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William Nylander #4

Requested by Anon:  Nylander anon, promise this is my last message:) Could the prompt be William teaching the reader the basics of hockey? And i don’t mind waiting, take your time!

*Here it is!! I hope you like this one. And I put them on the stands than pn the ice because I think it’s nice to showcase a hockey player as a hockey fan too. Enjoy! :)*

Word count: 992

Originally posted by buracap

You stopped yourself from falling backwards and looked at Willy, who was obviously having fun at your confusion, “please stop yapping,” you groaned, massaging your head for more dramatic effect, “I can’t take any more information.”

He chuckled, “imagine actually having to play the game and know all the rules and stuff,” he answered with a smile.

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Neurons - Anatomy Overview

Going to be covering nerves and synapses this week so here’s a recap!

  • Soma (cell body) contains the nucleus which produces RNA to support cell functions, + organelles surrounding the nucleus which are mostly made of up endoplasmic reticulum. Supports and maintains the functioning of the neuron.
  • Dendrites - cellular extensions with many branches ‘dendritic tree’. majority of input occurs via the dendritic spine. The sum of all excitatory (neuron fires) or inhibitory (prevents firing) signals determines whether the neuron fires or not. If firing the action potential is transmitted down the axon.
  • Axon - fine, cable-like projection that can extend thousands of times the diameter of the soma in length. The axon carries nerve signals away from the soma (and also carries some types of information back to it). Can undergo branching - communication with target cells. 
  • Axon hillock - where the axon emerges from the soma. the part of the neuron that has the greatest density of voltage-dependent sodium channels - therefore the most easily excited part of the neuron and the spike initiation zone for the axon - most negative action potential threshold. Can also receive input from other neurons.
  • Axon terminal where neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft to signal the next neuron

Myelin sheath

Myelin is a fatty material that wraps around axons and increases the speed of electrical transmission between neurons. It is broken up by nodes of Ranvier, between which electrical impulses jump. Myelin is produced by schwann cells in the PNS and oligodendrocytes in the CNS.

Classes of neurons

Sensory neurons bring information into the CNS so it can be processed.

Motor neurons get information from other neurons and convey commands to  muscles, organs and glands.

Interneurons,found only in the CNS, connect one neuron to another. 

Types of neuron

Multipolar neurons have one axon and many dendritic branches. These carry signals from the central nervous system to other parts of the body eg muscles and glands.

Unipolar neurons are also known as sensory neurons. They have one axon and one dendrite with branches. Pass signals from the outside of the body, such as touch, along to the central nervous system.

Bipolar neurons have one axon and one dendrite branch. They pass signals from one neuron to the next inside the central nervous system.

Pyramidal neurons have one axon and two main dendrite branches. These cells pass signals inside the brain and tell the muscles to move.

Purkinje neurons are found in the cerebellum, controlling balance, coordination, and timing of actions. They have one axon and a dense and complicated dendrite arrangement.

i would much prefer that I assume a person working in the sex industry is in danger, and is looking for a way out and be wrong than assume a person working in the sex industry is happy and comfortable and be wrong and they are actually in danger, traumatized, and looking to escape.

I would much rather insult a person working in the sex industry than deny them help. So to me, saying that not every person working in the sex industry is looking for a way out is irrelevant. As long as there are some, it will be important to help those people. Saying that this attitude only creates ‘stigma’ is denying that people who are victims of sex trafficking, rape, and drug abuse in the sex industry exist. Protests against stigma are valid when it completely misrepresents an idea or group of people to the point of causing real harm. The stigma surrounding mental illness is unrepresentative of people with mental illnesses and prevents people from getting help. Insisting that there are people who need an escape from the sex industry is truth, not misrepresentation, and the harm caused to those that are abused, raped, and treated as commodities far outweighs the minor insult to someone if i assume they are not happy with their job when they are.

Before we get to today’s page of Paranatural, there’s news from Twitter:

Alien Kid, or should I say Alien Girl has official pronouns! (Source)

I linked the rest of Zack’s tweet chain. He goes on to say that he plans on adding trans and non-binary characters into the comic, he just hadn’t wanted to promise it too far ahead of time. Webcomic Time is glacially slow, even for comics with regular updates, so I’d say that’s fair.

Oh yeah, I completely forgot to comment on the fact that Paranatural apparently exists in the Paranatural universe.

Counter theory: Isaac is the one who created the web comic. Mr Spender knows all about it, but he lets Isaac get away with it because even though it’s ostensibly based on their own adventures, Isaac embellishes the story so much that there is no danger of blowing their cover.

Cranial Nerves

Nerves supplying the body can be divided in to cranial and spinal. Cranial nerves emerge from the brain or brain stem and spinal from the spinal chord. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. They are components of the peripheral nervous system, with the exception of the optic nerve, as their axons extend beyond the brain to supply other parts of the body. They are named numerically from region of the nose (rostral) to back of the head (caudal). Here’s a brief overview of all twelve nerves and their basic functions.

I – The Olfactory Nerve. The cells of this nerve arise from the olfactory membrane of the nasal mucosa. The dendrites of the nerve cells project in to the olfactory mucosa. The axons of these cells combine to form the olfactory nerve. They join the brain at the olfactory bulb, located at the end nearest the nose. The fibres are short and lie deep and protected from casual injury. It is often found that loss or interference of sense of smell is due to blockage of the air passage leading to the olfactory mucosa, not due to nerve damage.

II – The Optic Nerve. This nerve connects the retina to the diencephalon of the brain. It is the only cranial nerve considered to be part of the central nervous system. This means the fibres are incapable of regeneration, hence why damage to the optic nerve produces irreversible blindness. Interestingly the eye's blind spot is a result of the absence of photoreceptor cells in the area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye. I find the optic nerves easy to spot when looking at the brain from below as they form the optic chiasm. This is the point at which they cross and forms a clear ‘x’.

III- The Oculomotor Nerve. This nerve controls most of the eye’s movements including the constriction of the pupil and levitation of the eyelid. Damage to the nerve can cause double vision and inability to open the eye. A symptom of damage to this nerve is tilting of the head.

IV – The Trochlear Nerve. This nerve is a small somatic motor nerve and innervates the dorsal oblique muscle of the eye, responsible for allowing the eye to look down and up as well as internal rotations. Damage to the nerve can cause one eye to drift upwards in relation to the undamaged eye, meaning patients tilt their heads down to compensate.

V – The Trigeminal Nerve. This is the largest cranial nerve and is so called as it has three major divisions. It is sensory to the skin and deeper tissue of the face and motor to certain facial muscles, playing a large role in mastication.

VI – The Abducent Nerve. This nerve controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. It also plays a role in eye retraction for protection. Injury produces the inability to deviate the eyeball away from the midline of the body.

VII – The Facial Nerve. This nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression. It also functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the front two thirds of the tongue. As well as this it can increase saliva flow through certain salivary glands.

VIII – The Vestibulocochlear Nerve. This nerve is named after the vestibular and cochlear components of the inner ear. It transmits information on sound and balance. Damage can lead to deafness, impaired balance and dizziness.

IX – The Glossopharyngeal Nerve. This nerve has any roles including the innervation of certain muscles of the palate of the mouth, certain salivary glands and the sensory mucosa of the root of the tongue, palate and pharynx. Damage can lead to difficulty swallowing as well as the loss of ability to taste bitter and sour things in humans.

X – The Vagus Nerve. This is a very important nerve and one frequently discussed when considering many important systems within the body. It is the longest of all cranial nerves and extends to supply the pancreas, spleen, kidneys, adrenals, and intestine. It has parasympathetic control of the heart and digestive tract as well as certain glands and involuntary muscles.

XI – The Accessory Nerve. This plays a role in neck turning and elevation of the scapula (shoulder). Muscle atrophy of the shoulder region indicates damage to this nerve.

XII – The Hypoglossal Nerve. This nerve’s name relates to the fact that is runs under the tongue, innervating the tongue’s internal and external musculature. It has important roles in speech, food manipulation and swallowing.