1360s

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قصيدة رياح البين عارض فيها الشاعر السعودي حسن ابو علة قصيدة أحمد شوقي “ سلوا كؤوس الطلا هل لامست فاها ” والقصيدة موجودة ايضاً بالحساب :
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حتّام أخفي الهوى والنفس أَوهاها
هَمٌ إذا ما أَلمّ الليل غشّـاهـــــــــا
لواعجٌ في الحشـا إن بحتهن لَحـا
صَحبي وإن كتمت جاشت حُميّاها
بَكّـي ولا تجزعي من لوم عاذلةٍ
فالبين إن لوّع العشاق بكّـــــاها
هذا معنّاك قد عـــــــزّت مطالبه
وعـزّ من أمنيات الشــوق أدناها
يطارح الشجو يا سلمى مطوّقة
تبث عبر الدجـى بالليل شكــواها
هل تذكريـن وقد مال النهار بنا
كؤوس حـبّ على خـوف شربناها؟
وزورقاً من نسيج الحبّ دفتـــه
وعيشةً في الهوي العذريّ عشناها
عهود وصل كأحلام الصِبا عصفت
بها رياح النوى ما كان أحلاهــــا
إني على العهد يا سلمى وإن عذلوا
فالصبُّ لا يشتهي من ليس يرضاها
الحب إن شَك يُعمي قلب صاحبه
فلا يَرى الحسن فيمن ليس يهواها
وصاحب اللؤم يبدي عند حاجته
مشاعراً ليس في الإحشاء مثواها
كم من صحيح تراهُ وهو ذو عــللٍ
تُصمي إذا ما أصاب القلب عدواها
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#حسن_ابو_علة
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حسن أبو علة شاعر سعودي , اسمه حسن بن علي بن أحمد أبو عامرية , ولد عام 1360 هـ الموافق 1941 في بيش التابعة لمنطقة جازان جنوب المملكة العربية السعودية , التحق بكلية الآداب جامعة الملك سعودبالرياض وتخرج من قسم اللغة العربية عام 1389 هـ , ثم حصل على دبلوم في التربية وعلم النفس عام 1392 هـ , عمل مدرسا بالتعليم الابتدائي والمتوسط والثانوي , نشرت قصائده في العديد من الصحف أهمها جريدة الندوة .
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PLEASE HELP- I'm scared and Utah law is ruining our lives.

Hey everyone, I started a fundraising campaign for Utah Out-Of-State Entrapment Suit. Please tap to donate- gf.me/u/stkwu

Here’s the whole story if anyone is interested. we would owe you our lives if you can help us out anything works even 5 cents goes a long way. On top of the charges which can cost up to 3,000 we also have to pay for a lawyer which is another 3,000. I’m only 19 and have no family in Colorado to help me. If you are out there, please find it in your heart to share this post or donate. Thank you so much !

On June 6th, 2017, around 4:00AM (MDT), Jake (passenger) and Olivia (driver) passed a Sheriff’s vehicle at the Silver Reef RD and I-15 junction on our route along California to Colorado. The Sheriff’s vehicle head lights were already on, and, shortly there-after, began to follow our vehicle without pulling us over. We were followed on I-15 for around 8 full minutes before the officer decided to turn on his lights and pull us over.

After pulling off, the officer then came to the passenger side window, and abruptly started treating Jake as if he was conceling multiple weapons under the jacket by his legs. While yelling inaudibly, the officer demanded he lift various clothing items up for him, while he used one hand to hold a flashlight, and another to assist himself with this search.

After deciding Jake had nothing but clothes on, or near his person, the officer stated the reason he pulled us over was due to a failure to signal while changing lanes back at the previous junction (where we originally encountered his vehicle sitting in the median). Acknowledging what the officer had stated, we correctly reply that we’d not changed lanes since long before we passed him, orignally. The officer furthered himself by stating that, even though, we had not changed lanes, we were required to indicate, with our singals, to people merging from Silver Reef RD, that we were not changing lanes. The officer was unable to clarify any questions on how that is physically possible–to stay in the same lane, but use blinkers to indicate that we are staying in the same lane that we currently were already within. We did not pass over any dotted lines.

The officer then proceeded to ask us a couple of questions that somehow lead him to see the inside of Jake’s mouth, where he lost all sense of tact upon believing he had “a green tongue from recently smoking marijuana”. He proceeded to question where we were traveling from/to, in which we responded from Burbank, California to Colorado Springs, Colorado. He went silent for a moment, and quipped that the plates were registered in Ohio… looked at us for a moment, and then stated he could smell traces of marijuana coming from the vehicle.

Immediately upon this revelation, he shouted at us to exit the vehicle as he called for backup. Jake’s statement- I did not witness his first physical interactions with Olivia on the driver’s side of the vehicle. He then came over to me, and shouted for me to stand over 5 feet in front of the car at 4am in the desert. The officer then came over, frisked me, and had me stand in the freezing wind in little more than shorts and t-shirt… all the while, the officer shouted how he had sufficient probable cause to search the vehicle without permission. The officer had a K9, however, it stayed in the officer’s vehicle for the entire stop. The officer did not ask if he had permission to search the vehicle, at any point, and never was permission granted for him to enter our vehicle.

As backup arrived, the original officer proceeded to toss everything out of the vehicle on to the pavement, both behind and on the passenger side of the vehicle. It was easy to hear, from the other side of the vehicle, that the longboards from the car were launched straight into the ground, as was evident afterwards when damage was found on multiple items, including the car’s interior & exterior, the longboards, as well as some memorabilia picked up along our travels. While checking both the inside and outside of the vehicle, the officer tried to break off every compartment our vehicle had. While checking the front end of the vehicle, digging his hands around under the hood, pulling on anything in sight, the car has since made engine noise not previously heard throughout our cross-country trip. While checking the front bumper, he noticed it was cracked near the passenger tire, to which he pulled on, and dug his hands in to, til a distinct cracking sound from the bumper caused him to stop pulling. While on the inside of the vehicle, he yanked on everything trying to get the pieces of the car to come off where they should not. Multiple parts of the interior are now loose, some of which now wiggle freely. The officer also unwrapped a glass pipe that had been purchased in California, still in its original multi-layer wrapping from the glass store it was purchased from–it was a gift for a Colorado friend. Even though it was obvious the pipe had never been used before, I was told we would not be getting it back, along with less than 0.008 pounds of pot (yes, thousandths of a pound, a fraction of 1.0%), and another pipe that had been secured in the glove compartment during our travel back home.

After concluding the hour-long unauthorized search, the cop demanded I clean up the mess stating “so we can get out of here as soon as possible” as he puts Olivia into his cop car. Roughly 15 minutes later, Olivia got out of the cop’s vehicle, and I was called over. The officer asks me if I know my rights, to which I reply kind of, and the officer furthers by saying “like you see on tv. You can deny to answer my questions, and you can have a lawyer” and proceeds to bagger me on why I wasn’t forthcomming about having a green tongue, and why I would lie about smoking when the proof is, apparently, right on my tongue. When asked if I was under arrest, the officer stated “you are and are not under arrest, tonight”.

In summary of my perspective, Olivia and I were legally driving down the road, a cop started following us closely waiting for a mistake, never got a decent enough reason, so he made up a false reason to pull us over, used bad science, such as, “your tongue is green” as probable cause to search our vehicle without consent, ignored any approved drug testings, damaged our property from car interior to exterior, and our possessions, stole an item that, to the best of my knowledge and research, is legal for me to carry in any US State, let alone, every country in the known world, and then the officer got lucky finding a tiny bit of pot while concluding his illegal search from the illegal pull-over.

Worth noting- Olivia and I were pulled over in the same car, at the same time, for the same reason, and only once. She was ticketed first, myself second. Same fines, in both cases, of 1360$ each. Our citations, however, differ massively. According the cop, we were pulled over in largly differing junctions, mile markers, and times (mine states I was ticketed a while before she was, even though they printed Olivia’s ticket a good 15 minutes earlier). From the knowledge of a local cop in my area, this type of illegal cop activity is to create the appearance of 2 seperate pull-overs to inflate a cop’s ticketing quota; the cop was able to make 3.5 grams of marijuana look like it was in two different places at two different times with two different people.“

bela-lugosis-corpse  asked:

I've been thinking about this for a while, but how effective is full plate armour? Was it actually a good way to defend yourself?

Short Answer: Yes. 

Here’s a general rule: People in the past were ignorant about a lot of things, but they weren’t stupid. If they used something, chances are they had a good reason. There are exceptions, but plate armor is not one of them. 

Long Answer: 

For a type of armor, no matter what it is, to be considered effective, it has to meet three criteria. 

The three criteria are: Economic Efficiency, Protectiveness, and Mobility.

1. Is it Economically Efficient? 

Because of the nature of society in the Middle Ages, what with equipment being largely bring-it-yourself when it came to anybody besides arrowfodder infantry who’d been given one week of training, economic efficiency was a problem for the first couple of decades after plate armor was introduced in France in the 1360s. It wasn’t easy to make, and there wasn’t really a ‘science’ to it yet, so only the wealthiest of French soldiers, meaning knights and above, had it; unless of course somebody stole it off a dead French noble. The Hundred Years War was in full swing at the time, and the French were losing badly to the English and their powerful longbows, so there were plenty of dead French nobles and knights to go around. That plate armor was not very economically efficient for you unless you were a rich man, though, it also was not exactly what we would call “full” plate armor. 

Above: Early plate armor, like that used by knights and above during the later 1300s and early 1400s. 

Above: Two examples of what most people mean when they say “full” plate armor, which would have been seen in the mid to late 1400s and early 1500s.

Disclaimer: These are just examples. No two suits of armor were the same because they weren’t mass-produced, and there was not really a year when everybody decided to all switch to the next evolution of plate armor. In fact it would not be improbably to see all three of these suits on the same battlefield, as expensive armor was often passed down from father to son and used for many decades. 

Just like any new technology, however, as production methods improved, the product got cheaper. 

Above: The Battle of Barnet, 1471, in which everybody had plate armor because it’s affordable by then. 

So if we’re talking about the mid to late 1400s, which is when our modern image of the “knight in shining armor” sort of comes from, then yes, “full” plate armor is economically efficient. It still wasn’t cheap, but neither are modern day cars, and yet they’re everywhere. Also similar to cars, plate armor is durable enough to be passed down in families for generations, and after the Hundred Years War ended in 1453, there was a lot of used military equipment on sale for cheap. 

2. Is it Protective? 

This is a hard question to answer, particularly because no armor is perfect, and as soon as a new, seemingly ‘perfect’ type of armor appears, weapons and techniques adapt to kill the wearer anyway, and the other way around. Early plate armor was invented as a response to the extreme armor-piercing ability of the English longbow, the armor-piercing ability of a new kind of crossbow, and advancements in arrowhead technology. 

Above: The old kind of arrowhead, ineffective against most armor. 

Above: The new kind of arrowhead, very effective at piercing chainmaille and able to pierce plate armor if launched with enough power. 

Above: An arrow shot from a “short” bow with the armor-piercing tip(I think it’s called a bodkin tip) piercing a shirt of chainmaille. However, the target likely would have survived since soldiers wore protective layers of padding underneath their armor, so if the arrow penetrated skin at all, it wasn’t deep. That’s Terry Jones in the background. 

Above: A crossbow bolt with the armor piercing tip penetrating deep through the same shirt of chainmaille. The target would likely not survive. 

Above: A crossbow bolt from the same crossbow glancing off a breastplate, demonstrating that it was in fact an improvement over wearing just chainmaille. 

Unfortunately it didn’t help at all against the powerful English longbows at close range, but credit to the French for trying. It did at least help against weaker bows. 

Now for melee weapons. 

It didn’t take long for weapons to evolve to fight this new armor, but rarely was it by way of piercing through it. It was really more so that the same weapons were now being used in new ways to get around the armor. 

Above: It’s a popular myth that Medieval swords were dull, but they still couldn’t cut through plate armor, nor could they thrust through it. Your weapon would break before the armor would. Most straight swords could, however, thrust through chainmaille and anything weaker. 

There were three general answers to this problem: 

1. Be more precise, and thrust through the weak points. 

Above: The weak points of a suit of armor. Most of these points would have been covered by chainmaille, leather, thick cloth, or all three, but a sword can thrust through all three so it doesn’t matter. 

To achieve the kind of thrusting accuracy needed to penetrate these small gaps, knights would often grip the blade of their sword with one hand and keep the other hand on the grip. This technique was called “half-swording”, and you could lose a finger if you don’t do it right, so don’t try it at home unless you have a thick leather glove to protect you, as most knights did, but it can also be done bare-handed. 

Above: Examples of half-swording. 

2. Just hit the armor so fucking hard that the force carries through and potentially breaks bones underneath. 

Specialty weapons were made for this, but we’ll get to them in a minute. For now I’m still focusing on swords because I like how versatile the European longsword is. 

Above: A longsword. They’re made for two-handed use, but they’re light enough to be used effectively in one hand if you’d like to have a shield or your other arm has been injured. Longswords are typically about 75% of the height of their wielders.

Assuming you’re holding the sword pointing towards the sky, the part just above the grip is called the crossguard, and the part just below the grip is called the pommel. If you hold the sword upside-down by the blade, using the same careful gripping techniques as with half-swording, you can strike with either the crossguard or the pommel, effectively turning the sword into a warhammer. This technique was called the Murder Stroke, and direct hits could easily dent plate armor, and leave the man inside bruised, concussed, or with a broken bone. 

Above: The Murder Stroke as seen in a Medieval swordfighting manual.

Regular maces, hammers, and other blunt weapons were equally effective if you could get a hard enough hit in without leaving yourself open, but they all suffered from part of the plate armor’s intelligent design. Nearly every part of it was smooth and/or rounded, meaning that it’s very easy for blows to ‘slide’ off, which wastes a lot of their power. This makes it very hard to get a ‘direct’ hit. 

Here come the specialized weapons to save the day. 

Above: A lucerne, or claw hammer. It’s just one of the specialized weapons, but it encompasses all their shared traits so I’m going to only list it. 

These could be one-handed, two-handed, or long polearms, but the general idea was the same. Either crack bones beneath armor with the left part, or penetrate plate armor with the right part. The left part has four ‘prongs’ so that it can ‘grip’ smooth plate armor and keep its force when it hits without glancing off. On the right side it as a super sturdy ‘pick’, which is about the only thing that can penetrate the plate armor itself. On top it has a sharp tip that’s useful for fighting more lightly armored opponents. 

3. Force them to the ground and stab them through the visor with a dagger. 

This one is pretty self-explanatory. Many conflicts between two armored knights would turn into a wrestling match. Whoever could get the other on the ground had a huge advantage, and could finish his opponent, or force him to surrender, with a dagger. 

By now you might be thinking “Dang, full plate armor has a lot of weaknesses, so how can it be called good armor?” 

The answer is because, like all armor is supposed to do, it minimizes your target area. If armor is such that your enemy either needs to risk cutting their fingers to target extremely small weak points, bring a specialized weapons designed specifically for your armor, or wrestle you to the ground to defeat you, that’s some damn good armor. So yes, it will protect you pretty well.

Above: The red areas represent the weak points of a man not wearing armor.

Also, before I move on to Mobility, I’m going to talk briefly about a pet-peeve of mine: Boob-plates. 

If you’re writing a fantasy book, movie, or video game, and you want it to be realistically themed, don’t give the women boob-shaped armor. It wasn’t done historically even in the few cases when women wore plate armor, and that’s because it isn’t as protective as a smooth, rounded breastplate like you see men wearing. A hit with any weapon between the two ‘boobs’ will hit with its full force rather than glancing off, and that’ll hurt. If you’re not going for a realistic feel, then do whatever you want. Just my advice. 

Above: Joan of Arc, wearing properly protective armor. 

An exception to this is in ancient times. Female gladiators sometimes wore boob-shaped armor because that was for entertainment and nobody cared if they lived or died. Same with male gladiators. There was also armor shaped like male chests in ancient times, but because men are more flat-chested than women, this caused less of a problem. Smooth, rounded breastplates are still superior, though. 

3. Does it allow the wearer to keep his or her freedom of movement? 

Okay, I’ve been writing this for like four hours, so thankfully this is the simplest question to answer. There’s a modern myth that plate armor weighed like 700 lbs, and that knights could barely move in it at all, but that isn’t true. On a suit of plate armor from the mid to late 1400s or early 1500s, all the joints are hinged in such a way that they don’t impede your movement very much at all. 

The whole suit, including every individual plate, the chainmaille underneath the plates, the thick cloth or leather underneath the chainmaille, and your clothes and underwear all together usually weighed about 45-55 lbs, and because the weight was distributed evenly across your whole body, you’d hardly feel the weight at all. Much heavier suits of armor that did effectively ‘lock’ the wearer in place did exist, but they never saw battlefield use. Instead, they were for showing off at parades and for jousting. Jousting armor was always heavier, thicker, and more stiffly jointed than battlefield armor because the knight only needed to move certain parts of his body, plus being thrown off a horse by a lance–even a wooden one that’s not meant to kill–has a very, very high risk of injury.

Here’s a bunch of .gifs of a guy demonstrating that you can move pretty freely in plate armor. 

Above: Can you move in it? Yes.


Here are links to the videos that I made these .gifs from: 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vi757-7XD94

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NhWFQtzM4r0

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5hlIUrd7d1Q

Bellamy Blake imagine: Oblivious

Requested by anonymous

Summary: Everyone in the camp teases reader about Bellamy being in love with her, but she doesn’t believe it. There’s a party in the camp and drunk Bellamy tells her he loves her, but she thinks he isn’t serious. However, next day he makes it clear, he meant it.

Word count: 1360


Originally posted by forbellamy

“He’s looking at you,” I rolled my eyes at Octavia, who had her face covered with smirk. 

I automatically turned around to see Bellamy looking our way. However, once he realized I was looking at him, he turned his gaze away. 

Keep reading

NGC 1360

NGC 1360, also known as the Robin’s Egg Nebula, is a planetary nebula in the constellation of Fornax. It was identified as a planetary nebula due to its strong radiation in the OIII (oxygen) bands. Reddish matter, believed to have been ejected from the original star before its final collapse, is visible in images.

Credit: Adam Block

$680 For International Rescue

Here’s an update! The grand total for the International Rescue Captain America Fundraiser was 35 donations received for a total of $680. (Paypal took a fee, which I did not expect and will correct for next time, but my book royalties from last month will cover the fee.) 

This means the International Rescue Committee will get $1360. Over a grand from fandom. 

Fuck’s sake, kids, you all came through. A few of you may find your fics are a bit longer than 100 words. :D But thank you to each and every single person who reblogged and/or gave at any amount, you are all awesome. Good work will be done because of you. 

I’m hoping to get a start on the fics tonight, but if I don’t manage to work my way through them before Friday, I’m on General Strike on Friday so I’ll be writing them then. I’m building a spreadsheet so I’ll be in touch if there’s anyone who gave but didn’t send an ask, but I think I got asks from every donor. Thanks everyone :)

Axl getting jealous

Pairing: Axl Rose x reader
Words: 1360

ANON:
Ohhhh what about a Jealous old man Axl,like a young fuckboy hits on ya,so you’re all uncomfortable,and Axl goes wild ? I feel like that’d be pretty accurate

A/N: I hope you like this, anon! The next shorter fic i’ll do is the Duff one.

Originally posted by rosewhiteroseredx

I was at the bar with my friend Sarah. She had always loved to party and get drunk, which happened very easily. I wasn’t really the same so i’d most likely just have to be her driver again so she’d get back home safely.

The music was very loud and it wasn’t even good at all, some modern 2010s stuff anyway, i couldn’t even name the band neither the song. I was walking in the crowd, but suddenly i ran into some man with a cowboy hat on his head and a red checked shirt on his waist. I looked at his face and saw a familiar smile when he looked back at me and understood who i am.

”Y/N?” the man said surprised.

”Axl? Is that you?” i asked with wide eyes. I hadn’t seen him in about one and a half years probably. We went to a few dates and had so much fun, but didn’t really become official yet. I smiled and hugged him tightly and he put his arms around me as well.

”I just came back here yesterday. I was meant to call you but apparently i found you faster than i thought,” he laughed and i laughed a bit as well.

”Well, i’m really glad you found me,” i chuckled and smiled at him.

”Yeah, me too,” he said and for a while we were completely quiet, just looking at each other’s eyes until soon he shook his head and cleared his throat. ”So, are you here alone or with someone?” he asked carefully.

”I came with my friend, but she disappeared somewhere, i have no idea where,” i answered and tried to look around me but couldn’t recognize her from the crowd.

”Oh okay well, in that case, could i possibly buy this beautiful lady a drink?” he asked smiling.

I just nodded and smiled widely back. ”Yeah, i think you could,” i chuckled.

”I’ll be right back,” he said, patted on my shoulder and disappeared for a while and i was left there standing alone, i saw him talking with the bartender and ordering our drinks.

But soon i felt a hand on my shoulder which made me immediately turn around. I saw a young man staring at me. He was probably the same age as me, maybe a few years older, tall as hell. He was wearing sunglasses, i had no idea how he saw anything at all with them on in here. He had a creepy smile on his lips, which already made me anxious.

”Damn, you’re probably the hottest chick here today,” he said with a low voice and came closer. He smelled like alcohol and cigarettes, he wasn’t sober at all. I tried to turn around and just ignore him but he stopped me from going away.

”No, uhm sorry, i have a boyfriend,” i said, which was technically a lie though, when i focused my gaze on him again.


He pushed me against a table and just laughed. ”Oh please, don’t make me laugh. That’s what everyone say,” he chuckled. “I’d gladly like to get to know you better,” he continued and i tried to push him away, but soon he fell on the floor super hard and loud.

I didn’t even realize properly what happened but soon i saw Axl punching the man on the face, breaking his nose and there was blood everywhere. Everybody had come to watch but didn’t do anything.

”You can’t fuckin touch her like that so back off!” Axl screamed at him and kept punching, ruining his face completely but soon a guy with blond hair came to get Axl off of the man on the floor. I looked at what happened a shocked expression on my face, it was all my fault. The stranger, with his nose broken and everything, was now laying on the floor unconscious.

”Hey, hey fuckin calm down, man! Otherwise the police is probably coming soon!” the man yelled at him, i recognized him to be Duff McKagan, the bassist of Guns N’ Roses. Duff tried his best to calm Axl down. Axl was breathing really heavily, trying to calm down. ”Are you okay now? Can i go back to the others without being afraid of you accidentally killing someone?”

”Yeah, i’m fine. Just go,” Axl muttered, waving his hand and holding the bridge of his nose with his fingers. He looked at me and walked back next to me. He was about to say something but somebody interrupted us.

”What the fuck, man?” the same guy yelled and touched his broken nose when his friends helped him to stand again. He winced because of the pain and then gave Axl a murderous look again.

Nobody touches my woman,” Axl yelled at him and put his arm around my shoulder, taking me closer to him, trying his best not to attack on him again.

The guy looked at us for a moment, first me, then Axl and back to me, but then bursted out laughing. ”Your woman? And i thought i was messing with her dad now,” he said still laughing and shaking his head, but then held his side with his arm and coughed a few times, his friends helping him out of there. They didn’t even dare to look at Axl for more than one second.

When they had disappeared from our sight, i looked at Axl, amused smile on my face and raised one of my eyebrows. ”Your woman, huh?” i answered and chuckled.

He focused his gaze on me for a while, but then quickly took his arm off of me. ”I-i mean only if you want to,” he corrected quickly.

”Well, you haven’t really directly asked me to be your woman,” i said teasing and he just sighed.

”Well, Y/N  Y/L/N, would you maybe, by any chance, become my girlfrie–” Axl started, but i interrupted him by cupping his face with my hands and pressing my lips on his.

First he was quite surprised but soon put his hands on my waist, keeping me close to him. We broke the kiss and looked at each other’s eyes.

”I think that’s a yes?” he chuckled and i nodded multiple times.

”Yes, silly, of course it is,” i answered and pecked his lips again. Axl was gonna say something to this but then Duff came back and stood next to us, looking at me.

”Heey, is this the lucky girl Axl kept talking all the time we were on tour?” Duff asked chuckling and offered his hand to me and we shook hands together. ”Nice to meet you, i’m Duff. Slash is somewhere here, probably vomitting in the bathroom again. It’s the second time already tonight and i ain’t going back to hold his hair anymore,” Duff groaned.

I chuckled. ”Hi, nice to meet you too, i’m Y/N,” i said smiling. Then Duff’s phone started to ring in his pocket and he answered it.

”He’s doing what?” Duff asked, shocked even. ”For fuck’s sake, he’s a grown ass man, i’m not any fuckin babysitter. He’s your problem now!” he yelled and ended the call and then started to walk away from us.

Me and Axl both just laughed. ”Does this happen often?” i asked and tried to control myself.

”Nah, Slash’s girlfriend broke up with him a while ago and he’s been pretty upset, he’s used to take things a bit extreme sometimes,” Axl chuckled and looked back at me. ”So, you wanna go to my place or stay at this shithole?”

”Oh yes thank god, let’s leave, i think someone is peeing in the corner of the room,” i said, a disgusted look on my face and grabbed Axl’s hand, pulling him fast out of the bar. When we were back on the streets, Axl put a hand around my waist.

”So, i have a new king size bed in my room, what do you think?”

Taxi!” i yelled immediately and got quickly into the car with Axl, told the driver to drive as fast as he could.

That Photo Stays Between You and Me

Alexander x Reader
Word Count: 1360
A/N: I’ve been procrastinating for the past few days and was able to spit out some short little imagines, and here’s one of the them; also, why do I write about photographers so frequently

“What was your promise to me, Alexander?” You asked accusingly, raising your eyebrows in annoyance.

He sighed, but didn’t move his eyes from the papers scattered all around himself. “At least six hours every night.”

You nodded your head, “And you’ve been working all day, Alex, let’s just go to bed,” you suggested softly. You walked over to him from the doorframe, and let your cheek rest on his head, your hands rising gently on both of his shoulders. “I’ll play with your hair while you fall asleep,” you offered, running your hands over his shoulders soothingly. “Does that sound nice?”

Alexander nodded his head, but sighed, “I guess,” he said quietly, scooting his chair back, slightly.

You grinned and took his hand, leading him away from his desk, his work, and all of his stress. “If you fall asleep soon, you can still be up bright and early,” you said, pulling the duvet back for him to crawl into. Once he did, you pulled it back up to cover him.

Alex nodded as you began changing into your pyjamas, “Do you have to work tomorrow, too?” He asked, turning to lay on his back so he could look at you.

You nodded your head; “Yeah. Marie asked me to take engagement pictures for her and Lafayette. I’ll be gone for most of the day.”

He nodded his head in understanding; “But we’re taking the weekend off?” He asked, his voice quiet with his sleepiness.

You nodded your head as you crawled into bed beside your boyfriend, “Mhm,” you replied, reaching out to play with Alexander’s hair.

He closed his eyes and cuddled into you, “Okay,” he muttered, “I’ll try to get all of my work down tomorrow then.”

You grinned and leaned down, giving him a small kiss on the top of his head; “Alright,” you whispered, “Don’t work yourself into the ground, though, okay?”

He nodded his head so softly that if he wasn’t leaning against you, and you couldn’t feel it, you wouldn’t have realized he had done it at all.

***

The next morning, you woke up to an empty bed, as usual. Sighing, you flung off the covers and made your way into the bathroom, passing Alexander’s office on the way.

“Morning,” you grinned as you passed on by.

“Morning, Love,” Alex replied hurriedly, clearly not having any time for affection this morning.

You shook your head.

After readying yourself, and collecting all of your camera equipment, your final task for the morning was to make sure that both you and Alex had something to eat. You flung some porridge on the stove and prepared a variety of fruit to throw in it, and made two cups of coffee.

Once you were done, nearly fifteen minutes later, you took your breakfasts into his office. “Hungry?” You asked, sitting his porridge on his desk, along with his mug of black coffee.

Alexander nodded his head, scooping some of his meal into his mouth, before getting straight back into business. “Thanks,” he said through a mouthful of berries, “You’re the best.”

You grinned, and ate your breakfast; even though he wasn’t being very social with you, you understood that it was only temporary. After today, you’d have him to yourself all weekend. You couldn’t really remember a time when he wasn’t working 24/7, and you had your doubts that he would last the full three days work-free. Nevertheless, you were both hopeful and excited.

Once you had finished your meal, you noticed that Alexander wasn’t even halfway done his. You couldn’t help but just shake your head; “I’ve gotta get going,” you said with a pout, “But I’ll be home late this afternoon… You’ll still be here, won’t you?” You asked, cocking your head to the side as you leaned on his office door.

He nodded his head; “I’ll be here,” he said, giving you a quick smile, “Have fun.”

You grinned back at him, “Will do… And make sure you eat today, alright?” You said, raising your eyebrows.

“Of course, babe,” he said, smiling, “I’ll see you later.”

***

“I think they’ll really turn out,” you assured Lafayette as you made you way up the staircase.

“No, you looked great,” you laughed, shaking you head, “And she looked beautiful; you guys looked amazing, I promise,” you grinned, fiddling with the lens of the camera hanging around your neck. “I’ll have them back to you in a couple of weeks—don’t be nervous, Laf, it was a great shoot,” you repeated yourself, for what felt like, the millionth time.

You understood his anxiety well enough, you just wished there was a way for you to calm him down. “You’ll love them Lafayette, and I’m sure Marie will, too.”

You were approaching Alexander’s office, and decided to peek in quickly. What you seen is exactly what you had expected, but you were shocked as if it wasn’t. “Laf, I’ll have to call you back. Don’t worry about anything, you’ll have the pictures in two weeks,” you said quickly before hanging up the phone.

Alexander looked up at you, his hair completely out of his usual ponytail, and sticking up on its own, due to how frequently he ran his hands through it. His eyes were the usual amount of tired, but what was new was the extra amounts of panic and stress. Without thinking, you lifted your camera up and snapped a picture really quick.

“Babe!” Alexander exclaimed in protest.

“Sorry,“ you apologized quickly, before taking the camera off from around your neck and laying it down on his desk, along with a million papers and pens, and highlighters. And his half eaten porridge from this morning.

“Hey,” you said, eyeing the bowl, “You promised me you would eat today,” you commented, taking out his hair tie gently, and beginning to run your fingers gently through his hair.

“No,” he sighed, “I only said I would; I didn’t promise, because I knew I wasn’t going to keep it.”

“Alexander,” you sighed, retying his hair, “How you’ve managed to survive this long is beyond me.”

He sighed once again; “I’m just trying to finish everything up. Give me a few more hours and I’ll be done… I promise,” he said, raising his eyebrows slightly. He looked at you, and you looked right back at him, trying to decipher if he really meant it or not.

“I promise,” he repeated himself, “And right when I’m done, we can eat dinner together. That’d be nice, wouldn’t it?” He asked hopefully.

You nodded you head, sighing, “Okay,” you said, “Three hours?”

“Three hours.”

***

It wasn’t three hours, but it was four, and that was good enough for you. “Pizza’s on the way,” you grinned, as your zombie-boyfriend made his way downstairs.

“Good,” he sighed, flopping down on the couch, immediately leaning against you, “I’m starving…”

You raised your eyebrows as you began flicking through the photos from your shoot on your laptop, “You wouldn’t be,” you began, “If you took care of yourself throughout the day.”

“Hey,” Alexander said, defensively, “I take care of myself just fine—I’m still here, aren’t I?”

You couldn’t help but roll your eyes, “Barely—hey look, that’s you,” you giggled as you came across the picture you had taken of him, his hair amok, eyes tired.

He groaned immediately, “Y/N,” he bellyached, “Delete that right now.”

You chuckled, shaking your head, “No way!” You exclaimed, “This is my favourite photo of you… Look at you, you’re adorable!”

“I look like I’m on the brink of death!” Alexander protested, leaning his head on your shoulder, “I hate it.”

“I love it!” You exclaimed, “Genuinely; I think you’re adorable. Hands down the cutest boy I’ve ever met,” you smiled, beginning to edit the picture. A little bit more exposed, a tad bit sharper, a little bit cropped… “I think I just took your next profile picture. For everything,” you said, looking down at him seriously. “It’s a very accurate representation.”

He looked up at you, equally as seriously; “That photo stays between you and me, Y/L/N.”

You smirked, saving the photo, “Whatever you say, Hamilton.”

6

There were many other Kingdoms in Africa, not just the Kingdom of Egypt, that are worthy of praise and honour. Indeed, Egypt played a great role in civilization, but it was only one of many on the continent.  Below are few of the many greats:

While Europe was experiencing its Dark Ages, a period of intellectual, cultural and economic regression from the sixth to the 13th centuries, Africans were experiencing an almost continent-wide renaissance after the decline of the Nile Valley civilizations of Egypt and Nubia.

The leading civilizations of this African rebirth were the Axum Empire, the Kingdom of Ghana, the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire, the Ethiopian Empire, the Mossi Kingdoms and the Benin Empire.

Axum Empire

The Aksum or Axum Empire was an important military power and trading nation in the area that is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, existing from approximately 100 to 940 A.D.

At its height, it was one of only four major international superpowers of its day along with Persia, Rome and China. Axum controlled northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, northern Sudan, southern Egypt, Djibouti, Western Yemen, and southern Saudi Arabia, totaling 1.25 million square kilometers, almost half the size of India. Axum traded and projected its influence as far as China and India, where coins minted in Axum were discovered in 1990.

Axum was previously thought to have been founded by Semitic-speaking Sabaeans who crossed the Red Sea from South Arabia (modern Yemen) on the basis of Conti Rossini’s theories —but most scholars now agree that when it was founded it was an indigenous African development.

Kingdom of Ghana

Centered in what is today Senegal and Mauritania, the Kingdom of Ghana dominated West Africa between about 750 and 1078 A.D. Famous to North Africans as the “Land of Gold,” Ghana was said to possess sophisticated methods of administration and taxation, large armies, and a monopoly over notoriously well-concealed gold mines.

The king of the Soninke people who founded Ghana never fully embraced Islam, but good relations with Muslim traders were fostered. Ancient Ghana derived power and wealth from gold and the use of the camel increased the quantity of goods that were transported. One Arab writer, Al-Hamdani, describes Ghana as having the richest gold mines on Earth. Ghana was also a great military power. According to one narrative, the king had at his command 200,000 warriors and an additional 40,000 archers.

Mali Empire

After the fall of the Kingdom of Ghana, the Mali Empire rose to dominate West Africa. Located on the Niger River to the west of Ghana in what is today Niger and Mali, the empire reached its peak in the 1350s.

The Mali Empire was founded by Mansa (King) Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa. He was the grandson of Sundiata’s half-brother, and led Mali at a time of great prosperity, during which trade tripled. During his rule, Mansa Musa doubled the land area of Mali; it became a larger kingdom than any in Europe at the time.

The cities of Mali became important trading centers for all of West Africa, as well as famous centers of wealth, culture and learning. Timbuktu, an important city in Mali, became one of the major cultural centers not only of Africa but of the entire world. Vast libraries and Islamic universities were built. These became meeting places of the finest poets, scholars and artists of Africa and the Middle East.

The Kingdom of Mali had a semi-democratic government with one of the world’s oldest known constitutions – The Kurukan Fuga.

The Kurukan Fuga of the Mali Empire was created after 1235 by an assembly of nobles to create a government for the newly established empire.  The Kurukan Fouga divided the new empire into ruling clans that were represented at a great assembly called the Gbara. The Gbara was the deliberative body of the Mali Empire and was made up of 32 members from around 29 clans. They were given a voice in the government and were a check against the emperor’s (mansa’s) power. It was presided over by a belen-tigui (master of ceremonies) who recognized anyone who wanted to speak including the mansa. The Gbara and the Kurukan Fuga remained in place for over 40o years until 1645.

According to Wikipedia, Disney’s “Lion King” movie was based on the real life narrative of Mansa Sundiata Keita.

Songhai Empire

The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire, was the largest state in African history and the most powerful of the medieval west African states. It expanded rapidly beginning with King Sonni Ali in the 1460s and by 1500s, it had risen to stretch from Cameroon to the Maghreb. In 1360, disputes over succession weakened the Mali Empire, and in the 1430s, Songhai, previously a Mali dependency, gained independence under the Sonni Dynasty. Around thirty years later, Sonni Sulayman Dama attacked Mema, the Mali province west of Timbuktu, paving the way for his successor, Sonni Ali, to turn his country into one of the greatest empires sub-Saharan Africa has ever seen.

Perhaps, it’s most popular leader was Muhammad Askia the Great. At its peak, the Songhai city of Timbuktu became a thriving cultural and commercial center. Arab, Italian and Jewish merchants all gathered for trade. By 1500, the Songhai Empire covered over 1.4 million square kilometers.

The Ethiopian Empire

The Ethiopian Empire also known as Abyssinia, covered a geographical area that the present-day northern half of Ethiopia covers. It existed from approximately 1137 (beginning of Zagwe Dynasty) until 1975 when the monarchy was overthrown in a coup d’état.  In 1270, the Zagwe dynasty was overthrown by a king claiming lineage from the Aksumite emperors and, hence, Solomon. The thus-named Solomonic Dynasty was founded and ruled by the Habesha, from whom Abyssinia gets its name.

The Habesha reigned with only a few interruptions from 1270 until the late 20th century. It was under this dynasty that most of Ethiopia’s modern history occurred. During this time, the empire conquered and incorporated virtually all the peoples within modern Ethiopia. They successfully fought off Italian, Arab and Turkish armies and made fruitful contacts with some European powers, especially the Portuguese, with whom they allied in battle against the latter two invaders.

Mossi Kingdoms

The Mossi Kingdoms were a number of different powerful kingdoms in modern-day Burkina Faso which dominated the region of the Upper Volta River for hundreds of years. Increasing power of the Mossi kingdoms resulted in larger conflicts with regional powers. The Kingdom of Yatenga became a key power attacking the Songhai Empire between 1328 and 1477, taking over Timbuktu and sacked the important trading post of Macina.

When Askia Mohammad I became the leader of the Songhai Empire with the desire to spread Islam, he waged a Holy war against the Mossi kingdoms in 1497. Although the Mossi forces were defeated in this effort, they resisted attempts to impose Islam. Although there were a number of jihad states in the region trying to forcibly spread Islam, namely the Massina Empire and the Sokoto Caliphate, the Mossi kingdoms largely retained their traditional religious and ritual practices. Being located near many of the main Islamic states of West Africa, the Mossi kingdoms developed a mixed religious system recognizing some authority for Islam while retaining earlier African spiritual belief systems.

Benin Empire

Once a powerful city-state, Benin exists today as a modern African city in what is now south-central Nigeria. The present-day oba (King) of Benin traces the founding of his dynasty to A.D. 1300. The Benin Empire was a pre-colonial Edo state. Until the late 19th century, it was one of the major powers in West Africa. According to one eye witness report written by Olfert Dapper, “The King of Benin can in a single day make 20,000 men ready for war, and, if need be, 180,000, and because of this he has great influence among all the surrounding peoples… . His authority stretches over many cities, towns and villages. There is no King thereabouts who, in the possession of so many beautiful cities and towns, is his equal.”

When European merchant ships began to visit West Africa from the 15th century onwards, Benin came to control the trade between the inland peoples and the Europeans on the coast. When the British tried to expand their own trade in the 19th century, the Benin warriors killed their envoys.

Source: http://atlantablackstar.com/2013/12/05/7-midieval-african-kingdoms/4/