11th century bc

The List of SFD Historical Info


The origin of “Six flying dragons”

Six Flying Dragons Timeline

Kings of Goryeo in pre-SFD

  • Wang Geon, the founder of Goryeo Dynasty 고려 태조 왕건 高麗太祖 王建 (877~943 / reign : 918~943)
  • The age of Warriors 무신정권 武臣政權 (1170~1270)
  • The Mongol invasions of Korea 여몽 전쟁 (1231~1259)
  • King Gongmin 공민왕 恭愍王 (1330~1374 / reign : 1351~1374)

Episode 01

  • General Yi Seong-Gye’s family history
  • Jo So-Saeng is not his sworn brother
  • The political situation in 1375

Episode 02

  • Jung Do-Jeon’s song “Mu-Yi-Yi-Ya (무이이야 無以異也)” Lyrics
  • The Work of Mencius 맹자
  • Jung Do-Jeon’s exile (1375)

Episode 03

  • King Gongmin and Princess Noguk 공민왕과 노국공주
  • Mencius’ view on politics 맹자의 정치론

Episode 04

  • Hong In-Bang’s “War sale”

Six answers from the SFD production team (up to ep. 4)

  • Are they real historical figures?
  • What is ’Zantgar’?
  • Piglets breast-fed by human milk, Is it real?
  • The meaning of the farce prepared by Yi In-Gyeom
  • Jung Do-Jeon’s song
  • Hong Ryun vs. Gil Tae-Mi

Episode 07

  • The Border Stabilization Plan 안변책 安邊策 (August 1383)
  • Ancient Asian Horoscope

Episode 09

  • Goryeo‘s two meanings
  • General Choi Young’s accusation against Hong In-Bang’s servant (1388)

Episode 10

  • Sima Wi & Zhuge Liang 사마의 & 제갈량
  • Haedong Gapjok 해동갑족 海東甲族 #1
  • The tragedy of 4 war heroes in the Red Turban invasion 홍건적의 난 (January 1362)
  • The rebellion of Heungwangsa temple 흥왕사의 변 (March 1363)

Episode 11

  • The Invasion of Hobaldo 호발도(胡拔都)의 침공 (1383)

Episode 12

  • Yi Seong-Gye’s siege 이성계와 농성전(籠城戰)
  • Nam Eun 남은 南誾 (1354~1398)

Episode 13~14

  • Bang-Won’s north Korean dialect
  • Commoners’ names - Boon-Yi and Tang-Sae
  • Lady Min / Queen Wongyung 원경왕후 민씨 元敬王后 閔氏 (1365~1420)
  • Haedong Gapjok 해동갑족 海東甲族 #2
  • Yi clan’s status
  • The courtesy in aristocratic marriage / Saju (사주, 四柱)

Episode 15~16

  • Aristocratic names : Tang-Sae 땅새 vs. Yi Bang-Ji 이방지
  • Yi Ji-Ran 이지란 李之蘭 (1331~1402)
  • Jo Ban’s rebellion 조반의 난 (January 1388)
  • The similarity between Hong In-Bang and Yi Bang-Won
  • Gunpowder in Korea / Choi Mu-Seon 최무선 崔茂宣 (1325~1395)
  • Dynastic revolution 역성혁명 易姓革命
  • Mongol invasions of Korea 여몽 전쟁 (1231~1259)

Episode 17~18

  • Dodang Triumvirate - Yi In-Gyeom, Gil Tae-Mi, Hong In-Bang, Baek Yoon
  • The various names referring to Korea  
  • Mokja will get the new nation : 목자득국 木子得國
  • Gil Tae-Mi and the Rebellion of Heungwangsa temple 흥왕사의 변 (1363)
  • Jo Min-Soo 조민수 曺敏修 (?~1390) with Yi In-Gyeom
  • Mencius and Human nature 맹자의 성선설
  • Jung Do-Jeon’s check and balance system : Samsa 삼사 三司

Episode 19

  • King U of Goryeo 우왕 禑王 (1365-1389)
  • The conquest of the Liaodong peninsula 요동 정벌 (April 1388)
  • Lady Gang / Queen Shindeok 신덕왕후 강씨 神德王后 康氏 (?~1396)
  • Rhino’s horn and composite bow 무소의 뿔

Episode 20

  • Choi Young 최영 崔瑩 (1316~1388)
  • Tai Gong Wang 태공망 太公望 (11th century BC), the angler
  • The meaning of “Nation (국가, 國家)” in Confucian ideology

Episode 20 Fact Check

  • “A white horse vs. a black horse” part is a fiction.
  • Bang-Won and Bang-Ji were not drafted. Why?
  • Did Choi Young really take Yi Seong-Gye’s family hostage?
  • How accurate are the descriptions of Wihwa island retreat in ep. 20?
  • Why couldn’t Choi Young stop Yi Seong-Gye’s military coup?

Episode 21~22

  • Yi Seong-Gye’s character in the real history
  • Was his coup accidental? or premeditated?
  • The Seige of Gaegyung 개경 공방전 (June, 1388)
  • Yi Bang-Won’s whereabout during the battle
  • General Jo Min-Soo’s choice
  • A children’s song to frame Yi Seong-Gye : 십팔자위왕(十八子爲王)
  • Ha Ryun 하륜 河崙 (1347~1416)

“Ha Ryun” in the history

Episode 23~24

  • The Red Banquet, is it true?
  • Ha Ryun : A Face Reader (physiognomist, 관상가, 觀相家)
  • Yi Sook-Beon 이숙번 李叔蕃 (1373~1440)
  • The Land Reforms #1
  • Jung Do-Jeon’s idea : 계민수전(計民授田)
  • Yi Saek’s idea : 일전일주제(一田一主制)
  • Jo Joon’s idea : 과전법 (科田法)

Goryeo’s Land System

Episode 25~26

  • The bloody banquet at Dohwa mansion 피의 도화전
  • Jo Min-Soo 조민수 曺敏修 (?~1390)
  • The social status of palace maid (궁녀, 宮女)
  • Nameless (무명 無名), the secret organization / Buddhism
  • Poeun Jung Mong-Joo 포은 정몽주 圃隱 鄭夢周 (1337~1392)

Episode 27

  • King Gongyang 공양왕 恭讓王 (1345~1394 / Reign : 1389~1392)
  • Traitor Kim Yong 김용 金鏞 (?~1363) / Joseon-era interpretation
  • How to appoint the government officials : Goryeo vs. Joseon

Episode 28

  • Kim Jeo’s rebellion 김저의 난 (November, 1389)

Episode 29~30

  • Cheok Sa-Gwang 척사광
  • Cheok Joon-Gyeong 척준경 拓俊京 (?∼1144) - Cheok Sa-Gwang’s ancestor
  • Pye-Ga-Ip-Jin 폐가입진 廢假立眞 "Depose the fake and enthrone the authentic”
  • Gyu-Mok-Hwa-Sa 규목화사 圭木花死 “The flower called "Gye” will die.“
  • Maeng-Do-Chil-Yak 맹도칠약 猛圖漆撂 A meaningless phrase
  • Their dreams at the banquet / Yi Ji-Ran, Jo Young-Gyu, Jung Do-Jeon, Yi Bang-Woo
  • Classic of Changes / Book of Changes / Joo-Yeok (주역 周易)
  • Jumping techniques : Chool-sang-sool (출상술 出上術) vs. Chool-ha-sool (출하술 出下術)
  • Tree with Deep Roots reference “If a king is a flower, its root is a minister.”

Episode 31~32

  • Topknot 상투
  • “Never call my name.” / Pen names / Sambong (삼봉 三峯)
  • Jung Do-Jeon’s Constitutional Monarchy 재상총재제 宰相總裁制
  • Gyeongdeokgung Palace 경덕궁 敬德宮 - Bang-Won’s new residence
  • Yacha 야차 夜叉 - Moo-Hyul’s new nickname
  • The Land Reforms #2
  • The history of Nameless / Bidam and Yeomjong in Queen Seondeok

Starting with Bidam? “Nameless” in SFD Universe

Episode 33~34

  • The Expulsion of Buddhism 척불론 斥佛論
    - Bulssi Japbyeon (불씨잡변 佛氏雜辨 ‘Buddha’s Nonsense’ )
  • Jung Do-Jeon’s Family Tree
  • The impeachment of Jung Do-Jeon (September, 1391)
  • Goryeo‘s Slave System / King Taejong’s slave law (종부법, 從父法)
  • Yi Seong-Gye’s injury (March~April, 1392)

King Taejong (Yi Bang-Won) and Buddhism

Episode 35~36

  • Jo Mal-Saeng 조말생 趙末生 (1370~1447)
  • Jung Mong-Joo 정몽주 鄭夢周 (1338~1392)
  • The Murder on Seonjuk Bridge (April, 1392)
  • Ep. 36 Fact Check

Yi Bang-Won’s poem vs. Jung Mong-Joo’s poem

  • Yi Bang-Won’s Hayeoga 하여가 何如歌 (What if song)
  • Jung Mong-Joo’s Dansimga 단심가 丹心歌 (single-hearted devotion song)

Episode 37~38

  • The establishment of Joseon 조선 개국 (July 17, 1392)
  • Dumoon-dong village 두문동 杜門洞
  • Hwang Hee 황희 黃喜 (1363~1452)
  • The Crown prince issue / Joseon’s royal family (August, 1392)

Ep. 37~38  Q & A

  • Who is the Queen Dowager (Lady Ahn)? Why they petitioned to her?
  • Why do the princes get other names instead of their real names?
  • Why didn’t Yi Seong-Gye pass the throne to Yi Bang-Won?
  • King Taejong’s abdication
  • What is the Hwado Gaekbang?
  • Who is Cheon-Ji-Bi (천지비 天地否)?
  • King Taejo’s daughters
  • King Taejo’s sons - Yi Bang Ui, Yi Bang Gan

Episode 39~40

  • The list of founding contributors 개국공신 開國功臣
  • The relationships between King Taejo and Jung Do-Jeon
  • The secret treaty with Jurchens 여진족 女眞族
  • Banchon village 반촌 泮村
  • Boon-Yi‘s future in Tree with Deep Roots?
  • Bang-Won in the next episode? / Yongle Emperor 영락제 永樂帝

Episode 41~42

  • The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty 조선왕조실록 朝鮮王朝實錄
  • The Massacre of Wang Clan 왕씨 학살 (April, 1394)
  • The diplomatic tension between Joseon and Ming China (1394)
  • Yi Bang-Won was sent to Ming China (June, 1394)
  • Yi Bang-Won’s meeting with Zhu Di
  • Zhu Di, aka Youngle Emperor 영락제 永樂帝 (reign 1402~1424)

Episode 43~44

  • Was Yi Bang-Won mistaken as the Crown Prince in Ming China?
  • Jo Young-Gyu (조영규 趙英珪 ?~1395)
  • Gwon Geun (권근 權近, 1352~1409)
  • Jung Do-Gwang (정도광) & Maeng-Soon (맹순)
  • Jung Do-Jeon’s Military Reforms 사병혁파 私兵革罷 (1396)
  • Why did the Ming Emperor get angry? / 표전문 사건 表箋文事件 (1395~1397)
  • Jung Do-Jeon’s Liaodong expedition 요동정벌
  • Jo Joon (조준 趙浚, 1346∼1405)
  • Weapons in Banchon?
  • How many children does Bang-Won have by this point in time?

SFD Civil War match-up

Episode 45~46

  • King Gongmin, and Sambong’s Constitutional Monarchy
  • Jo Young-Gyu’s death
  • The First Strife of Princes (August 26, 1398) - Part. 1
  • The Participants in the First Strife of Princes - Princes
  • The Participants in the First Strife of Princes - Lieges
    - Ha Ryun, Yi Sook-Beon, Min Brothers, Yi Geo-Yi, Yi Cheon-Woo, Park Po, Jo Mal-Saeng
  • Woo Hak-Joo 우학주 (禹學朱)
  • Minbon (민본 民本 “The people are the roots of the nation”)
  • Other Tree with Deep Roots (TWDR) references
    - Yeon-Hee = Sambong’s woman?
    - How did Jung Gi-Joon get to know Yi Bang-Ji?
    - Why did Milbon (Hidden roots) turn nasty?

Episode 47~48

  • The First Strife of Princes - Part 2. History distortion
  • Jung Do-Jeon’s death (August 26, 1398)
  • Jung Do-Jeon 삼봉 정도전 三峰 鄭道傳 (1342~1398)
  • King Jeongjong 정종 定宗 (1357~1419 / reign : 1398~1400)
  • The First Strife of Princes - Part 3. Victims

          - Crown Prince Yi Bang-Seok 이방석 李芳碩 (1382~1398)
          - Yi Bang-Beon 이방번 李芳蕃 (1381~1398)
          - Yi Je 이제 李濟 (1365~1398)
          - Nam Eun 남은 南誾 (1354-1398)

Episode 49~50

  • Baek Dal-Won 백달원 白達元 (?~?)
  • The Second Strife of Princes  (January, 1400)
  • The collapse of Min Clan and Queen Wongyeong (원경왕후 元敬王后, 1365~1420)
  • King Sejong the Great 세종대왕 世宗大王 (1397~1450)
  • Jung Do-Jeon’s grave
  • Tsushima Expedition 대마도 정벌 對馬島征伐 (1419)


Others


Writers

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The Other Golden Age of Piracy — The Era of the Sea Peoples,

When Spain conquered much of Central and South America a golden age of piracy occurred as buccaneers and privateers flocked to the Caribbean to steal their share of Spanish gold.  However piracy is a phenomenon as old as seafaring itself, and thousands of years before notorious pirates such as Blackbeard and Bartholomew Roberts, another band of pirates known as “The Sea Peoples” terrorized the ancient Mediterranean, creating an earlier golden ages of piracy that rivaled that of the pirates of the Caribbean.

The Sea Peoples terrorized the Mediterranean around the 12th and 11th century BC.  Very little detailed information is known about the Sea Peoples, and most of what is in recorded history comes from Egyptian sources, especially from the court of Ramses III.  Essentially the Sea Peoples were a large band of pirates who raided ships, stole treasure, and murdered all who got in their way.  However the Sea Peoples were much more than just mere buccaneers.  The extent of their raiding was such that entire cities, kingdoms, and empires were sacked by the marauders.  It was not uncommon for the Sea Peoples to show up unannounced, massacre any military forces that protected a city, take everything of value, then disappear as quickly as they had arrived.  Even whole nations and empires fell to the Sea Peoples.  An inscription at the Mortuary Temple of Ramses III the notes the nature of a Sea People’s invasion,

“The lands were removed and scattered to the fray. No land could stand before their arms, from Hatti, Kode, Carchemish, Arzawa, Alashiya all being cut down.”

The Sea Peoples were even responsible for the fall of the Hittite Empire, a superpower that rivaled Egypt during the Bronze Age.  After the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC, the Hittites (modern day Turkey) became a victim of a series of massive raids by the Sea People’s.  The Sea Peoples ravaged all ports and cities along the Mediterranean coast and Black Sea.  They even ventured inland, sacking various cities all over Anatolia.  When nothing of value was left to take, the Sea Peoples disappeared and never returned.  However the Hittite Empire was left so weakened by the attacks, that the empire eventually collapsed, being conquered by the Assyrians.  The only empire noted for being able to successfully fend off the Sea Peoples were the Egyptians, where Ramses III personally destroyed a marauder fleet and army at the mouth of the Nile River.

 What is most perplexing is that no one knows for certain who the Sea Peoples were.  The prevailing theory, based on modern archaeological evidence and ancient records, suggests that the Sea Peoples were not one people, but a multitude of different ethnicity’s.  The time period around the 12th and 11th century BC today is known as the “Bronze Age Collapse”, a tumultuous period caused by famine, war, the fall of civilizations such as Mycenaean Greece and Troy, and the migration of new Indo-European nomads from the east, such as the Dorians and Persians.  As a result, a large population of disaffected people from all over the Mediterranean who became pirates and marauders in order to make a living.  Archaeological evidence of many Sea People sites show that they were an odd mix of Mycenaean Greeks, Hittites, Philistines, Proto-Celts, Trojans, exiled Minoans, Sicilians, Italic peoples, and Phoenicians.  

Sea People attacks occurred far and wide, evidence suggests that the Sea Peoples may have gone as far as Spain, Britain, and even the Baltic.  By the end of the 11th century BC Sea People raids began to dwindle and cease, as the political and environmental situation in the region settled, and the Sea Peoples began to settle colonies throughout the Mediterranean. 

Ancient 'warrior princess' skeleton found in Kazakhstan

The remains of an ancient female warrior have been discovered in South Kazakhstan.

The perfectly preserved skeleton, believed to be a woman based on the skull’s size and shape, was found with a huge sword and dagger.

Archaeologists believe the woman lived in the period between the 11th century BC and fourth century AD. Previously, no records have ever been found of woman warriors in the area.

Experts believe she was a citizen of importance living in the ancient Kanguy state. She is thought to have led a group of nomads who lived somewhere in the area of modern Kazakhstan. Read more.

Stargazing Across Time

Humans have spent eons looking up at the night sky with wonder and mapping it by creating constellations, gathering information, and using it to impose a sense of order on the vastness of space.

From the earliest days of astronomy, though, the answers we’ve found have served to create further questions, and with them the need for finer instruments that provide more complete data. The naked eye isn’t nearly sufficient for viewing stars closely or tracking their movements in detail, much less plumbing the depths of space. From early devices that used celestial bodies to tell travelers the time of day to the space-based telescopes now capturing images of the cosmos in unprecedented detail, ever-more intricate instruments have helped us get a better look at—and understanding of —the universe and our place in it.

Sundials

Prior to the development of reliable clocks, sundials, which tell the time of day by the position of the Sun, were a method of choice for determining lunch hour, coffee breaks, and quitting time for millennia. By the 17th century, portable dials became popular with people like soldiers and merchants, who were always on the go. Some, like the ivory-encased affair pictured above, could be adjusted to tell the correct time at a variety of different latitudes.

Dials

The Sun wasn’t the only heavenly body used for telling time. This rosewood dial crafted in 17th-century Italy was designed to align with the pointer stars of the Big Dipper, letting users determine the time of day even in the dead of night—provided they had a clear sky.

Astrolabes

Astrolabes, which could locate and predict the movement of heavenly bodies like the Moon, planets, and stars, were first developed in the 11th century BC and were refined throughout the ages. Examples like this bronze astrolabe, crafted in Persia during the 18th century, were variously used for surveying, telling time, and predicting and charting the movement of stars and planets. 

Learn much more about the history of stargazing, and watch the most recent episode of Shelf Life:

Monumental Double Spiral, Urnfield Period, 12th - 10th century BC

An unusually large example made of square wire, the upper edges with decorative notches in some places. Beautiful dark green patina. Width 21 cm.

The Urnfield culture (c. 1300 BC – 750 BC) was a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe. The name comes from the custom of cremating the dead and placing their ashes in urns which were then buried in fields. The Urnfield culture followed the Tumulus culture and was succeeded by the Hallstatt culture. The Urnfield culture is the earliest archaeological period that can be justifiably considered Proto-Celtic.

Egyptian Faience Hippo, Middle Kingdom, 11th-12th Dynasty, C. 2000 BC

Hippo figures served as grave goods in the Middle Kingdom, as the hippopotamus was a symbol for regeneration in the afterlife. The drawings on the figure are meant to mimic the natural habitat of the animal. Here the hippo is surrounded by lotus buds and flowers with a flying bird overhead, just as it would be in a papyrus thicket. This piece is probably from Thebes.

Middle Assyrian Red Sard Cylinder Seal, South Mesopotamia, 12th-11th century BC

Showing a griffin-demon (apkallu) tearing a branch from a tree.

This is an unusual seal with regards to the typical griffin-demon and tree motif in ancient art. In Neo-Assyrian glyptic and monumental art, griffin-demons are often portrayed in the action of fertilizing the female blossoms of the date palm.  On this seal it seems like the apkallu is picking off a branch instead of fertilizing it.

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Urartian Bronze Armory Belt, c. 8th-7th century BC

Urartian belts, which are splendid specimens of their art, have been found in graves in Soviet Armenia and in the province of Kars. This is a section of an armory belt, decorated with three bands separated by rows of wave motifs; each band containing, from left to right, a winged lion with sword, a stylized tree, a leaping winged lion, a winged centaur-like creature with bow and arrow, and a leaping winged deer; rows of palmettes above and below; the upper and lower edges with perforations for attachments.

Urartu (biblical Kingdom of Ararat or Kingdom of Van) was a prehistoric Iron Age kingdom centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands. Assyrian inscriptions of Shalmaneser I (c. 1274 BC) first mention Uruartri as one of the states of Nairi – a loose confederation of small kingdoms and tribal states in Armenian Highland in the 13th to 11th centuries BC, which he conquered.

Urartu re-emerged in Assyrian inscriptions in the 9th century BC as a powerful northern rival of Assyria. The Nairi states and tribes became a unified kingdom under king Aramu (c. 860 – 843 BC). It reached its peak of power in the 9th and 8th centuries. Urartu was eventually conquered by the Medes in the early 6th century BC and the Urartian Kingdom was eventually replaced by the Armenian Orontid dynasty.

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Ancient Worlds - BBC Two 

Episode 1 “Come Together”

Limestone Kudurru (boundary stone, 11th century BC) from the reign of Marduk-nadin-ahhe -Babylonian king, the sixth of the Second Dynasty of Isin. He was the brother of the famous NebuchadrezzarI and pursued his brother’s policy of extending Babylonian influence. The final years of the king were troubled by numerous incursions of enemies, severe famines and droughts. The circumstances of his death are not known; according to Assyrian sources, he “disappeared.”

The kudurru consists of a block of black limestone, rising to a point. It has been rubbed down on four sides to take inscriptions, and the upper portion, from the point where it begins to taper, is carved with symbols. Larger symbols are resting on the serpent’s body and on the ledge above the inscription, some animals like a sitting dog, a bird on perch, a horned dragon, a ram-headed crook upon shrine and a goat-fish and.

The cuneiform inscription contains a deed recording a grant of land by Marduk-nadin-ahhe to Adad-zer-ikisha in return for services rendered during a campaign against Assyria. An addition to the text records that the king subsequently confirmed the gift under his own seal.

British Museum, London, UK 

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The Valley of the Kings, the Valley of the Gates of the Kings, is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, tombs were constructed for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt). The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes (modern Luxor), within the heart of the Theban Necropolis. The wadi consists of two valleys, East Valley (where the majority of the royal tombs are situated) and West Valley.

With the 2005 discovery of a new chamber (KV63), and the 2008 discovery of two further tomb entrances, the valley is known to contain 63 tombs and chambers (ranging in size from KV54, a simple pit, to KV5, a complex tomb with over 120 chambers). It was the principal burial place of the major royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, together with those of a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues to the beliefs and funerary rituals of the period. Almost all of the tombs seem to have been opened and robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea of the opulence and power of the Pharaohs. This area has been a focus of archaeological and egyptological exploration since the end of the eighteenth century, and its tombs and burials continue to stimulate research and interest. In modern times the valley has become famous for the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun (with its rumours of the Curse of the Pharaohs), and is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. In 1979, it became a World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the Theban Necropolis. Exploration, excavation and conservation continues in the valley, and a new tourist centre has recently been opened. Read more