1-million-years

Daryl Roth has another reason to cheer, too. Her other show, Kinky Boots, got an even bigger boost, taking $1.3 million almost four years after opening. Brendon Urie’s presence in the lead role is goosing sales like mad. The Panic! At The Disco frontman is one of Broadway’s current slate of pop stars making bank across the biz.
[…]
Overall, the biz continued its months-long record breaking streak, with fifteen shows grossing over $1 million, and over all sales up 2% from last week to $35.27 million.
—  After Surprise Extension, ‘Indecent’ Lights Up Broadway Box Office via forbes

anonymous asked:

How can I become a bird?

Option 1: Several million years of highly selective breeding

Pros: Low demand, high return.

Cons: …Eventually. 

Conclusion: Very worth it, for your (great)800  grandchild. The real deal. Possibility of ending up with mammalian scansoriopterygids along the way. 10/10 would recommend. 


Option 2: Several thousand dollars worth of gear and training

Pros: Immediate returns. 

Cons: Possibility of death. Even worse, people take you for some kind of winged mammal instead. Horrible

Conclusion: Totally worth being poor as heck and dead. Won’t survive long enough to further your species, so who cares what your offspring might think. 10/10 would definitely.


Option 3: 

Pros: Well

Cons: Yikes

Conclusion: Maybe………………………………. don’t.

Never Forget

There might be a man who makes 1 million a year, but is willing to shower you with gifts, fund your education, open up the world for you to travel. There might be a man who makes 10 million a year but is so stingy with his money that he barely enjoys it himself.

Don’t just go for the wealthiest, go for generosity.

The cosmic swirl of giant waves in an enormous reservoir of glowing hot gas are visible in this enhanced X-ray image from the Chandra Observatory. The frame spans over 1 million light-years across the center of the nearby Perseus Galaxy Cluster. With temperatures in the tens of millions of degrees, the gas glows brightly in X-rays. Computer simulations can reproduce details of the structures sloshing through the Perseus cluster’s X-ray hot gas, including the remarkable concave bay seen below and left of center. About 200,000 light-years across, twice the size of the Milky Way, the bay’s formation indicates that Perseus itself was likely grazed by a smaller galaxy cluster billions of years ago.

Image Credit:  NASA, CXC, GSFC, Stephen Walker, et al.

Interstitial cystitis affects between 700000 to 1 million Americans a year

Interstitial cystitis is a bladder and pelvic floor condition. It’s painful, exhausting, embarrassing, and complicated. It makes peeing painful. Makes sex painful. Even makes just sitting or laying down painful. You have frequent urination and utis, urinary retention, bladder spasms, and so many more horrible symptoms. I.C. patients are 90% women, 10% men.

Doctors can literally feel your pelvic muscles twitching and spasming all the time. Often the treatment is physical therapy where a therapist has to stick their fingers inside your vagina and press on the painful muscles until they release. The medicines prescribed for it are expensive and barely work.

Some women have it mild enough it barely affects their life once they make diet changes, for others nothing works and they have to insert catheters in them multiple times a day.

No one talks about interstitial cystitis. Many urologists don’t even know how to diagnose or treat it. I went to 4 urologists over 3 years and not one could diagnose it or spend more than 10 minutes on me. I was told to catheterize myself daily, to take pills constantly, I even was told that if I told my body to relax, it would fix my bladder spasms. Mind over matter. But it took a urogynocologist minutes to diagnose me by feeling the tense overly thickened muscles in my pelvic floor.

Even with a diagnosis, i.c. is still hard to live with and I struggle every day. Sex sets it into a flare. Not drinking enough sets it into a flare. Not peeing every three hours sets it into a flare. Sometimes nothing at all causes spasms and infections.

I just want people to be more aware how serious interstitial cystitis is in women’s health and to recognize the struggles we go through. I want doctors to be educated on the condition and take the scared women in pain that go to them for help. I want people to not be afraid to talk about it even though it involves “bathroom stuff.” It’s something many women suffer from and we need to treat them better.

Die Bastei is a rock formation towering above the Elbe river in the Sandstone Mountains of Sachsen, Eastern Germany. Reaching 305 m above sea level, its jagged rocks were formed by water erosion over 1 million years ago. They are situated near Rathen, not far from Pirna near Dresden, and are the main landmark of the Saxon Switzerland National Park. They are part of a climbing and hiking area that extends over the border into the Bohemian Switzerland in the Czech Republic. The Bastei has been a tourist attraction for over 200 years. The spa town of Rathen is the main base for visiting; the town can be reached from Dresden by paddle steamer on the river Elbe.

4

NEW EVIDENCE THAT ALL STARS ARE BORN IN PAIRS

Did our Sun have a twin when it was born 4.5 billion years ago?

Almost certainly yes – though not an identical twin. And so did every other Sun-like star in the universe, according to a new analysis by a theoretical physicist from the University of California, Berkeley, and a radio astronomer from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory at Harvard University.

Many stars have companions, including our nearest neighbor, Alpha Centauri, a triplet system. Astronomers have long sought an explanation. Are binary and triplet star systems born that way? Did one star capture another? Do binary stars sometimes split up and become single stars?

Astronomers have even searched for a companion to our Sun, a star dubbed Nemesis because it was supposed to have kicked an asteroid into Earth’s orbit that collided with our planet and exterminated the dinosaurs. It has never been found.

The new assertion is based on a radio survey of a giant molecular cloud filled with recently formed stars in the constellation Perseus, and a mathematical model that can explain the Perseus observations only if all Sun-like stars are born with a companion.

“We are saying, yes, there probably was a Nemesis, a long time ago,” said co-author Steven Stahler, a UC Berkeley research astronomer.

“We ran a series of statistical models to see if we could account for the relative populations of young single stars and binaries of all separations in the Perseus molecular cloud, and the only model that could reproduce the data was one in which all stars form initially as wide binaries. These systems then either shrink or break apart within a million years.”

In this study, “wide” means that the two stars are separated by more than 500 astronomical units, or AU, where one astronomical unit is the average distance between the Sun and Earth (93 million miles). A wide binary companion to our Sun would have been 17 times farther from the Sun than its most distant planet today, Neptune.

Based on this model, the Sun’s sibling most likely escaped and mixed with all the other stars in our region of the Milky Way galaxy, never to be seen again.

“The idea that many stars form with a companion has been suggested before, but the question is: how many?” said first author Sarah Sadavoy, a NASA Hubble fellow at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. “Based on our simple model, we say that nearly all stars form with a companion. The Perseus cloud is generally considered a typical low-mass star-forming region, but our model needs to be checked in other clouds.”

The idea that all stars are born in a litter has implications beyond star formation, including the very origins of galaxies, Stahler said.

Stahler and Sadavoy posted their findings in April on the arXiv server. Their paper has been accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Stars Birthed in ‘Dense Cores’

Astronomers have speculated about the origins of binary and multiple star systems for hundreds of years, and in recent years have created computer simulations of collapsing masses of gas to understand how they condense under gravity into stars. They have also simulated the interaction of many young stars recently freed from their gas clouds. Several years ago, one such computer simulation by Pavel Kroupa of the University of Bonn led him to conclude that all stars are born as binaries.

Yet direct evidence from observations has been scarce. As astronomers look at younger and younger stars, they find a greater proportion of binaries, but why is still a mystery.

“The key here is that no one looked before in a systematic way at the relation of real young stars to the clouds that spawn them,” Stahler said. “Our work is a step forward in understanding both how binaries form and also the role that binaries play in early stellar evolution. We now believe that most stars, which are quite similar to our own Sun, form as binaries. I think we have the strongest evidence to date for such an assertion.”

According to Stahler, astronomers have known for several decades that stars are born inside egg-shaped cocoons called dense cores, which are sprinkled throughout immense clouds of cold, molecular hydrogen that are the nurseries for young stars. Through an optical telescope, these clouds look like holes in the starry sky, because the dust accompanying the gas blocks light from both the stars forming inside and the stars behind. The clouds can, however, be probed by radio telescopes, since the cold dust grains in them emit at these radio wavelengths, and radio waves are not blocked by the dust.

The Perseus molecular cloud is one such stellar nursery, about 600 light-years from Earth and about 50 light-years long. Last year, a team of astronomers completed a survey that used the Very Large Array, a collection of radio dishes in New Mexico, to look at star formation inside the cloud. Called VANDAM, it was the first complete survey of all young stars in a molecular cloud, that is, stars less than about 4 million years old, including both single and multiple stars down to separations of about 15 astronomical units. This captured all multiple stars with a separation of more than about the radius of Uranus’ orbit – 19 AU – in our solar system.

Stahler heard about the survey after approaching Sadavoy, a member of the VANDAM team, and asking for her help in observing young stars inside dense cores. The VANDAM survey produced a census of all Class 0 stars – those less than about 500,000 years old – and Class I stars – those between about 500,000 and 1 million years old. Both types of stars are so young that they are not yet burning hydrogen to produce energy.

Sadavoy took the results from VANDAM and combined them with additional observations that reveal the egg-shaped cocoons around the young stars. These additional observations come from the Gould Belt Survey with SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. By combining these two data sets, Sadavoy was able to produce a robust census of the binary and single-star populations in Perseus, turning up 55 young stars in 24 multiple-star systems, all but five of them binary, and 45 single-star systems.

Using these data, Sadavoy and Stahler discovered that all of the widely separated binary systems – those with stars separated by more than 500 AU – were very young systems, containing two Class 0 stars. These systems also tended to be aligned with the long axis of the egg-shaped dense core. The slightly older Class I binary stars were closer together, many separated by about 200 AU, and showed no tendency to align along the egg’s axis.

“This has not been seen before or tested, and is super interesting,” Sadavoy said. “We don’t yet know quite what it means, but it isn’t random and must say something about the way wide binaries form.”

Egg-Shaped Cores Collapse into Two Centers

Stahler and Sadavoy mathematically modeled various scenarios to explain this distribution of stars, assuming typical formation, breakup and orbital shrinking times. They concluded that the only way to explain the observations is to assume that all stars of masses around that of the Sun start off as wide Class 0 binaries in egg-shaped dense cores, after which some 60 percent split up over time. The rest shrink to form tight binaries.

“As the egg contracts, the densest part of the egg will be toward the middle, and that forms two concentrations of density along the middle axis,” he said. “These centers of higher density at some point collapse in on themselves because of their self-gravity to form Class 0 stars.”

“Within our picture, single low-mass, Sun-like stars are not primordial,” Stahler added. “They are the result of the breakup of binaries. “

Their theory implies that each dense core, which typically comprises a few solar masses, converts twice as much material into stars as was previously thought.

Stahler said that he has been asking radio astronomers to compare dense cores with their embedded young stars for more than 20 years, in order to test theories of binary star formation. The new data and model are a start, he says, but more work needs to be done to understand the physics behind the rule.

Such studies may come along soon, because the capabilities of a now-upgraded VLA and the ALMA telescope in Chile, plus the SCUBA-2 survey in Hawaii, “are finally giving us the data and statistics we need. This is going to change our understanding of dense cores and the embedded stars within them,” Sadavoy said.


TOP IMAGE….Radio image of a very young binary star system, less than about 1 million years old, that formed within a dense core (oval outline) in the Perseus molecular cloud. All stars likely form as binaries within dense cores. (SCUBA-2 survey image by Sarah Sadavoy, CfA)

CENTRE IMAGE….A radio image of a triple star system forming within a dusty disk in the Perseus molecular cloud obtained by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile. (Image: Bill Saxton, ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), NRAO/AUI/NSF)

LOWER IMAGE….This infrared image from the Hubble Space Telescope contains a bright, fan-shaped object (lower right quadrant) thought to be a binary star that emits light pulses as the two stars interact. The primitive binary system is located in the IC 348 region of the Perseus molecular cloud and was included in the study by the Berkeley/Harvard team. (Image: NASA, ESA and J. Muzerolle, STScI)

BOTTOM IMAGE….A dark molecular cloud, Barnard 68, is filled with gas and dust that block the light from stars forming inside as well as stars and galaxies located behind it. These and other stellar nurseries, like the Perseus molecular cloud, can only be probed by radio waves. Credit: FORS Team, 8.2-meter VLT Antu, ESO

Roman Baths - Bath, England 

The Roman Baths is a popular tourist site in Bath, England, that averages 1 million visitors a year. The complex is a well preserved site that was used for public bathing. The earliest parts of the complex date back to 70AD. There are four main features: the Sacred Spring, the Roman Temple, the Roman Bath House and the Museum. 1,170,000 litres of steaming spring water reaching 46 °C still fill the bathing site every single day. While you are unable to swim in the baths, self guided audio tours are available in a number of languages. 

anonymous asked:

A thought I've had a few times: automation should be an exciting prospect, the possibility of freeing people from the necessity of labor (while still allowing people to labor when they feel so inclined). But instead, with how our system is set up, automation is a terrifying idea, because the machines will take our jobs and then I won't be able to feed myself or my family.

Incredibly valuable thoughts here. This is why groups such as the French Socialist Party and other left-wing parties in Europe have adopted policies of oversight over automation and its effects on the workforce. These are things where we can’t simply allow for capitalism and technological advancement to create “disruptive” innovations without intervention.

Dealing with this issue would involve things free-market capitalists don’t often like to hear; planning and management overseen by the greater populace through the state. In a social democratic society, these new innovations would be reviewed by an economic regulatory bureau to determine it’s potential for harm to workers before being applied universally and upending entire industries.  Instead, if these automation ideas were put in place, they’d be carefully managed and phased in to allow the workforce time to retrain and seek new opportunities. 

- @delendarius


I have a slightly different outlook on this, while I believe that it would work, it seems like it would slow the rate of economic growth by literally slowing the pace of innovation.

So, what do we do instead?

We create a universal basic income and a maximum pay ratio coupled with a robust safety net and high taxes on unearned income (any income not coming from labor such as profit, investments, and dividends).

The Universal Basic Income should be based on the taxes from unearned income, divided evenly amongst the population. This way, any profit generated from technological innovation would only serve to increase the incomes of the whole populous. There will be people that lose jobs due to technological innovation, but the financial benefits of technology should be shared by them as well.

The Maximum Pay Ratio will ensure that the wealthy cannot just appoint themselves board positions with high salaries in order to steal profits. You require that no one person can be paid more than 25x the lowest paid person working for their company. If you noticed, I said lowest paid person, not lowest paid employee. This would include everyone in the supply chain, outside contractors, factory workers, everyone that contributes to their company through work in any way. If an executive can justifying paying someone three dollars a day in another country to work, they will only be able to make $75 a day themselves. if an executive wants to make $1 million a year, their lowest paid person would have to make $40,000 a year.

This will also ensure that any pay increases will spread to everyone, not just the executives.

A robust safety net would include things like universal healthcare, free college, and one year 100% unemployment insurance. This would mean anyone who loses a job due to technological advancements would be able to spend a year either looking for work, starting a business, or retraining for a new field. The retraining would be free since college tuition would be. 

The high taxes on unearned income would serve two purposes, to fuel this proposed system and to motivate companies to reinvest profits into wages, research and development, and infrastructure. If they have spent the money on other purposes, it is no longer profits and is thereby, no longer taxable. This will prevent large extractions of wealth from the economy for personal enrichment. 

With a system like this in place, we would not need a government body around to slow progress. The people would be cared for while getting economic gains from technological innovation shared with them. They would also have a robust safety net to help them into a new career. 

Obviously, my answer is an ideal system while what @delendarius has proposed is a way to modify the existing system without massive changes. It is very likely that we will have to pass through this type of regulatory system before we could even dream of my idealized system. 

- @theliberaltony