Bartters, Gitelmans and Liddles syndrome mnemonic


Here’s a mnemonic for kidney syndromes!

“FB GoT ALL HYPER about a Little syndrome”

FB - Bartter’s is like Furosemide
GoT - Gitelman Thiazide
All hyper little - Liddles is like HyperALdosteronemia

All these syndromes present with chloride resistant (high urinary chloride) hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis.

What differentiates them:
Bartters: Hypercalciuric (Furosemide like! Loops lose calcium, remember?)
Gitelman: Hypocalciuric (Thiazides don’t!) and Hypomagnesemia. Presents with cramping and spasms.
Liddles: Presents with hypertension, metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia (Aldosterone excess like!)

These syndromes are rare, so it’s important to rule out more common causes (Like diuretics)

That’s all!

Here’s an aphorism by Sir William Osler: “Care more for the individual patient than for the special features of his disease.” :)


What do you do for a living?

Pre-med: I study biochemistry all day. I’ve done 100 hours of shadowing in the ER and I’m doing research on mice. I’m like basically a doctor already. Ask me anything medical. Go for it.

1st year Med Student: I just got a white coat because I’m going to be a doctor. Doesn’t this stethoscope look cool? I don’t know how to use it yet, but it looks awesome on my neck. Can I tell you about the alpha and beta subunits of cholera toxin? I know ALL about cholera toxin.

2nd Year Med Student: I read about obscure diseases all day. Check out my mnemonics for the coagulation cascade and the brachial plexus. Oh yeah, I’m going to be a doctor soon. Take a look at your mole? Ummm… I haven’t learned moles yet.

3rd Year Med Student: I scrubbed into surgery today. I didn’t get to touch the patient, but I was totally there and I’m going to tell you all about it as if I was the one performing surgery. No, I don’t know about that medicine yet. But I’m almost a doctor.

4th Year Med Student: I’m going to be a doctor in like 5 minutes. I’ve done literally everything there is to do in the hospital. I have nothing more to learn. Just graduate me already.

Intern: I’m a resident. Yeah, that means I’m a doctor. But I just started my training. I feel really stupid all the time. My attendings have to approve my prescriptions. Um, you have a UTI? Uh, sure, let me look up antibiotics on UpToDate real quick.

Resident: I work in the medical field. Yeah, at the hospital. Heh, yeah, I work long hours. Nope, I’m not a nurse. Fine, yes, I’m actually a doctor. Yes, I can actually write prescriptions. No, I won’t write you some Adderall.

Attending: I uh… work. That’s all you need to know.

Katakana Reading Practice
We know that it’s hard to get a good practice for katakana so we try to make one for you. We hope you like it and help you to improve your reading skills! When you’re stumbled, check ou…

Katakana reading practice are quite hard to find, and most of them are only contain single vocabulary. We believe that a reading practice should consist a full sentence so your brain will be able to adapt to Japanese sentence pattern as well. In reality, the katakana will be thrown at you combined with both hiragana and kanji anyway. So we think it should be more effective as a reading practice (๑•̀ㅂ•́)و✧ 

The practices will cover katakana vocabularies and Foreign names as well. It’s not much currently, but we will try to add more later on, so please check it out and let us know what you think :D We hope this will help you to hone your Katakana reading skills!
For Hiragana Reading Practice, you can check out this link below:

Happy learning!

Ideas for Studying Based On Your Hogwarts House

Ravenclaw: mind maps, make study guides, acronyms, rereading notes or the textbook. Ravenclaws often love to study in the library, and work well with small study groups.

Hufflepuff: bullet journals, snacks on study breaks, outline notes. They like to quiz and be quizzed by their friends, and can often work anywhere as long as there are others there to work with.

Gryffindor: playing jeopardy, pomodoro method, SQ4R,  rewriting notes, highlighting and annotating. They like to study by a window or outside, and work well with groups of friends (however, they can easily be distracted by this).

Slytherin: cornell notes, mnemonic devices, flashcards, planners. Slytherins often work by themselves, in a place they’re comfortable, such as their bedroom.

*bolded are links with more information.


Satoko: Try to think of mnemomics to remember kanji meanings.
This kanji means “big”. It looks like a man, a BIG man.
Satoko: This is the kanji for “dog”. It’s the same big man with a little dog on his shoulder.
Mario: Okay. So, this kanji means “thick”. It’s a big man. But what’s this thing between his legs?
Satoko: Uh… It’s a necktie.

Satoko: Kanji no imi o omoidasu tame no kioku-jutsu no kangaekata o yatte mimashou.
Kono kanji no imi wa “dai” desu ne. Sono katachi wa hito ni nitemasu ne. Ōkina hitodesu.
Kore wa “inu” to iu kanji desu ne. Onaji ōkina hito no kata ni chīsai inu ga notte imasu.
Mario: Hai. Jā, kono kanji no imi wa “Dai” desu. Ōkina otoko no hitodesu ne. Demo, kare no ashi no ma ni aru kono mono wa nan desu ka?
Satoko: Etto…nekutai desu ne.

でも、彼の足の間にある このもの は何ですか?

Hey, there guys ! I’m back with a small collection of some of my favorite websites and resources for studying and learning Japanese! I’m currently taking Japanese II in school but I’m a firm believer in the benefits of self-study out of the classroom and these sites really make my life easier (*´▽`*)

Keep reading

                           QUEST STARTED: HARD RESET

                    Nick Valentine has been suffering from violent flashbacks and hallucinations as a result of mnemonic impressions left behind from Kellogg’s memories. He has a hard time differentiating between his own accomplishments and those of his human memories. It started slowly, asking around for people who haven’t been alive for the past two hundred years. When approached about it later, he’d have no recollection of such an event .  Later, it wasn’t so harmless. There are instances where Kellogg’s memories take precedence, causing him to become hostile with those around him, even if they are presumably friends. Upon further investigation, it’s discovered that it is a malfunction in his programming that had been corrupted.

                     It is possible to fix it, however. Dr. Amari suggest that it might be best if he was reset to factory settings and his uncorrupted memories were reinstalled. Within the Institute, there has to be a holotape containing his pre-war memories. In doing this, it would delete over one hundred years of previous memories made in the Commonwealth – friends, loved ones, and enemies included. His accomplishments wouldn’t be remembered. The agency would be alien to him. Diamond City wouldn’t feel like home. He would still be Nick, albeit a Nick no one else has ever known.

                    Left alone without a reset, he will continue to devolve into a mash of three personalities: the man he used to be, the synth he wants to be, and the villain he never was. Unpredictable and violent, it’s only a matter of time until he gets himself shot out in the Commonwealth. However, there still are those moments he’s normal. He remembers his friends. He remembers the people he’s helped in the past. He wants to help the people of the Commonwealth thrive. No one knows how long it’ll last. Maybe synths like him weren’t designed to survive this long out in the wastes.

          ➥ Find the holotape containing Nick’s memories and return to Dr. Amari


          ➥ Leave him alone

                      ➥ (OPTIONAL) Put him out of his misery

Hi guys!

So today I wanted to talk to you about Gluconeogenesis.

The first thing is that gluconeogenesis takes place in the mitochondria.Now when anyone says, “mitochondria”, I (and probably all of us) immediately jump to, “mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell”.

Leading with that example, the closest thing to a power house that I can think of is a nuclear power plant. So, let’s equate the mitochondria to the nuclear power plant.

If there is one vehicle that can come in and out of a nuclear power plant without any problem that would be the Prime Minister’s car. Now, let’s take just the initials from Prime Minister’s Car: We would get P M C

And what are 3 compounds that start from these letters?

We have Pyruvate, Malate and Citrate.
So that’s your mnemonic. 

Really hope you liked it (It’s my first post)

Do let me know! :D
- M

Atrial fibrillation in WPW syndrome

Random fact that I learnt today!

If a patient with WPW syndrome develops symptomatic atrial fibrillation, what is the drug of choice?

Answer is procainamide.

Stable patients suspected of having WPW with atrial fibrillation should not receive agents that predominantly block atrioventricular conduction, but they may be treated with procainamide or ibutilide.

Because if you block the AV node using beta blockers, calcium channel blockers or digoxin, you will favour conduction to the accessory pathway. This will worsen the arrhythmia.

That’s why, in stable patients, chemical cardioversion is preferred.

If instability is present, electrical cardioversion is required.

That’s all!

Related post: Supraventricular tachycardia mnemonic