1 kilometer

It’s International Asteroid Day!

There are more than 700,000 known asteroids, but how much do you know about these rocky remnants left over from the birth of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago? 

Today, June 30 is International Asteroid Day. Here are some things to know about our fascinating space rubble.

1. A Place in Space 

Asteroids—named by British astronomer William Herschel from the Greek expression meaning “star-like"—are rocky, airless worlds that are too small to be called planets. But what they might lack in size they certainly make up for in number: An estimated 1.1 to 1.9 million asteroids larger than 1 kilometer are in the Main Belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. And there are millions more that are smaller in size. Asteroids range in size from Vesta—the largest at about 329 miles (529 kilometers) wide—to bodies that are just a few feet across.

2. What Lies Beneath 

Asteroids are generally categorized into three types: carbon-rich, silicate, or metallic, or some combination of the three. Why the different types? It all comes down to how far from the sun they formed. Some experienced high temperatures and partly melted, with iron sinking to the center and volcanic lava forced to the surface. The asteroid Vesta is one example we know of today.

3. Small Overall 

If all of the asteroids were combined into a ball, they would still be much smaller than the Earth’s moon.

4. Except for a Big One

In 1801, Giuseppe Piazzi discovered the first and then-largest asteroid, Ceres, orbiting between Mars and Jupiter. Ceres is so large that it encompasses about one-fourth of the estimated total mass of all the asteroids in the asteroid belt. In 2006, its classification changed from asteroid to  as a dwarf planet.

5. Mission to a Metal World 

NASA’s Psyche mission will launch in 2022 to explore an all-metal asteroid—what could be the core of an early planet—for the very first time. And in October 2021, the Lucy mission will be the first to visit Jupiter’s swarms of Trojan asteroids.

6. Near-Earth Asteroids

The term ‘near’ in near-Earth asteroid is actually a misnomer; most of these bodies do not come close to Earth at all. By definition, a near-Earth asteroid is an asteroid that comes within 28 million miles (44 million km) of Earth’s orbit. As of June 19, 2017, there are 16,209 known near-Earth asteroids, with 1,803 classified as potentially hazardous asteroids (those that could someday pose a threat to Earth).

7. Comin’ in Hot 

About once a year, a car-sized asteroid hits Earth’s atmosphere, creates an impressive fireball, and burns up before reaching the surface.

8. But We’re Keeping an Eye Out

Ground-based observatories and facilities such as Pan-STARRS, the Catalina Sky Survey, and ATLAS are constantly on the hunt to detect near-Earth asteroids. NASA also has a small infrared observatory in orbit about the Earth: NEOWISE. In addition to detecting asteroids and comets, NEOWISE also characterizes these small bodies.

9. Buddy System

Roughly one-sixth of the asteroid population have a small companion moon (some even have two moons). The first discovery of an asteroid-moon system was of asteroid Ida and its moon Dactyl in 1993.

10. Earthly Visitors 

Several NASA space missions have flown to and observed asteroids. The NEAR Shoemaker mission landed on asteroid Eros in 2001 and NASA’s Dawn mission was the first mission to orbit an asteroid in 2011. In 2005, the Japanese spacecraft Hayabusa landed on asteroid Itokawa. Currently, NASA’s OSIRIS-REx is en route to a near-Earth asteroid called Bennu; it will bring a small sample back to Earth for study.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

8

Walking on Water
Christo’s ‘Floating Piers’ installation finally opened to the public June 18th. The highly-anticipated reveal sees 100,000 square meters of shimmering yellow fabric wrap a floating dock that connects various points on Italy’s Lake Iseo. Undulating with the movement of the waves, visitors can now experience the ‘Floating Piers’ as they walk from Sulzano to Monte Isola and to the island of San Paolo, which it completely encircles. The 3 kilometer-long walkway extends clear across the water, with surrounding mountains offering a bird’s-eye view of a golden network of passageways that lead in and around the town. The fabric continues along 1.5 kilometers of pedestrian streets in Sulzano and Peschiera Maraglio.
Extraordinary!!!

The low angle of sunlight along the slim crescent of Saturn’s moon Enceladus (313 miles or 504 kilometers across) highlights the many fractures and furrows on its icy surface.

This view looks toward the Saturn-facing hemisphere of Enceladus, which is dimly illuminated in the image above by sunlight reflected off Saturn. North on Enceladus is up and rotated 14 degrees to the left. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Dec. 26, 2016.

The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 104,000 miles (168,000 kilometers) from Enceladus. Image scale is 3,303 feet (1 kilometer) per pixel.

The Cassini mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (the European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Cassini

Size may or may not matter
What you need to know:

A random pocket dimension where the players size continues to change randomly appears at the next door the players open.

How it begins:

The next time a player opens a door, maybe within a dungeon or a tavern, anything, they will see, instead what they expected, a random pocket dimension.


–1–

The sit above a planet, the atmosphere just skimming the horizon. The players view this world as if they are 100 kilometers tall and the door 1000 kilometers above the world.

  • -A-
    If players jump or climb out of the door, they fall 1000 kilometers to the surface of the world becoming a giant meteor crashing into the surface, leaving a huge creator and tearing up the planet for kilometers in every direction - which to the players, given their size, is the equivalent of 10 meters.
  • Every player who falls suffers D6 fall damage and sends a blast wave of ejects in the atmosphere only to rain back down a few rounds later, forcing all players in a radius to roll and avoid fiery rocks as they plummet to the earth and take X D6 fire damage.
  • -B-
    If the players stand, they cannot breath as there is no air at their height and begin to suffer the rules for suffocation, they also take X D6 cold damage as they are exposed to frigid temperatures.
    Note: crawling will avoid those effects.
  • -C-
    The world is a vast expense of forests, mountains and oceans the players can traverse with ease given their size -100 kilometers or 100,000 meters.
  • Examples:
    Mariana trench is 10,994 meters deep which would only reach the knees of a submerged player.
    Average ocean depth is 3,688 meters.
    Mount Everest is 8,848 meters, reaching only a shin.
    Average mountain is 4000-6000 meters.
    Airliners crush at around 10,000 to 11,000 meters.
  • -D-
    Give the players a few rounds to move about the world, splashing in oceans, crushing mountains under their feet before they start to shrink. As the players explore, every round of movement away from where the players landed, they begin to shrink by 1 kilometer till the players reach 10 kilometers in size and enter part 2.

–2–

A series of mountain ranges cross the players’ path.

  • -A-
    The players will begin to shrink for every mountain range they climb over.
  • The first range the player see is 10,000 meters tall and the mountains only 5000. The player can easily step over this range.
  • 2nd range - Players can still make it over this range without a climb roll. (Players are 7500 meters tall.)
  • 3rd range - Players make 1 climb check or suffer 1 D6 fall damage. (Players are 5000 meters tall.)
  • 4th range - Players make 2 climb checks or suffer 2 D6 fall damage. (Players are 2,500 meters tall.)
  • 5th range - Players make 5 climb checks or suffer 1 D6 fall damage. (Players are 1000 meters tall.)
  • -B-
    Once the players are 1 kilometer tall and climb past the 5th mountain range, they enter into part 3.

–3–

A range of primordial earth extends to the horizon. Volcanoes, geysers and pools bubble with spewing magma, forming 500 meter flows of lava that cover the surface of the world. The players can see dry lands between the flows of lava.

  • -A-
    Players will being to shrink for every lava flow they jump over.
    Note: Flows are 500 meters wide, but only 10 meters deep.
  • 1st flow - the players being 1000 meters tall will walk over the magma with ease.
  • 2nd flow - the players being 750 meters tall can hop over the flow without issue.
  • 3rd flow - the players being 500 meters tall need to roll a basic jump check to succeed. Failing results in suffering minor burns to their feet, suffering 1/10th lava damage or 1 D6 fire damage.
  • 4th flow - the players being 250 meters tall need to roll a moderate jump check to succeed, failing results in the player falling ankle deep into lava, suffering only 1/5th lava damage or 4 D6 fire damage.
  • 5th flow - the player being 100 meters needs to roll a very high jump check to succeed. Failing results in in the player falling waist deep into lava, suffering only ½ lava damage or 10 D6 fire damage.
  • -B-
    After the 5th flow, the players reach a set of stairs leading up the side of a 6000 meter tall volcano spewing molten globs of rocks. At the end of the stairway is a 100 meter tall obsidian doorway.
  • As players climb the steps, they must roll to avoid the hurling molten rocks or suffer X D6 fire damage.
  • -C-
    The door is locked and needs to be picked or brute forced to open all while the players dodge molten rocks.
  • The doors leads to part 4.

–4–

A 100 meter tall, 100 meter wide and 1000 meter long obsidian hall extends before the players, ending at a 30 meter iron door at the other side.

  • -A-
    Every 10 meters the players move, they shrink by 1 meter till reaching the door only 1 meter tall.
  • -B-
    The door is unlocked and the players must push open the door, needing a high strength roll to succeed.
    Note: this should require the effort of all the players.
  • The door leads into part 5

–5–

The obsidian hall starts off at 100 meters tall by 100 meters wide, but shrinks 1 meter by 1 meter every meter in length.

  • -A-
    The players do not shrink as they move through the hall and remain their 1 meter size.
  • -B-
    The hall ends 10 by 10 centimeter in size with a 10 centimeter size door blocking the way.
    Note: The players, even at 1 meter, are too tall to enter the door.
  • The door leads to part 5.
  • -C-
    There is a secret panel in the hall the players must find that opens to a lever that when pulled shrinks the players to 10 centimeter in size.

–6–

The door opens to the inside of the wall where the players are only the size of a mouse. The mouse hole leads out of the wall and into a cottage where a man can be seen sweeping the ground. Across from the players on the other wall is another mouse hole. A mousetraps with a key instead of cheese is by a giant table near the person sweeping.

  • -A-
    If the players leave the hole, the person will react to the players as if they are rats or mice and begin trying to swat the players for X D6 damage.
  • -B-
    The 2nd mouse hole contains a locked door which can only be opened with the key on the mouse trap.
  • The door leads to part 7.
  • -C-
    The key on the mousetrap, if touched or moved, springs the trap resulting in a player having to roll or be struck for X D6 damage by the wire. The player, if hit, then must roll again or become pinned under the metal wire.
  • Any players pinned in the trap must roll escape artist or dexterity to become unstuck.

–7–

The door opens to a field of grass where the players are only the size of ants.

  • -A-
    Past the grass, the players reach a pond where fish swim below the surface and frogs sit upon lilies.
  • Floating in the center of the pond upon a lily, a wooden door is built onto the side of a small stone.
  • -B-
    Traversing the pond requires the players to avoid being eating by the frogs or fish.
  • Any player hit by the fish or frogs results in being swallowed whole.
  • The player then suffers X D6 acid damage as they are digested.
  • The player can cut their way out of the stomach by either doing X damage or needing X rounds to create a hole, whichever you as the DM deems more appropriate for the moment.
  • -C-
    The door on the stone is unlocked and leads to part 8.

–8–

The door opens to the inside of an artery where the players are the size of a cell. Red and white blood cells tumble together as the sounds of a heart beats in the distance.
Note: the players are not required to breath from here on.

  • -A-
    Any player who enters the artery is immediately pushed through the veins by the force of the heart.
  • Players must roll strength or dexterity to maneuver through the veins.
  • Any player who fails is tossed about against the other cells, suffering X D6 crushing damage.
  • A 2nd consecutive fail results in players being sucked towards the heart and a third failure results in death as they are crushed by the heart.
  • -B-
    The veins should be a small maze the players can explore, trying to find the end.
  • -C-
    The white blood cells will attack the players.
  • They will have the stats of oozes and deal X D6 acid damage as they try to engulf a player.
  • -D-
    At the end of one of the veins, the players can find a door.
  • The door is unlocked and when opened leads to part 9.

–9–

The door opens to a realm of atoms where the players are the size of electrons.
  • -A-
    Immediately when the players enter, they are bonded to an atom nucleus flying around the atom as an electron.
  • In order for the player to move form atom to atom, they must use force of will or roll wisdom, finding their own internal energy and changing it.
    Note: There is no real threat here, just let the player enjoy being atoms.
  • -B-
    After jumping a few times, the player enter in a vortex, becoming even smaller, entering the realm of strings, quantum foam and points, this starts part 10.

–10–

At this level, the players no longer have a size tossed around in the foam of space. They eventually see the foam bubble, vibrate until it explodes creating before their eyes a big bang. The players hurl through the space of the universe until they once again reach the very door where this all started, their hands on the handle just before they were about to open it.

The door will no longer open into the dimension and instead open to where it was previously intended to.

End:

There is no treasure or big boss. It was an experience, but what impact did it have on your players?
Maybe they all gained points in wisdom or intelligence, learning things about their world they never knew.
Maybe it left them fearful of size changes and in the future anything that can change its size will result in the player rolling fear.
Maybe the experience changed the fabric of the players, resulting in the players being able to change their size to that of a giant or mouse a few times a day, week or month.

Either way, have fun and hope to see you again.

Can you imagine that this Porsche 930 has clocked over 1,150,000 kilometers? Follow the link in bio to watch the video episode where Bill MacEachern and his unique Porsche are being featured.

3

© me

Yeah I am drawing with Colloseum based building just digging down.

The width of the thing is 1-5 Kilometers. I make it small because to avoid country border controversy that is forever hot issues (get it? Hot?? I will stop making puns ) The wall height is 2-5 m or 1-3 m. The depth is 6-10m. It won’t make any oil leakage because oil can be found around 100 m depth.

I read on amnh.com that if the arctic melt then the land area will sink about around 70 metres. So yeah I thought if the countries start digging down whether with human strength or drilling machine. Make sure the marine dudes/animals are safe before drilling tho. Drilling on military area, tourist area and dispute area are highly not recommended. The shape is like a cone and not square, cylinder/tube so crawling ocean creatures can crawl up and down and not stuck.

The wall is created with artifical reef non toxic bricks that promote marine life so it is like small world there, planting or farming seaweed and other type of aquamarine plants are so suggested or farming planktons if possible in the future for cooling down ocean as well. We have no idea what kind of things human will do later on.

Oh anyway I want to give it cute name like Tiny Ocean Pit (TOP). But I guess Anti Sinking Man Made Pit(ASMMP)will be cooler…

This is not my best drawing but I guess it is cuteee!!!!!!! This plan might be shitty but anyway orange juice will be fantastic for night juicing!~ sorry for not answering your chat. I still love talking with ya ok?? @piiess

Originally posted by dailyhetagifs

8

The most spectacular test track of the world⬇Lingotto
If you thought that Lingotto is only the name of the track,you were wrong. Lingotto is a district of Turin, whose appearance and development was essentially defined by the FIAT Group, which built an automobile factory there in 1916.
The factory is located on Via Nizza and was opened in 1923 after 7 years of construction.
Le Corbusier called it “one of the most impressive sights in industry”, and “a guideline for town planning”.
The production facility was the largest and most advanced of its time and even had a 1-kilometer-long test track as a circular course on the roof. The finished vehicles could be driven to the roof directly after the production and completed test rounds. Until the 1970s, up to 80 different car models, including the FIAT Topolino in 1936, were produced. The final closure took place in 1982.

After the general decline of the quarter and the steady decline of the site, the population expressed the desire to revive the site. After numerous demonstrations, the authorities intervened and opened an architectural competition to redesign and modernize the site. Winner of the competition was Renzo Piano, who designed a modern cultural and exhibition center with a concert hall, a multiplex cinema (Paté Lingotto), a 5-star hotel Le Meridien, a shopping center & a cube on the roof of the Pinacoteca Giovanni e Marella Agnelli While at the same time preserving the external shape of the plant. The conversion and modernization work was completed in 1989.
The Lingotto building is featured extensively in the Alberto Lattuada film Mafioso (1962).
The original Lingotto rooftop test track features briefly in the getaway sequence in the film The Italian Job (1969).
The building is also featured in the fourth episode of the 20th season of The Amazing Race, originally aired in the US on March 11, 2012.
The Building and test track was featured on the first episode of James May’s Cars of the People.
Similar rooftop tests tracks exist: Imperia in Nessonvaux in Belgium & Palacio Chrysler in Buenos Aires. From 1928 to 1958, Imperia had a track over 1 km long which was built partially on top of the factory.

anonymous asked:

What does Arca Barracks look like, most likely? Is it a part of a larger military base, seperate from the streets of Coruscant? I have a feeling I've probably been imagining it fairly wrong this whole time.

The short answer is that the Arca Barracks is a wing of the larger Special Operations Brigade Headquarters (SO HQ) and is presumably part of multiple barracks blocks dedicated to the troopers serving in the brigade. It appears to be inaccessible to public, and I agree with you as imagining it separate from the public streets of Coruscant. SO HQ is located three kilometers (1.86 miles) away from GAR HQ, but I imagine that the SO HQ complex is a smaller complex located within a massive and sprawling military complex that comprises the GAR HQ. SO HQ maintains many of its own facilities, including a landing strip and hangars.

The longer answer involves working through the usage of the phrase “Arca Barracks” to refer to SO HQ, the grounds and facilities at the SO HQ, and attempts at figuring out the spatial relationship between all of these.

Location of Arca Barracks and SO HQ

Arca Company Barracks, often just referred to as Arca Barracks, is a barracks block for the Special Operations Brigade. It’s presumably one of multiple barracks blocks, one for each company in the brigade; this one is for, as the name suggests, Arca Company. Arca Barracks are described as being a wing of the Special Operations Brigade Headquarters, and presumably other barracks blocks are considered different wings of the SO HQ complex. Presumably, they together make up the sometimes referenced accommodation block of the SO HQ complex.

SO HQ is located three kilometers (1.86 miles) away from the GAR HQ, which I’m assuming is the same as Coruscant Command HQ, and the SO HQ is distinct from Fleet Ops HQ. I’m not sure what the spatial relationship between Fleet Ops HQ and GAR HQ is. It’s likely that the SO HQ is a smaller complex part of the GAR HQ military complex, which I assume is massive and sprawling like everything else on Coruscant. The Arca Barracks, however, is completely separate from the barracks set aside for troopers not part of the brigade. The Arca Barracks are described as being right off or reasonably near a square that is open to the public. However, nobody is guarding the Arca Barracks until after the Battle of Coruscant; Ordo’s ID is checked after the Battle of Coruscant, and he notes this as odd. The Arca Barracks and the SO HQ complex appear to be inaccessible to the public at all times. I imagine that, like the main portion of GAR HQ complex, they are separate from the streets and other public areas of Coruscant.

Interpretation of phrasing

Many characters seem to use the phrase “Arca Barracks” to refer to what is known as the brigade’s HQ Main Admin Building. Zey’s office is sometimes described as part of SO HQ proper, in the Main Admin Building, and sometimes it’s described as part of Arca Barracks (henceforth simply “the barracks” unless otherwise stated). Corridors that seem to be part of the Main Admin Building are described to be located in the barracks. Generally, I interpret that this usage of the phrasing in these contexts doesn’t refer to the barracks block itself but rather it’s a kind of synecdoche to refer to the SO complex as a whole.

Grounds and facilities

The barracks is described as having its own parade ground, training wing, gymnasium presumably in the training wing, landing strip, hangars, and armory; however, through the interpretation I outline in the previous section, I tend to believe these aren’t specific to the barracks but that these are actually part of the entire SO HQ complex grounds. Similarly, Ordo describes that there is often a row of “dispatch speeder bikes” by the main entrance of the barracks, but I often wonder if they aren’t actually by the HQ main entrance. The barracks themselves are mentioned to have a recreation room or area, and I tend to assume barracks blocks for other companies have their own. The Main Admin Building also contains numerous briefing rooms.

The barracks are accessible from a ground floor main entrance, which presumably is located on the parade ground; this main entrance opens into a long corridor. The barracks are also accessible via a turbolift, and Zey’s office is described as being a turbolift ride down from Ordo’s quarters. There’s presumably side entrances to the barracks accessible from the parade ground, hence the phrasing “main entrance”. Sev considers it a shortcut to cut across the parade ground to get to Delta’s quarters from Zey’s office.

The parade ground is one of the most significant features of the SO HQ complex. It’s made of ferrocrete, and it’s described as “a platform edged with a low retaining wall and a border of manicured bushes". It can be seen from many rooms in the wings of the complex, including Delta’s quarters and the barracks recreation room. Many buildings and wings of the complex are accessible from the parade ground, including the main and side entrances to the armory and the main entrance to the hangars. Quick pickups via speeder are often made on the parade ground. I generally imagine that the parade ground is the centerpiece of the SO HQ complex and that all other buildings, wings, and areas are arranged around it, much like how many college campuses are arranged around a quad or other structures or complexes are arranged around a courtyard.

Population and activity

As stated before, the Arca Barracks are for Arca Company. Those who have their quarters in Arca Barracks include Omega squad, Delta squad, Ordo and presumably the other Nulls, Maze, and Kal; Etain is later stated to be staying at these barracks rather than the Jedi Temple.

Generally, the barracks, the parade ground, the Main Admin Building, and basically any part of the SO HQ complex is empty. The parade ground is often completely empty “except for the occasional impromptu game of bolo-ball”. Darman describes the barracks: “Arca Barracks was eerily empty much of the time, with most of the commando squads deployed and only a handful there between missions to debrief, recuperate a little, and pick up any necessary retraining and new kit.” After the Battle of Coruscant, Ordo notes the corridors of the barracks being empty means “little had changed for the Republic commandos”.

Other notes

Regarding the siege at the SO Barracks shortly after the Battle of Geonosis, it is unclear if Arca Barracks is specifically the one the Nulls held. They’re said to have “shut down the whole barracks” and Camas refuses to “obliterate an whole barracks block” because of them, and every mention of whatever barracks block they’re holding and how many is unspecified. But it is very likely that it is Arca Barracks.

Ordo has a desk and presumably an office for that desk to stand in. However, it’s described as being at Fleet Ops HQ, not at SO HQ. Again, because I’m unsure where or what Fleet Ops is relative to both SO HQ and GAR HQ, I have no idea how far Ordo has to travel to get to his desk from the barracks. It seems to me that Ordo splits his time between Fleet Ops and SO HQ.

No civilians are ever described as working at SO HQ, but there are civilians working at Coruscant Command HQ. (See: the logistics center.) There’s probably civilians working at Fleet Ops as well, seeing as Ordo wearing his helmet is a dead giveaway that he’s at his office and Ordo flat refuses to remove his helmet for the comfort of civilians.

Huvudvärk 04:00

Mina tankar står inte stilla trots att jorden roterar runt sin egen axel i 1 674,4 kilometer i timmen. Det finns så mycket jag vill översätta ut till bordet, här och synligt öppet för er. Det är många tankar som bränns när jag tar i dom just nu och att släcka elden är att berätta. Kanske är det för tidigt ännu trots att jag varit å säker. Öppen för sämre perioder men alltid säker. Men jag har tvivlat, tvekat i. Är det något jag inte sett i detta, är det saker jag missat, gått förbi med fokus på nödutgången; Kanske.
Men om heller inte minnet synliggjort dessa ännu känns det inte naturligt att tvångsmässigt tänka fram något som jag ej kommit till insikt i ännu. Kanske är det oviktigt och litet i det stora hela men det har påverkat mig, och i sin tur har det påverkat mig för att det påverkat mig, pingpong matchen har på så vis börjat. Missta heller inte, jag har inte glömt midsommar men trots sin högtidlighets-press mådde jag ganska bra. Donade ihop en prydlig jordgubbstårta trots märkbara kladdiga spår i köket (på kinden, i håret) efteråt. Och inte ska ni tro jag fotograferade det heller utan tårta ska väl främst ätas.

För att komma tillbaka till första tankarna så vill jag att ni ska förstå att det har varit en tuff fas, egentligen alla dessa månader men framförallt nu när tiden gått och man står där framför väggen “Gå vidare för alltid”. Det krävs att jag får tänka av och an, öppet och fritt. Läste dessutom en kommentar inatt, den hade inget med detta att göra men den var udda, bra, fin; Samtidigt kom den åt mig. Det var modigt och fint på något vis. Jag har alltid föredragit de modiga.

This is a 1896 photograph of the passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius), which went extinct by human hands in the late 19th century. It was once the most abundant bird in the whole of North america, and possibly also the world, accounting for approximately a quarter of all birds in N. America. The species are known for their massive migratory flocks, which could consist of several billions of individuals. One particular flock observed in 1866, was decribed as being 1.5 kilometers (1 mi) wide, and 500 kilometers (300 mi) long. It took the flock about 14 hours to pass, and approximately contained 3.5 billion animals. Hunting and habitat destruction led to its demise. The last passenger pigeon probably died in 1914.

1866 - billions and billions of animals.
1916 - extinct.

15 Mind-Blowing Facts That You Should Read (Part 154)

1. Studies have shown that sandwiches do taste better when someone else makes them for you: when we make something ourselves, we tend to become desensitised to its smell, which decreases our response towards it.

2. Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler were born 129 years apart, came into power 129 years apart, and declared war on Russia 129 years apart.

3. Owing to their mixed-race parentage, twins Maria and Lucy Aylmer look completely unlike one another, down to their skin tone.

4. A hospital billed a family nearly $474,000 for a four-day treatment, including a $12 charge for each of the little paper cups that holds the patient’s pills.

5. One of the reasons your lungs feel refreshed when walking through a pine forest is because of an anti-inflammatory compound called…

Keep reading

“On August 6, 1945 during World War II, an atomic bomb was dropped on the town of Hiroshima, Japan. 140,000 people were killed or injured. There was a home eight blocks (about 1 kilometer) from where the A-Bomb went off . This home had a church attached to it which  was completely destroyed, but the home survived, and so did the eight  German Jesuit missionaries who prayed the rosary in that house  faithfully every day. These men were missionaries to the Japanese  people, they were non-military, but because Germany and Japan were  allies during WWII they were permitted to live and minister within Japan  during the war.
Not only did they all survive with (at most)  relatively minor injuries, but they all lived well past that awful day  with no radiation sickness, no loss of hearing, or any other visible  long term defects or maladies. Naturally, they were interviewed and  examined numerous times (Fr. Schiffer, a survivor, said over 200 times)  by scientists and health care people about their remarkable experience  and they say “we believe that we survived because we were living the message of Fatima. We lived and prayed the rosary daily in that home.”

-Famous rosary miracle-

8

Angkor Wat is the largest religious monument in the world; it’s shear size and beauty is unbelievable. The outer wall encloses 820,000 square meters of inscriptions, monuments, terraces, galleries, towers, courtyards, and pavilions, and is surrounded by a 190m-wide moat forming a complex measuring 1.5km by 1.3km. The mother of all temples is famous not only for it’s size and importance; however, but the complexity and detail of the astonishing and endless bas-relief sculptures as well.- over 1 square kilometer of them. It’s truly a site to behold, and my photos can’t even begin to do it justice.

2

NASA Saturn Mission Prepares for ‘Ring-Grazing Orbits’

First Phase in Dramatic Endgame for Long-Lived Cassini Spacecraft

A thrilling ride is about to begin for NASA’s Cassini spacecraft.

Engineers have been pumping up the spacecraft’s orbit around Saturn this year to increase its tilt with respect to the planet’s equator and rings.

And on Nov. 30, following a gravitational nudge from Saturn’s moon Titan, Cassini will enter the first phase of the mission’s dramatic endgame.

Launched in 1997, Cassini has been touring the Saturn system since arriving there in 2004 for an up-close study of the planet, its rings and moons. During its journey, Cassini has made numerous dramatic discoveries, including a global ocean within Enceladus and liquid methane seas on Titan.

Between Nov. 30 and April 22, Cassini will circle high over and under the poles of Saturn, diving every seven days – a total of 20 times – through the unexplored region at the outer edge of the main rings.

“We’re calling this phase of the mission Cassini’s Ring-Grazing Orbits, because we’ll be skimming past the outer edge of the rings,” said Linda Spilker, Cassini project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. “In addition, we have two instruments that can sample particles and gases as we cross the ringplane, so in a sense Cassini is also 'grazing’ on the rings.”

On many of these passes, Cassini’s instruments will attempt to directly sample ring particles and molecules of faint gases that are found close to the rings. During the first two orbits, the spacecraft will pass directly through an extremely faint ring produced by tiny meteors striking the two small moons Janus and Epimetheus. Ring crossings in March and April will send the spacecraft through the dusty outer reaches of the F ring.

“Even though we’re flying closer to the F ring than we ever have, we’ll still be more than 4,850 miles (7,800 kilometers) distant. There’s very little concern over dust hazard at that range,” said Earl Maize, Cassini project manager at JPL.

The F ring marks the outer boundary of the main ring system; Saturn has several other, much fainter rings that lie farther from the planet. The F ring is complex and constantly changing: Cassini images have shown structures like bright streamers, wispy filaments and dark channels that appear and develop over mere hours. The ring is also quite narrow – only about 500 miles (800 kilometers) wide. At its core is a denser region about 30 miles (50 kilometers) wide.

So Many Sights to See
Cassini’s ring-grazing orbits offer unprecedented opportunities to observe the menagerie of small moons that orbit in or near the edges of the rings, including best-ever looks at the moons Pandora, Atlas, Pan and Daphnis.

Grazing the edges of the rings also will provide some of the closest-ever studies of the outer portions of Saturn’s main rings (the A, B and F rings). Some of Cassini’s views will have a level of detail not seen since the spacecraft glided just above them during its arrival in 2004. The mission will begin imaging the rings in December along their entire width, resolving details smaller than 0.6 mile (1 kilometer) per pixel and building up Cassini’s highest-quality complete scan of the rings’ intricate structure.

The mission will continue investigating small-scale features in the A ring called “propellers,” which reveal the presence of unseen moonlets. Because of their airplane propeller-like shapes, scientists have given some of the more persistent features informal names inspired by famous aviators, including “Earhart.” Observing propellers at high resolution will likely reveal new details about their origin and structure.

And in March, while coasting through Saturn’s shadow, Cassini will observe the rings backlit by the sun, in the hope of catching clouds of dust ejected by meteor impacts.

Preparing for the Finale
During these orbits, Cassini will pass as close as about 56,000 miles (90,000 kilometers) above Saturn’s cloud tops. But even with all their exciting science, these orbits are merely a prelude to the planet-grazing passes that lie ahead. In April 2017, the spacecraft will begin its Grand Finale phase.

After nearly 20 years in space, the mission is drawing near its end because the spacecraft is running low on fuel. The Cassini team carefully designed the finale to conduct an extraordinary science investigation before sending the spacecraft into Saturn to protect its potentially habitable moons.

During its grand finale, Cassini will pass as close as 1,012 miles (1,628 kilometers) above the clouds as it dives repeatedly through the narrow gap between Saturn and its rings, before making its mission-ending plunge into the planet’s atmosphere on Sept. 15. But before the spacecraft can leap over the rings to begin its finale, some preparatory work remains.

To begin with, Cassini is scheduled to perform a brief burn of its main engine during the first super-close approach to the rings on Dec. 4. This maneuver is important for fine-tuning the orbit and setting the correct course to enable the remainder of the mission.

“This will be the 183rd and last currently planned firing of our main engine. Although we could still decide to use the engine again, the plan is to complete the remaining maneuvers using thrusters,” said Maize.

To further prepare, Cassini will observe Saturn’s atmosphere during the ring-grazing phase of the mission to more precisely determine how far it extends above the planet. Scientists have observed Saturn’s outermost atmosphere to expand and contract slightly with the seasons since Cassini’s arrival. Given this variability, the forthcoming data will be important for helping mission engineers determine how close they can safely fly the spacecraft.

Trolltunga trip

21-22-23 August - Day 16-17-18/135

When you talk about Norway, one of the main things that comes up are the beautiful landscapes and one of the most famous scenic point in Norway is definitely Trolltunga. I mean, look at this.

Something no one tells you is that to get there you need to hike through very steep climbs, muddy creeks, snow (yes, in August too!), slippery rocks and much more. The signs say that’s a 22km hike with a height difference of 900 meters but in reality is about 34km because the path is not linear at all. It took me 4.5 hour to get at the top and a little less to get back, starting at 7.30am and arriving at 6.00pm with a 2 hour break on top.

But it’s so worth it. 

We rent a few cars and on Friday afternoon we started our road trip to reach Røldal, a municipality in the Hordaland county, where our rental apartments were located. The 4.5 journey across Vest- and Aust-Agder was beautiful itself. The road (Rv 9) runs along the Setesdal valley and the Otra river, the Byglandsfjord and lots of typical villages made of red houses and little churches. 

In the evening we got to our apartments, they were amazing! Cabins with moss on the roof from where we could hear a near waterfall flowing, minimalistic settings and equipped with everything we needed.

We set up our alarms at 4.30am for the next day and got ready to leave for Skjeggedal, that’s the closest village and starting point of the hike to Trolltunga. 

And so we started. The first 1-2 kilometers are the hardest! The path is made of very steep stone steps that look like they never end and it’s so tiring that you almost want to give up everything. But please don’t do it! Once this fast ascend is over, it’s all flat and beautiful. There are rocky plateaus, small lakes, fresh streams and little cabins everywhere. Snowy zones, green meadows, waterfalls and breathtaking views over Ringedalsvatnet. Lots of hours, kilometers and sweat later we arrived at the Trolltunga spot. It’s majestic and amazing and all the tiredness from the hike goes away when you are on top. The mountains are impressive, the cliffs above the lake are both scary and astonishing. 

The right word for all of this is sublime (”A greatness beyond all possibility of calculation, measurement, or imitation.”).

We ate lunch, took hundreds of pictures and relaxed a bit before to hike back. Whoever said that the way back it’s easier, lied. Every slope is now a climb and viceversa and it can be very hard to descend on slippery rocks. Like at the start of the hike, also at the end, the last kilometers are the worst, but thinking about the 20km you have already done is a great incentive to finish the route. 
Exhausted but proud and happy we got back to our apartments and closed the day with beers and s’mores.