About 150,000 years ago, a Neanderthal fell into a cave well and got stuck. After the ‘Altamura Man’ died, his body was slowly covered in calcite, which caused his skeleton to fuse with the cave and eventually provided the oldest sample of Neanderthal DNA ever obtained. Source Source 2

Researchers reconstructed a hyper-realistic model of his face and body…

…and the high-quality genome sequence was taken from this small toe bone.

In 2005, scientists resurrected the long-extinct Judean date palm tree, which is mentioned in the Old Testament. After planting 3 of the 2,000-year-old seeds that were found in the 1960s excavation of Herod the Great’s palace, one of them sprouted, became the oldest-known tree seed ever to germinate, has since reproduced, and still continues to thrive. Source Source 2 Source 3