‘Quinity’ folio from the New Minster Prayer Book, c. 1023-35, Anglo-Saxon, from Winchester, England. This inventive iconography depicts five 'figures’- the Holy Spirit, the Virgin, the Christ Child, God the Father, and Christ- and attempts to convey the unity of the traditional trinity, elaborated here into a 'quinity’, the equality of each figure, and the relationships among them. At the bottom of the folio are two figures, 'ARRIVS’ and 'JVDAS’, on either side of a personification of Hell. Arrius was a third-century theologian who held Anti-trinitarian beliefs; he did not believe that Christ had a divine nature and therefore could not be an equal to God the Father. His beliefs were deemed heretical and he was excommunicated, conveyed pictorially in this manuscript by the association with Judas and his proximity to the hell mouth. London: British Library, MS Cotton Titus D XXVII. Image taken from course lectures.