Easy Hiragana - Row: R
  • Easy Hiragana - Row: R
  • Crunchy Nihongo
  • Crunchy

Easy Hiragana - Row:
RA - RI - RU - RE - RO

Below is the list of words use as a sample in the sound file:
らいげつ (来月) = next month
らいしゅう (来週) = next week
らいねん (来年) = next year

りっぱ (立派) = splendid
りゆう (理由) = reason
りく (陸) = land/shore

るいじ (類似) = similarity
るいせき (累積) = accumulation
るいけい (累計) = total

れい (例) = example
れいぞうこ (冷蔵庫) = refrigerator
れきし (歴史) = history

ろく (六) = six
ろうか (廊下) = corridor
ろんじる (論じる) = to debate

Weekly Update 2/1 - 2-5


仕 - Added “do” to meanings for consistency
続 - Corrected typo
羊 - Rewrote meaning explanation
減 - Changed wording in meaning explanation
印 - Added “mark” to meanings
藍 - Corrected typo


火照る - Corrected typo
不合格 - Rewrote reading explanation
恋 - Added missing parts of speech
観る - Added “to watch” to meanings
シアトル市 - Changed wording in meaning explanation
始める - Added mnemonic to differenciate from 始まる
始まる - Added mnemonic to differenciate from 始める
最も - Changed mnemonic to “motto” from moat (conflicted with もと)
〜向け - Rewrote meaning explanation to try and make the connection clearer 
両方 - Changed mnemonic to “houdini” from “hoe” for consistency 

Signs seen in Aortic regurgitation mnemonic

Hello! In this post, I talk about the signs seen in Aortic regurgitation and share a few mnemonics with you. I also inserted some gifs to make it fun.

I recommend using mnemonics for the signs you can’t remember after learning them thoroughly than trying to memorize the mnemonics first :)

Let’s get started :D

de Musset’s sign: Rhythmic nodding or bobbing of the head in synchrony with the beating of the heart.

Mnemonic: Imagine a musketeer, raising his hat and then bowing his head stylishly.

Originally posted by emmahb20

Muller sign: Systolic pulsations of uvula.
Mnemonic: M for Muller, M for mouth. Muller’s sign is seen in the mouth.
You could also think of MU in MUller - Muller, Uvula.

Originally posted by teded

Quincke’s sign: Regurgitant blood flow into a dilated left ventricle during diastole leads to a decrease in diastolic pressure and a consequent increase in stroke volume, resulting in blanching and flushing, respectively, of the nail bed.

PS: They are pulsations which are SEEN, they are NOT FELT.

Quincke’s pulse is the capillary pulsations and any thing that demonstrates these pulsations may be known as Quincke’s sign. (I don’t know for sure though.)

Other ways to see Quincke’s pulse:

- While drawing the thumb nail sharply across the forehead, one can cause a red mark, which can be seen paling and flushing with each beat of the heart.

- When pressing a glass slide on the inner part of the lower lip, the same capillary pulsation will be seen.

So these two can also be called Quincke’s signs! :)

Mnemonic: I honestly don’t have a mnemonic for this one. Uhh.. How about.. “Quickly keep Quiet with Quincke’s finger on your lips?” The Q’s to remind you of Quincke. Finger for nail bed. Lips for the glass slide thingy.

Originally posted by tennydr10confidential

Watson’s water hammer pulse: A pulse that is bounding and forceful, rapidly increasing and subsequently collapsing, it resembles the strike of waterhammer, a Victorian toy.

Mnemonic: This image. Look at the bounding of poor Donald’s head :P

Originally posted by gameraboy

Traube’s sign: A ‘pistol shot’ systolic sound heard over the femoral artery.

Mnemonic: You keep pistol (gun) in your trousers in the belt (which is near the femoral area). So pistol shot is traubes (trousers) sign which is the sound over the femoral vein.

Originally posted by blckdiamondss

Light house sign: Alternate flushing and blanching of forehead.
Mnemonic: Imagine a light house flashing lights on and off. Your forehead becomes a light house, going pale and flushed, as if lights are going on and off in your head.

Gerhardt’s sign: Also known as “Sailer’s sign”, in severe aortic valve regurgitation, Gerhardt’s  sign is present when pulsations of the spleen are detected in the presence of splenomegaly. This is from the large forward stroke volume that is present in this state.

Mnemonic: GPS - Gerhardt Pulsatile Spleen (Sailer too)

Here’s a sailor navigating with no GPS :P

Originally posted by littlehorrorshop

Landolfi’s sign: It is alternating dilation and constriction of the pupils in time with the patient’s heartbeat. The sign is a result of the increase in pulse pressure that occurs with aortic insufficiency.

Mnemonic: You dream of the lands you wish to visit with your wide eyes :P

Originally posted by magical-boy-rohariel

Becker’s sign: Presence of visible (through an opthalmoscope) pulsation of retinal arteries.

Mnemonic: BeckeR. Becker sign - Retinal artery pulsations.

Duroziez’s sign: Audible diastolic murmur which can be heard over the femoral artery when it is compressed with the bell of a stethoscope.

Mnemonic: D for Diastolic murmur, D for Duroziez, D for Deaf (It’s audible xD).

Originally posted by shootmesenpai

Got no mnemonic for these but posting them for the sake of completion :)

Mayne’s sign: Drop of at least 15 mmHg in the diastolic blood pressure on raising the arm.

Originally posted by d-epth

Okay.. Enough of stupid images :P

Rosenbach sign: The pulsation of the liver during systole caused by the high stroke volume.

Hill’s sign: Popliteal cuff systolic pressure exceeding brachial cuff systolic pressure by more than 10 - 20 mm Hg.

Lincoln sign: Pulsatile popliteal.

Sherman sign: Dorsalis pedis pulse is quickly located and unexpectedly prominent in age >75 yr.

Ashrafian sign: Pulsatile pseudo-proptosis.

Corrigan’s pulse: A jerky carotid pulse characterized by full expansion followed by quick collapse. Also known as Dancing carotid. *tempted to put a dancing gif*

Pulsus biferiens: Click here.

Locomotor brachii: Prominent pulsation of brachial artery seen in aortic regurgitation.

Did you know? Dilatation of the heart with hypertrophy is called “ox-heart” in AR.

That’s all!
I’m in America, having a wonderful time with other international medical students. Things aren’t going quite as expected so far but I am learning a lot. I need you guys to pray for me :)I hope I get a strong letter of recommendation from my professors and get acquainted with people who will make getting Internal Medicine residency in a University Hospital easier for me.
Pray for me, guys.

anonymous asked:

Can you store math formulas in your mind palace?

Of course, this is the most fun you can have in math class since there’s little else to do. In Physics you have the equations for work and power (I know you asked for more so generally math but this is one of the best math mnemonics I have). Work is Force times Distance(or Speed depending on the type of work), Work is expressed in Joules after James Joules. 1 Joule = 1 Newton * 1 Metre. Then there’s Power, which is how much Work you can do in a given time. Power is expressed in Watts after James Watt. Watts = Joules / Time.

So how do you memorise this. Here’s my mnemonic: Issac Newton picked an apple up above his head, but James Joules was so cool he beat Newton by a Metre, the came James Watt, and just like that, he cut Joules work by seconds.

Decoded version: An apple is about 1 Newton. 1 Joule is a Newton times a Metre. A Watt is Joules divided by seconds (or any other normal unit of time).

Sure it sounds a bit cheesy but if you break this mnemonic down and understand it you won’t forget it. Hope this helps, if you want a specific equation done then send it to me but I wont do an entire test’s worth for you. The best part of mnemonics is when you remember something and realise that that memory is completely yours (well, as much as anything is ever original) and you invented that mnemonic.

anonymous asked:

can you talk about TA-form?

Sure, but before talking about TA-form, i think it would be useful to some readers to talk about Verb form & Verb group type first for a more basic reader

Verb Form
In English we have plurals. When we say ORANGES, the additional S means that there is more than 1 orange.
In similar ways, in Japanese, the verbs have many kinds of forms, one of them is Ta-form. The form affect/give more information about the meaning of the word.

Here’s some basic forms and its purpose:
TABERU is dictionary form : to eat (very casual)
TABEMASU is masu form : to eat (polite use)
TABENAI is nai form : to not eat (negative of dictionary)
TABETA is ta form : ate (action has been done)

Verb Group
The different type of forms have different formula for different type of group. 
There are 3 groups. Group 1 called Godan, Group 2 called ICHIDAN, and Group 3 is IRREGULAR group

1.Godan literally means 5 steps , it means that the last kana in the word change to the 5 vowel forms (A , I , U, E, O) . Since it change to different forms when conjugate, it require a bit of memorization. 
*Its kinda similar like when you need to memorize the word change in English (eat -> ate -> eaten / see -> saw -> seen)

Ex: Yomu (to read)
Yomu / Yomi-masu / Yoma-nai / Yome-ru / Yomō

2. Ichidan literally means 1 step, the verb only have one form and doesn’t change when you conjugate it. 
*Its kinda similar like the “-ed” word in English (ask -> asked/ boil -> boiled )

Ex: Taberu (to eat)
Tabe-ru / Tabe-masu / Tabe-nai / Tabe-rareru / Tabe-ro

3. Irregular verb
There are only a few of irregular verb and you just need to memorize and get used to it.

Some basic irregular verb you will often encounter:  
Iku (to go), suru (to do), kuru (to come)

Alright, that’s all the basic of verb conjugation. Now Finally, to the Ta - form…

Learning verb conjugation requires a mastery of Hiragana. If you’re still working out to read hiragana, it’s best to skip the section below until you’ve mastered hiragana and learned the easier verb form like masu/nai. 

The た-form, is used to express that the action has been completed, something has been done. In たべた, it means, he/she/it already ATE.
The た-form can be used alone or combined with another word to express a more complex things. such as -たり (conjugation used when giving examples of many actions) 


た - Form Formula
If you already know how to conjugate て - Form , た - Form is easy.
Just change て –> た and で –> だ and you’re done! Wohoo!!

If you don’t know how to conjugate て - Form … well… let’s learn it together!

The Formula
To learn Japanese form formula easier, we need to use KANA instead of romaji. So it is best that you master the Hiragana first. Since in conjugation, the important thing to notice is LAST KANA. Last Kana is the last Japanese alphabet in the word. 
in verb よむ (to read), the last kana is む. In およぐ (to swim), its

With this formula below, you can conjugate from other type of form. 
The masu form last kana use I-row 「いきぎしちにびみりい」
While the dictionary last kana use U-row 「うくぐすつぬぶむるう」

When you try to conjugate from masu form , for example, かきます. You know the last kana is き. Or from the dictionary form, かく, The last kana is く. You see… only the vowel change. Now that you know its from the K-row, you can use the K-row formula to conjugate. I hope it make sense… 

GROUP A ———————
Last Kana U 「う」
Last Kana T-row「たちつてと」
Last Kana R-row「らりるれろ」

–> change the last Kana into little つ and add た
(言う) い –> いった
(立つ) た –> たった
(帰る) かえ –> かった

GROUP B ———————
Last Kana M-row「まみむめも」
Last Kana B-row「ばびぶべぼ」
Last Kana N-row 「なにぬねの」

–> change the last kana into ん and add だ
(読む) よ –> よんだ
(遊ぶ) あそ  –> あそんだ
(死ぬ) し  –> しんだ

GROUP C ———————
Last Kana K-row & G-row 「かきくけこーがぎぐげご」

–> change the last kana to い and add た for K-row / だ for G-row

(書く) か –> かいた
(脱ぐ) ぬ –> ぬいだ
(話す) はな –> はなした

GROUP D ———————
Last Kana S-row「さしすせそ」

–> make sure the last kana become/is し and add た
(話す) はな –> はなした

*Above formula is for Godan. For Ichidan, simply add た from the stem form. 

(食べた) たべ
(見た) み
(教え) おしえ

**For irregular verb, you need to memorize it… 

Oh my… its very long… But i hope it will be clearer for the basic reader. 
Hope this helps!! °˖✧◝(⁰▿⁰)◜✧˖°

We’re planning to build a grammar section and it is currently under development, might take a few weeks but we’ll publish it soon!
Please look forward to it! 楽しみにしてください~

I don’t know about you but I LOVE Economics. Out of all my subjects it’s got to be at the top of my list of favourites. So I thought I’d share some of my advice to anyone else here on this community who’s studying Economics.

  • Make notes that suit your learning type. I can't stress this enough. A lot of people in all classes, not just Economics, think that the only way to study is to write notes. And that doesn’t work for everyone, so then all that hard work and effort has gone to waste. But nobody ever said you have to study through pages of notes! You can make audio recordings of important notes you want to remember or revise, you can draw charts and pictures of GDP and Inflation, make mind maps, create flashcards, use acronyms or other mnemonic devices, use whatever suits YOUR learning style the most.

  • Watch the news every night. One thing that I’ve learnt when it comes to the part of the exams that are worth 10 marks or more in big open ended questions is that they ask you for recent examples to assist your answer. If you’re watching the news every night and are listening to the business and economics section (preferably anyway) you will have at least 200 examples come exam time to refer to! Now nobody said you have to remember all of them but the news believe it or not, is a valuable tool in grabbing examples to help you in any test or exam. But doing this could earn you the extra 2-3 marks you could lose if you don’t give an example!!

  • Read the newspaper. If you’re not too keen on the TV idea, then collect the daily newspaper instead. There’s ALWAYS going to be a business section in your local paper with articles about economic issues and events there without a doubt. What I like to do especially is have a display folder with plastic pockets, cut out articles relevant to economic issues and collate them. Then close to exam time, I grab the 3-5 articles I like the most and revise them so I have examples for the exam to refer to. Again, it’ll bump you ahead of anyone else who doesn’t refer to an example in these big mark answers!!

  • It doesn’t hurt to read ahead. If you have nothing else to do, and you have the time, read ahead! This goes for all subjects in general, but if you have the time, get an extra head start and read ahead in your textbook if you know the next section you’re going to tackle in the coming few lessons. And for a long term goal, you could even just work ahead a little more than the class to finish early and have extra time to study for your end of year exams! But remember, don’t force yourself to go ahead if you don’t have the time. Only if it’s convenient for you. You don’t want to fall behind in other subject by prioritising work that isn’t due in the next few days.

  • Ask your teacher for a course outline/exam criteria outline early on. This way if you want to work ahead and/or miss out on some work, you will be able to catch up on it if you’re absent or away. But, you’ll also be able to see which areas of the book you need to make key notes on and revise thoroughly.

  • Have a study partner/study group of people in your class. Again, this is useful for all subjects in general but I find that for Economics this helps out the best. You can compare notes, you can compare different examples you’ve gathered or researched into upcoming exams or tests, but my personal favourite is that you can test and quiz each other. You could also even teach the other person, which aids as an additional learning tool for you and your partner/group! So it pays to have some connections in class.

  • Keep up to date charts of key data. There’s always going to be that one question eventually that asks for the Inflation rate or the GDP growth rate or the Unemployment rate in a question. If you have charts on your walls or somewhere you regularly look at, it’ll be easy to remember and revise them. It’s also just good to have as references to aid your answers in exams if you have accurate statistics to back you up.

That’s it for now, I may update this a little more if I can think of some other stuff. Hope some people find this helpful!

Easy Hiragana - Row: S
  • Easy Hiragana - Row: S
  • Crunchy Nihongo
  • Crun

Easy Hiragana - Row: S
KA  -  KI  -  KU  -  KE  -  KO

Below is the list of words use as a sample in the sound file:
さかな(魚) = fish
さいふ(財布)= wallet
さとう(砂糖)= sugar

しお (塩) = salt
しごと(仕事)= work
しずか(静か)= quiet

すいようび(水曜日)= Wednesday
すむ(住む) = to live
すわる(座る) = to sit

せいと(生徒) = pupil
せんせい(先生)= teacher
せまい(狭い) = narrow

そと(外)= outside
そら(空)= sky
そして = and

Kanji: 卒 

Meaning: graduate, soldier, private, die

Reading: そつ, ショツ (sotsu, shotsu)

About the kanji: I tried to keep this mnemonic as simple as possible so you can actually see the image I have in my head whenever I see this kanji. Just imagine two people 人 standing on the stage on a graduation ceremony. As simple as that! 

As you can notice, it has other meanings, but mainly you will see this kanji in graduation-related words

Words using this kanji:

卒業: graduation

卒業生 : graduate

卒倒 : fainting

卒論 :   graduation thesis

高卒 : high school graduate

大卒 : college graduate

兵卒 : private (soldier)

Example sentence:


chichi wa haabaado daigaku wo sotsugyou shita

My father graduated from Harvard University.

Coagulation cascade made simple.

Someone shared this with me on my surgery clerkship and I wanted to pass it forward. 

1) Everything centers around the perfect 10

2) 7 is a lucky number so I keep it to myself

3) 8 and 5 are cofactors

4) 3, 4, 6 do not exist

5) When you draw it out, it looks like a gun, and your trigger finger (TF) would go by the 7. so TF (tissue factor) goes by 7

6) You use guns and trigger fingers in war, so that’s the part effected by warfarin. The other one is heparin

7) The shorter path has the test with fewer letters (PT). The longer path has the test with more letters (PTT).

The last “rule” was told to me by someone else, but it helps me every time, so I’ll include it here:

8) PET is WET (PT, extrinsic, warfarin) and [Brad] PITT is a HIT (PTT, intrinsic, heparin)


Ninth Planet May Exist in Solar System Beyond Pluto, Scientists Report

There might be a ninth planet in the solar system after all — and it is not Pluto.

Two astronomers reported on Wednesday that they had compelling signs of something bigger and farther away — something that would definitely satisfy the current definition of a planet, where Pluto falls short.

“We are pretty sure there’s one out there,” said Michael E. Brown, a professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology.

What Dr. Brown and a fellow Caltech professor, Konstantin Batygin, have not done is actually find that planet, so it would be premature to revisemnemonics of the planets just yet.

Rather, in a paper published Wednesday in The Astronomical Journal, Dr. Brown and Dr. Batygin lay out a detailed circumstantial argument for the planet’s existence in what astronomers have observed — a half-dozen small bodies in distant, highly elliptical orbits.

What is striking, the scientists said, is that the orbits of all six loop outward in the same quadrant of the solar system and are tilted at about the same angle. The odds of that happening by chance are about 1 in 14,000, Dr. Batygin said.

A ninth planet could be gravitationally herding them into these orbits.

For the calculations to work, the planet would be quite large — at least as big as Earth, and likely much bigger — a mini-Neptune with a thick atmosphere around a rocky core, with perhaps 10 times the mass of Earth.

It would dwarf Pluto, at about 4,500 times its mass.

Pluto, at its most distant, is 4.6 billion miles from the sun. The potential ninth planet, at its closest, would be about 20 billion miles away; at its farthest, it could be 100 billion miles away. It would take from 10,000 to 20,000 years to complete one orbit around the sun.

“We have pretty good constraints on its orbit,” Dr. Brown said. “What we don’t know is where it is in its orbit, which is too bad.”

Alessandro Morbidelli of the Côte d’Azur Observatory in France, an expert in dynamics of the solar system, said he was convinced. “I think the chase is now on to find this planet,” he said.

This would be the second time that Dr. Brown has upended the map of the solar system. In January 2005, he discovered a Pluto-size object, now known as Eris, in the ring of icy debris beyond Neptune known as the Kuiper belt.

A year and a half later, the International Astronomical Union placed Pluto in a new category, “dwarf planet,” because it had not “cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.”

In the view of the astronomical union, a full-fledged planet must be, in essence, the gravitational bully of its orbit, and Pluto was not.

The first indication of a hidden planet beyond Pluto had come a couple years earlier. The Kuiper belt extends outward from Neptune’s orbit, about 2.8 billion miles from the sun, to a bit less than twice Neptune’s orbit, about five billion miles.

Beyond that, astronomers expected, was by and large empty space.

Thus they were surprised when Dr. Brown and two colleagues spotted a 600-mile-wide icy world that not only was beyond the Kuiper belt, at a distance of eight billion miles, but remained well outside the Kuiper belt even at the closest point in its orbit.

No one could easily explain how the object, which Dr. Brown named Sedna, got there. It was too far out to have been flung by the gravitational slings of big planets like Jupiter and too close to have been nudged by the gravitational tides of the Milky Way.

The hope was that the discovery of more Sedna-like worlds would provide additional clues.

Instead, astronomers looked and found nothing, deepening the mystery.

Finally, in 2014, Chadwick Trujillo, who had worked with Dr. Brown on the Sedna discovery, and Scott S. Sheppard, an astronomer at the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, reported a smaller object, designated 2012 VP113, in a Sedna-like orbit, always remaining beyond the Kuiper belt.

Dr. Trujillo and Dr. Sheppard noted that several Kuiper belt objects had some similar orbital characteristics, and they laid out the possibility of a planet disturbing the orbits of these objects. “I wasn’t sure,” Dr. Trujillo said. “It was the best explanation we could come up with.”

But the particulars of their proposed planet did not explain what was in the sky, Dr. Brown said.

“The theorists didn’t really take it seriously,” he said. “They figured it was all some observational effect. The observers didn’t take it seriously, because they figured it was all some theoretical thing they couldn’t understand.”

Still, the peculiarities of the orbits appeared genuine. “It was really clear from their data that observationally something was happening, and it demanded some sort of explanation,” Dr. Brown said.

Dr. Brown said he walked down the hall to Dr. Batygin’s office, and “the two of us sat down and beat our heads against the wall for the last two years.”

First, they focused on the six objects in stable orbits and disregarded objects that had been recently flung out by Neptune to eventually depart the solar system.

That made the picture clearer.

“What we realized is the story is much more simple and more fundamental,” Dr. Batygin said. “They all point into the same overall direction. All in same quadrant. This is in stark contrast with the rest of the Kuiper belt.”

Besides the long odds of this alignment being coincidental, Dr. Batygin said, this pattern would not last indefinitely, dispersing over a few hundred million years — a short time compared to the 4.5 billion-year age of the solar system.

“We’re not observing a relic of a perturbation of the past,” he said.

That argued for something else, something bigger, that is currently guiding Sedna and the others.

Dr. Batygin, a theorist, tried placing a planet among the six objects. That did scatter some of the Kuiper belt objects, but the orbits were not sufficiently eccentric.

Then he examined what would happen if a ninth planet were looping outward in a direction opposite to Sedna and the others. That, Dr. Batygin said, gave “a beautiful match to the real data.”

The computer simulations showed that the planet swept up the Kuiper belt objects and placed them only temporarily in the elliptical orbits. Come back in half a billion years, Dr. Brown said, and Sedna will be back in the Kuiper belt, while other Kuiper belt objects will have been swept into similar elliptical orbits.

Another strange result in the simulations: A few Kuiper belt objects were knocked into orbits perpendicular to the plane of planetary orbits. Dr. Brown remembered that five objects had been found in perpendicular orbits.

“They’re exactly where we predicted them to be,” Dr. Brown said. “That’s when my jaw hit my floor. I think this is actually right.”

Dr. Trujillo said the new paper made a much more convincing argument for another planet than his own did. “We’re pleasantly surprised that someone has really done a much better job than we did,” he said.

Dr. Morbidelli agreed. “I think they’re onto something real,” he said. “I would bet money. I would bet 10,000 bucks.”

Dr. Morbidelli said that the ninth planet could easily be the core of a gas giant that started forming in the early years of the solar system; a close pass to Jupiter could have flung it out. In those days, the sun was packed in a dense cluster of stars, and the gravity of those neighbors could have slowed the planet and prevented it from escaping the solar system.

Dr. Brown said he began searching for the planet a year ago, and he thought he would be able to find it within five years — perhaps sooner, with luck. Now it is likely that other astronomers will scan that swath of the sky.

If the planet exists, it would easily meet the International Astronomical Union’s requirements, Dr. Brown said.

“There are some truly dominant bodies in the solar system and they are pushing around everything else,” Dr. Brown said. “This is what we mean when we say planet.”