Our Juno spacecraft will fly over Jupiter’s Great Red Spot on July 10 at 10:06 p.m. EDT. This will be humanity’s first up-close and personal view of the gas giant’s iconic 10,000-mile-wide storm, which has been monitored since 1830 and possibly existing for more than 350 years.
The data collection of the Great Red Spot is part of Juno’s sixth science flyby over Jupiter’s mysterious cloud tops. Perijove (the point at which an orbit comes closest to Jupiter’s center) will be July 10 at 9:55 p.m. EDT.
At the time of perijove, Juno will be about 2,200 miles above the planet’s cloud tops. Eleven minutes and 33 seconds later…Juno will have covered another 24,713 miles and will be directly above the coiling crimson cloud tops of the Great Red Spot. The spacecraft will pass about 5,600 miles above its clouds.
When will we see images from this flyby?
During the flyby, all eight of the spacecraft’s instruments will be turned on, as well as its imager, JunoCam. Because the spacecraft will be collecting data with its Microwave Radiometer (MWR), which measures radio waves from Jupiter’s deep atmosphere, we cannot downlink information during the pass. The MWR can tell us how much water there is and how material is moving far below the cloud tops.
During the pass, all data will be stored on-board…with a downlink planned afterwards. Once the downlink begins, engineering data from the spacecraft’s instruments will come to Earth first, followed by images from JunoCam.
The unprocessed, raw images will be located HERE, on approximately July 14. Follow @NASAJuno on Twitter for updates.
Did you know you can download and process these raw images?
We invite the public to act as a virtual imaging team…participating in key steps of the process, from identifying features of interest to sharing the finished images online. After JunoCam data arrives on Earth, members of the public can process the images to create color pictures. The public also helps determine which points on the planet will be photographed. Learn more about voting on JunoCam’s next target HERE.
JunoCam has four filters: red, green, blue and near-infrared. We get red, green and blue strips on one spacecraft rotation (the spacecraft rotation rate is 2 revolutions per minute) and the near-infrared strips on the second rotation. To get the final image product, the strips must be stitched together and the colors lined up.
Anything from cropping to color enhancing to collaging is fair game. Be creative!
Jupiter, we’ve got quite the photoshoot planned for you. Today, our Juno spacecraft is flying directly over the Great Red Spot, kicking off the first-ever close-up study of this iconic storm and passing by at an altitude of only 5,600 miles (9,000 kilometers). In honor of this historic event, below are 10 things to know about the planet’s most famous feature.
1. A Storm That Puts Others to Shame
The Great Red Spot is a gigantic, high-pressure, ancient storm at Jupiter’s southern hemisphere that’s one of the longest lasting in the solar system. It’s so large, about 1.3 Earths could fit inside of it. And you can bet you’ll get swept away—the storm’s tumultuous winds peak at about 400 mph.
2. How Old Is It?
The Great Red Spot has been swirling wildly over Jupiter’s skies for the past 150 years—maybe even much longer. While people saw a big spot on Jupiter when they started stargazing through telescopes in the 1600s, it’s still unclear whether they were looking at a different storm. Today, scientists know the Great Red Spot has been there for a while, but they still struggle to learn what causes its swirl of reddish hues.
3. Time for That Close-Up
Juno will fly over the Great Red Spot about 12 minutes after the spacecraft makes the closest approach to Jupiter of its current orbit at 6:55 p.m. on July 10, PDT (9:55 p.m. on July 10, EDT; 1:55 a.m. on July 11, Universal Time). Juno entered orbit around Jupiter on July 4, 2016.
4. Oh, So Mysterious
Understanding the Great Red Spot is not easy, and it’s mostly Jupiter’s fault. The planet a thousand times as big as Earth and consists mostly of gas. A liquid ocean of hydrogen surrounds its core, and the atmosphere consists mostly of hydrogen and helium. That translates into no solid ground (like we have on Earth) to weaken storms. Also, Jupiter’s clouds make it hard to gather clear observations of its lower atmosphere.
This false-color image of Jupiter was taken on May 18, 2017, with a mid-infrared filter centered at a wavelength of 8.8 microns, at the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii, in collaboration with observations of Jupiter by NASA’s Juno mission. Credit: NAOJ/NASA/JPL-Caltech
5. Help From Hawaii
To assist Juno’s investigation of the giant planet’s atmosphere, Earth-based telescopes lent their helpful eyes. On May 18, 2017, the Gemini North telescope and the Subaru Telescope—both located on Hawaii’s Mauna Kea peak—simultaneously examined Jupiter in very high resolutions at different wavelengths. These latest observations helped provide information about the Great Red Spot’s atmospheric dynamics at different depths and at other regions of Jupiter.
6. Curious Observations
Observations from Subaru showed the Great Red Spot “had a cold and cloudy interior increasing toward its center, with a periphery that was warmer and clearer,” said Juno science team member Glenn Orton of our Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. “A region to its northwest was unusually turbulent and chaotic, with bands that were cold and cloudy, alternating with bands that were warm and clear.”
This composite, false-color infrared image of Jupiter reveals haze particles over a range of altitudes, as seen in reflected sunlight. It was taken using the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii on May 18, 2017, in collaboration with observations of Jupiter by our Juno mission. Credits: Gemini Observatory/AURA/NSF/NASA/JPL-Caltech
7. Hot in Here
Scientists were stumped by a particular question: Why were the temperatures in Jupiter’s upper atmosphere comparable to those found at Earth, even though Jupiter is more than five times the distance from the sun? If the sun isn’t the heat source, then what is? Turns out, the storm in the Great Red Spot produces two kinds of turbulent energy waves that collide and heat the upper atmosphere. Gravity waves are much like how a guitar string moves when plucked, while acoustic waves are compressions of the air (sound waves). Heating in the upper atmosphere 500 miles (800 kilometers) above the Great Red Spot is thought to be caused by a combination of these two wave types “crashing,” like ocean waves on a beach.
8. Color Theory
Scientists don’t know exactly how the Great Red Spot’s rich colors formed. Studies predict Jupiter’s upper atmosphere has clouds consisting of ammonia, ammonium hydrosulfide, and water, but it’s still unclear how or even whether these chemicals react. “We’re talking about something that only makes up a really tiny portion of the atmosphere,” said Amy Simon, an expert in planetary atmospheres at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “That’s what makes it so hard to figure out exactly what makes the colors that we see.” Over at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, researchers concluded that the ruddy color is likely a product of simple chemicals being broken apart by sunlight in the planet’s upper atmosphere. “Our models suggest most of the Great Red Spot is actually pretty bland in color, beneath the upper cloud layer of reddish material,” said Kevin Baines, a Cassini scientist at JPL.
This image of a crescent Jupiter and the iconic Great Red Spot was created by a citizen scientist, Roman Tkachenko, using data from Juno’s JunoCam instrument. JunoCam’s raw images are available here for the public to peruse and enhance.Want to learn more? Read our full list of the 10 things to know this week about the solar system HERE.
Author’s Note: i have seen the devil and his name is kim jongin. someone get me a fan. this is a continuation of the universe for Did You See? you can read both separately, however the impact is a little stronger at the end if you read the original story first.
Pairing: Kai x Reader (oc; female)
Warnings: explicit sex; explicit language
Word Count: 3,881
Nini[10:03 PM]: i can’t stop thinking about the other night…
Y/N[10:05 PM]: which night? lmao i’ve seen you every night this week
Nini[10:08 PM]: don’t be like that, duchess. you know exactly which night i’m talking about.
Y/N[10:09 PM]: no, nini.
Y/N[10:09 PM]: youll have to be specific.
Nini[10:09 PM]: tuesday
Y/N[10:10 PM]: what happened tuesday? we did a lot of things that night~
A/N: oh man, i can’t believe this is showing its light again either
[10:22:05 PM] erectchim: um. who are you
[10:22:13 PM] seokjinsaga: has left the server.
It starts with a swarm of messages from unrecognizable usernames, one stranger flooding after another. You get a sudden impulse to turn back and explain to the other players that you made a typo in the server name, admitting it is all a mistake, but you freeze when your cursor hovers over the chat bar. All you have to do is exit the game but you choose not to and surprisingly, you hold no regrets.
My five-year, no, 10-year, hell, my 55-year take is that I’m going to keep doing this as long as I can keep doing this. You look at my countrywomen like Judi Dench and Vanessa Redgrave and Diana Rigg—they’re gonna drop doing what they love to do. That’s where I’m heading. Someone’s going to have to carry me out.
het uur - die Stunde - hour de minuut - die Minute - minute de seconde - die Sekunde - second
de klok - die Uhr - clock
uur - Uhr - o’clock het kwart - das Viertel - quarter half - halb - half over - nach - past voor - vor - to
Hoe laat is het? - Wie spät ist es? - What’s the time?
Het is… - Es ist … - It’s …
… tien uur - zehn Uhr - ten o’clock(10:00) … vijf (minuten) over tien - fünf (Minuten) nach zehn - 10:05 … kwart over tien - Viertel nach zehn - 10:15 … tien (minuten) voor half elf - zehn (Minuten) vor halb elf - 10:20 … half elf - halb elf - 10:30 … vijf (minuten) over half elf - fünf (Minuten) nach halb elf - 10:35 … kwart voor elf - Viertel vor elf - 10:45 … vijf (minuten) voor elf - fünf (Minuten) vor elf - 10:55 … precies elf uur - genau elf Uhr - eleven o’clock sharp (11:00)
a.m. / p.m.
In both Dutch and German the 24-hour clock (i.e. 4pm
→ 16:00) is used, (veertien uur achtendertig - vierzehn Uhr achtunddreißig - 14:38)
but especially in spoken language the 12-hour clock is more common. If context alone is not enough, the following words are used to distinguish between a.m. and p.m.: