words to keep in mind to address nobility:

  • Monseigneur. Used for those of very high office and noble blood, like the Dauphin, cardinals, etc. Usually used only for adults.
  • Excellence. Ambassadors, foreign dignitaries.
  • Eminence. Mostly for cardinals, along with Monseigneur.
  • Monsieur le Chevalier. ONLY used when Chevalier is the rank.
  • Chevalier+last name. To address those who are knighted members of chivalric orders.
  • Sieur. Like Sir in English. Usually used for property holders that are not noble. It is used as Sieur + de + name of the land.
  • Gentilhomme. Used for ANY noble, from the King to the last écuyer.

I hope this works for you @meltingpenguins :D

There will be a second part on English Nobility.

Danish Bronze Age elite buried in fancy woolly hats and shawls, 3,500-year-old graves reveal

High-status Bronze Age Danes wore intricate wool clothes that were made hundreds if not thousands of miles away, to show how well-travelled and wealthy they were. The first wide-scale study of wool clothes from the period has revealed how this elite class began to emerge in the 2nd millennium BCE.

The most famous of the elite western Danes is one known as Egtved Girl. She was between 16 and 18 years old when she died in 1370 BCE. She was buried wearing a tunic and skirt, a large bronze belt plate decorated with spirals, a delicate earring, a comb and a dagger.

This finely made outfit was preserved, like many others in the region, thanks to the unique conditions created in her burial mound. A layer of iron that was deposited around the oak coffin she was buried in helped to create an oxygen-free and acidic environment around the body. This killed off any microbes that would otherwise have started to break down the materials. Read more.

Spiders | JIMIN

Pairing: Jimin (BTS) x Reader

Word Count: 1370

Summary: Get you a man who saves you from spiders. 

**THERE IS A MENTION OF SPIDERS IN THIS, TRIGGER WARNING ALLDAT** **REQUESTS ARE OPEN!!**

Originally posted by kpopidolaegyooo


Keep reading

The Minds Of: The Renaissance (1450-1550)

Southern(Italy and Whatnot) Renaissance:

  • Giovanni de’ Medici: (d. 1429) Merchant and banker of Florence, foundee of the Medici dynasty. He could be considered one of the world’s first modern people.
  • Cosimo de’ Medici:(1389-1464) Unofficial ruler of Florence Republic for awhile
  • Lorenzo The Magnificent: (1449-1492) Ruler of the Republic, official patron of the arts, he wanted to live life rather than wait for its fulfillment after death
  • Filippo Brunelleschi: (1377-1446) studied Roman buildings and built cathedrals
  • Leon Battista Alberti: (1404-1472) Filippo Brunelleschi’s buddy kinda thing cause they did the same shit
  • Lorenzo Ghiberti: (1378-1455) sculpted a set of bronze doors for the Florentine baptistery with not only crowds of human figures but the illusion of depth
  • Giotto: (1267-1337) painted walls on florentine buildings and created the illusion of depth and movement
  • Masaccio: (1401-1428) used light and shadow, nude figures, and the illusion of perspective.
  • Sandro Botticelli: (1444-1510)n painted themes from classical mythology such as his Birth of Venus
  • Raphael: (1483-1520) is considered one of the greatest painters of his era; he epitomizes the Renaissance style
  • Leonardo da Vinci: (1452-1519): “The Renaissance Man”; painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, writer, scientist
  • Michelangelo Buonarroti: (1475-1564) sculptor whose sculptures are often credited with the most perfect marble statues. He also did paintings in the Sistine Chapel
  • Dante: (1265-1321) standardized Italian speech and language which also helped create “modern” writing because it was finally out of Latin! That dick
  • Petrarch: (1304-1374) considered first “modern” writer
  • Boccaccio: (1313-1375) THIS BITCH WROTE THE DECAMERON, entertaining that reflect upon the human condition
  • Leonardo Bruni: (1370-1444) chancellor of the Republic of Florence, he wrote the first modern history, an account of the development of Florence
  • Baldassare Castiglione: (1478-1529) The Book of The Courtier, a manual for the manners of the modern gentleman
  • Niccoló Machiavelli: (1469-1499) he wrote The Prince as the first meaningful treatise on political science; how governments rule without moral judgement or exhortation.
  • Laura Cereta(1469-1499) humanist and early feminist; she (might) have taught at the University of Padua, she is often criticized for her Epistolae familiares cause people got upset about the “gender bias” she had.

Northern Renaissance:

GERMANY AND ENGLAND

  • Johann Gutenberg: (1400-1468) invented changeable, movable type for the printing press
  • Regiomontanus(Johann Muller 1436-1476) ALONG WITH Nicolas of Cusa(1401-1464): laid foundation for science and mathematics {fuck them right?}
  • Copernicus: (1473-1543) kinda like proved heliocentric system
  • Martin Behaim(1459-1507) and Thomas á Kempis(1380-1471) mysticism {a person alone could talk to God}
  • Gerard Groote: (1340-1384) Dutch preacher created “Bro’s of Common Life” a modern devotion
  • Erasmus(1456-1536): Gradual Reform of the church, nut still be loyal to it
  • Albrecht Dürer(1471-1528) artist(portraits and woodblock prints) also a fucking mathematician
  • Pieter Brueghel the Elder: (1520-1569): focused his painting and prints on ordinary people. Which challenged the whole Renaissance
  • Christopher Marlowe: (1564-1593) dramatist who helped form modern English
  • Edmund Spenser: (1552-1599) poet who helped form modern English
  • Francis Bacon (1564-1616) scientist who also helped form modern English
  • William Shakes-a lot-spear (1564-1616) yall know this dick right? if not, he is a writer
  • Sir Thomas More (1478-1535):  helped with contemporary English(also wrote blueprint for perfect society)

FRANCO

  • Rabelais (1494-1553): attacked French society and church while advocating reform
  • Montaigne (1533-1592) fucking formated the essay, you dick

SPAINO

  • Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) sarersed societys anachronistic glorification of chivalry and medieval institutions in Don Quixote
  • Lope de Vega: wrote hella dramas
  • Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (idk) painted magnificent religious pictures
  • Doménikos El Greco(1541-1614) painted magnificent religious pictures
  • Diego Valázquez(1599-1660): painted magnificent religious pictures
  • Francisco Suárez (idk): wrote hella admired works on philosophy and law

LOW COUNTRIES

  • Jan Van Eyck(1385–1441) Dutch painter
  • Rembrandt van Rijn(1606-1669) Dutch master (chiaroscuro)
  • Hieronymus Bosch (c.1450-1516) dutch painter symbolism, sin, moral failing

thetardiswhoneverwas  asked:

As a person who is starting to explore the SCP Foundation and it's amazing stories, I was wondering what some of your favorite SCPs were

Here’s a list of recs from the Main Branch!

But there’s a ton of good articles on the site, so if you want a second rec list after this one, ask away!

flickr

northumberland-5-130914 by Snowpetrel Photography
Via Flickr:
St Cuthbert’s Chapel on Inner Farne, a single-cell building dating to about 1370 though its stonework shows traces of an earlier building before it. The chapel was restored in the 1840s and now seems to be used as a visitor centre come shelter from the weather. The whole site has a long monastic history: St Cuthbert died on Inner Farne in 687 - on the Farne Islands, Northumberland, 13 September 2014

Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (ca. 1370-1330 BC) was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. She and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped 1 god only, Aten, or the sun disc. They were responsible for the creation of a whole new religion which changed the ways of religion within Egypt. With her husband, she reigned at what was the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history. Some scholars believe that Nefertiti ruled briefly as Neferneferuaten after her husband’s death and before the accession of Tutankhamun, although this identification is a matter of ongoing debate. 

She was made famous by her bust, now in Berlin, Germany’s Neues Museum. It’s one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. It was attributed to the sculptor Thutmose, and it was found in his workshop. The bust is notable for exemplifying the understanding Ancient Egyptians had regarding realistic facial proportions.

2

Once upon a time, there was a dog named Ginger.

Ginger woke up one morning when she was 8 years old, poked her head out of her blankie, then got up and went out and got into her car.

Her foster mom followed her there and asked, “What are you doing out here, Ginger?” (Actually she used her nickname, Gigi.)

Ginger answered, “It’s time I had a home of my own.”

“That’s true,” said her foster mom. “But how… wait! I know! We’ll write to the Shelter Pet Project!”

So she sat down and wrote this letter:

Dear Shelter Pet Project,

I have the best foster dog in the world. Her name is Ginger and she is literally made of pure, true-blue love. Just being in the same room as her is a privilege!

She loves to cuddle, snuggle, ride in the car, go for walks, and play. All the things you want from a dog! She can even live with another calm dog. It’s amazing!

Can you please ask your followers to share her everywhere, and help us find this beautiful dog the home she needs and deserves and longs for?

Sincerely,

Ginger’s Foster Mom

What could we do? Who could resist? Not us… and we hope, not you!

Want to live happily ever after with Ginger “Gigi” the Perfect Dog? Contact the Providence Animal Center at adoptions@providenceac.org or 610-566-1370. They’re located at 555 Sandy Bank Road, Media, Penn., 19063!

The End… or The Beginning?

Azula’s Fire + Amateur Math

How hot is Azula’s fire? Well, blue fire is known to be between 2,600-3,000 F (1430-1650 C). But wait, there’s more!

Since Zuko was ~13 when he was banished, that would make Azula 11 at the time. I’m going to assume the flashbacks of Zuko Alone were a year before banishment, making her 10 there. At the time, her fire was a bright orange, which is around 2,200 F (1,200 C). Assuming Azula’s fire in the show is the hottest a blue flame can be (3000 F), then since she was 10, Azula’s fire grew 800 degrees in Fahrenheit (~430 C). Meaning it increased in temperature by 200 F (93 C) each year. 

If this rate were to continue (which it probably wouldn’t), by the time she turns 50, Azula’s fire would be a thousand degrees hotter than the sun. I don’t think it would get that out of hand, because then she would die if she ever firebended. 

Azula, when confronted with a giant wave thrown at her by Katara, is able to immediately evaporate all of it. She can slice buildings clean through when her aim is precise enough. These were both in the show. But what more? 

I present to you: List of Things Azula Could Melt (easiest to hardest)

  1. My heart
  2. Fire Nation Battleship (Lego form) (ABS lego bricks melt at 221 F/80 C)
  3. The jewelry she’s wearing in the first pic (assuming gold, 1948 F, 1064 C)
  4. This loser (steel=2500 F/1370 C. gold mentioned above) 

       6. anything probably (clarification: anything under 3000 F melting point. Azula cannot melt: osmium, rhenium, tungsten, or carbon. Do not try this at home)