Monumental Marble Bust of Zeus or Asklepios, Roman Imperial, 2nd Century AD

The head dates to the Roman Imperial period, 2nd century AD. The socle, shoulders and restorations are attributed to Vincenzo Pacetti (1746-1820).

This is modeled after a Greek original in bronze of the 5th Century BC, turned to his right, with thick unruly beard of deeply drilled curls, long moustache, outlined full parted lips, and finely arched brows, his hair radiating from the crown and falling in a mane of loose curls over the ears and nape of the neck. Height of head approx. 16 in. 40.6 cm.; total height 28 ½ in. 72.4 cm.

Some Roman agriculture deities

Rusina is a goddess of the fields (from Latin rus, ruris; cf. English “rural” and “rustic”).

Rusor is invoked with Altor by the pontiffs in a sacrifice to the earth deities Tellus and Tellumo. In interpreting the god’s function, Varro derives Rusor from rursus, “again,” because of the cyclical nature of agriculture. Altor is an agent god from the verb alo, alere, altus, “to grow, nurture, nourish”. According to Varro, he received res divina because “all things which are born are nourished from the earth”.

Sator, the “sower” god.

Seia, goddess who protects the seed once sown in the earth; also as Fructesea, compounded with fructus, “produce, fruit”

Segesta, goddess who promotes the growth of the seedling.

Hostilina, goddess who makes grain grow evenly.

Lactans or Lacturnus, god who infuses crops with “milk” (sap or juice).

Volutina, goddess who induces “envelopes” (involumenta) or leaf sheaths to form.

Nodutus, god who causes the “knot” (nodus) or node to form.

Patelana, goddess who opens up (pateo, patere) the grain, possibly in reference to the emergence of the flag leaf.

Runcina, the weeder goddess, or a goddess of mowing.

Messia, the female equivalent of Messor the reaper, and associated with Tutelina.

Noduterensis or Terensis, the god of threshing.

Tutelina, a goddess who watches over the stored grain.

Sterquilinus, who manures the fields.