If you’ve been on youtube to find educational videos, especially if taking an AP course, you’ve most probably come across CrashCourse. Run by John Green (yup, the guy who wrote tfios), his brother Hank Green, and a couple of other teachers, CrashCourse is an amazing channel full of beautifully animated videos that illustrate concepts ranging from the Ancient Roman’s to the moon. In particular, their Biology videos, featuring Hank Green, are my go to videos for biology. I watch videos regarding topics we’re going to cover in class as soon as I find out what our next unit covers. All around a great, entertaining way to learn biology!
I first found out about the Bozeman Science channel run by Mr. Andersen in my Honors Bio class. It’s a great way to get informed about biology, as well as a superb way to learn examples of different concepts. He’s a solid teacher!
I’ve known about Khan Academy since the fourth grade, but didn’t know that he covered biology until August this year! He has really informative videos, so if you’re in an Honors class and want extra detail, or in an AP class, this channel is perfect for you!
Suitable for: Regular, General understanding for Honors and AP
These videos are perfect for students in the regular biology course. The videos are informative and help to consolidate ideas. I find these videos to be good in studying for Honors Biology because they give me a general idea as to what a concept is, and from then I can get all the small details.
I actually just found out about this channel, and I’m so glad I did. It has specified videos on basically every biological concept. Every one. It’s a splendid resource to use when you have specific concepts that you need to fine tune and nail down before a test.
Study Tips Teachers Don’t Tell You + Lazy DIY School Organization! (By Primrose)
If you haven’t studied and you have a test that day, listen to a crash course. It compresses all the material you need to know in 10-15 minutes. A youtube channel where you can find crash courses is https://www.youtube.com/user/crashcourse
Use a pre-made quizlet to test yourself. There’s bound to be someone out there who has put out a quiz on the topic you’re studying. Just make a quick google search or look for it on quizlet. This way, you don’t need to waste time making your own flashcards. Another app that allows you to search for/ make flashcards is ‘TinyCards’.
Don’t study what you already know. Honestly, it’s just a waste of time. You might feel smart when you test yourself and know it, but you’re just fooling yourself. Instead, focus on the material you aren’t clear about.
If you end up in the situation having to cram for a test (we’ve all been there), use the summaries at the end of each chapter in your textbook. It compresses everything you need to know in a few pages, and gives you a general gist of everything you need to know.
Only use this tip if you’re especially desperate. Memorize certain key words on your study guide, forget about knowing what they mean. During the test, if you see a certain word/ phrase looking familiar, it should be the correct option. (The video didn’t specify this, but this only works for MCQ <Multiple Choice Questions>)
If you’re just too lazy or can’t find the time to get a planner, this is how to make a cheap planner: Grab a piece of paper, write down the days of the week and the things you have to do/ events you have to attend. It’s much better than remembering everything in your head, because you’re bound to forget something.
Use a file/ binder with all your subjects in it. This is kind of hard for me to explain, but a way of organization is using a file/ binder with all your subjects’ worksheets etc organized by dividers. To make your own divider, grab a piece of paper, cut out a small piece of coloured paper and tape it to the edge of the paper. Using a binder with all your worksheets in it means you don’t have to carry as many binders/ stuff to school (I found that this tip doesn’t work for me, but then again, it’s your own personal preference)
Hi, it’s me again. I found that these tips aren’t really helpful, but that’s from my own personal experience.
Like or reblog if this helped, and comment what other videos you’d like me to do :-)
I’d go on instagram hours at a time. What was helpful was to delete all of my social media apps and any apps in general that would distract me. So if I wanted to go on instagram or snapchat, I’d have to load the website and sign in or download the app again, which I’m too lazy and impatient to do.
2. Delete your bookmarks
I’m always using my laptop to study, to review quizzes, watch crashcourse and look up notes/ facts. To stop myself from going onto twitter or facebook, I log off and remove them from my bookmark list. This is essentially the same as my first point. Going onto social media has become so automatic that sometimes I just unconsciously click on them. After making it harder for me to access them, I don’t go onto them as often.
3. Caffeine: green tea
I fall asleep easily when I’m studying, so I drink green tea. I used to drink coffee but I’d crash really hard. Lattes makes me feel heavy from all the milk and espresso shots are too “short”? When I’m drinking green tea I’d just be sipping on it constantly over a few hours. You don’t really feel the caffeine as much and I’ve never had a problem staying awake.
4. Count down the days/ hours
You know how sometimes you don’t feel the stress, even when you know your exam is just around the corner. So I’d open up my calendar and count the number of days or hours I have left. I’d look at the numbers and start to realize I’m fcked, then I panic and start studying :)
Now that we’ve left behind the philosophy of religion, it’s time to
start exploring what other ways might exist to find meaning in the
world. Today we explore essentialism and its response: existentialism.
We’ll also learn about Jean-Paul Sartre and his ideas about how to find
meaning in a meaningless world.
In general, women still lacked an independent legal status, similar to the condition for “Thralls.” Legal affairs were generally conducted through a guardian, such as her husband, father, or nearest male kin. Yet, despite facing such restrictions, women in Iceland held more rights than in any other Scandinavian or continental law codes. Women managed their households in husband’s absence, and they always managed indoor activities, such as feasts and gatherings. Women could even hire and fire servants without consulting the husband first. Most notably, women held unofficial power during feuds, but this is something we will discuss later.
Marriage and Divorce
On Legal Representation
Women were not permitted to attend a þing (assembly). Those who typically went to a þing were free men, but only those who could pay the þingfararkaup (Thing attendance payment). Those who could go were based on having a debt-free cow or a net or a boat. So, a woman would have been represented by her male kinsmen, often referred to as her lǫgráðandi (legal guardian). Here is an analysis of this legal situation by William Ian Miller:
“Several juridical disablements also attended the female sex. In matters of inheritance a woman was postponed to males in the same degree of kinship from the decedent. She was not eligible for Thing participation, and if she headed a household, which, it seems, was not unusual, the laws prescribed five men who could represent the household on a panel of neighbors: her husband, son, stepson, her daughter’s husband, and her fosterson (Grágás Ia 160-161, II 322).” (Miller, 27)
A note on households: They were the basic unit of society. Women could also be the heads of a household. Sometimes they even shared in headship with their husband or another kin. A household then generally had at least one householder, but could have more. Yet, the representative of the household, in terms of the law, would have still been the male or male representatives.
On Marriage and Divorce
According to the law alone, women had little say in marriage. If she was widowed or unmarried, the legal guardian was also her fastnandi, the person empowered to give her in marriage and whose agreement was necessary for a valid marriage. This is not exactly so strict, for the saga reveal that some women were included in decisions about marriage.
Overall, marriage was not seen as strictly between two people, but rather the two kin groups joining together. Bonds via marriage equally important as the bonds of blood. For this reason, kin were heavily involved in marriage proposals and negotiations. It was regarded that marriages without counsel often lead to bad things, and this is also seen in the sagas. Marriage, therefore, was much more of a social process in its own right. Icelandic law was not embedded in kinship and marriage; it stood on its own.
As for divorce, marriage was seen as a contract, not a sacrament. Women had the power to divorce, but usually done under the advice and counsel of her kin beforehand. A husband could use any reason for divorce, although the community could perceive it as abandonment if done carelessly. A woman, however, needed a good and valid reason for divorce. On such reason may be ill-treatment, which would be more than three beatings.
Here is an example of a woman named Unn being told the divorce procedure in Njal’s saga, which consisted of a three-fold divorce procedure from the woman’s side. [Three declarations: at the bed, the main door, and the Law Rock (at the Althing).]:
“When you’re ready, go to your bed with the men who are to travel with you, and at your husband’s bedside name witnesses and declare yourself legally divorced from him, as is allowable according to the rules of the Althing and the law of the land. You must repeat the naming of witnesses at the men’s door. …He then went to Law Rock and declared them legally divorced.” (Njal, 16-17)
In short, matters of inheritance were postponed to males in the same degree of kinship from the decedent. In other words, the male kin were favored over women when it came to inheriting land or goods. Yet, this is not the end of the story. Although laws show a bias for male links (a preference for male links within the first-cousin level), daughters still retained the right to parental properties in inheritance via dowry. Even in divorce this could be maintained since they were still connected to their previous kin-group.
It is a bit more of a complicated situation, one with exceptions and special conditions, but it was a possibility, if one was able to play their cards correctly. The height of possibilities could actually get quite high. See here:
“…a chieftaincy could pass to a woman via inheritance; she was, however, disabled from discharging its duties. Should a chieftaincy fall to a woman, she was to transfer it to a male who was a member of that local Thing who was then to fulfill the duties associated with the position.” (Miller, 24)
Although a women could obtain a chieftaincy, therefore becoming a chieftain, she was not legally capable of ruling as one. This is why a woman could achieve great status, but could only “rule” indirectly through her kin that would take legal control.
lǫgráðandi - A woman’s legal guadrian; her representative in the eyes of the law.
fastnandi - Often the same person as the lǫgráðandi, but in matters of marriage.
Women were not permitted to attend a þing (assembly). A woman would have been represented by her male kinsmen, often referred to as her lǫgráðandi (legal guardian). The legal guardian was also often her fastnandi, the person empowered to give her in marriage and whose agreement was necessary for a valid marriage. A woman could divorce, however, she needed a good and valid reason for it. The process included three declarations: at the bed, the main door, and the Law Rock. For inheritance, although laws show a bias for male links (a preference for male links within the first-cousin level), daughters still retained the right to parental properties via dowry. A women could inherit a chieftaincy, but she was not legally capable of directly ruling as one.
“In spite of these rather serious disablements, the Icelandic laws accorded women, both single and married, substantially more rights in property than other Scandinavian or continental codes.” (Miller, 27)
Skál og ferð vel, — Steven T. Dunn.
Next week’s lesson: Women in the Viking Age, Part III: Were Women “Vikings”?[multi-part lesson series]
Jennifer Dukes-Knight, “Women,” Lecture, Viking History, University of South Florida, 2015.
Robert Cook trans., Njal’s Saga. (London: Penguin Classics, 2001), 16-17.
William Ian Miller, Bloodtaking and Peacemaking: Feud, Law, and Society in Saga Iceland. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), 24, 27. [Really, this whole book.]
Yo!! for those of you students (or not) who’re taking AP tests, there’s this channel called Crash Course that has a bunch of AP-related series. each video’s between 10-15 minutes long and a lot of students use them as review or catch-up on stuff that their class skimmed over/stuff they didn’t understand or missed. Here are the ones that I know are for sure AP courses:
The modern world longs for a place in our history in which women were not bound by the struggles they have faced for so long. The Viking realm has been no exception to this desire. The women in the Viking Age have presented us with an interesting situation. There is a significant amount of strong, warrior women in Old Norse literature, yet this takes on a different tone. A tone of commentary, not one of historical record. Nonetheless, there is a significant amount of hype surrounding “Viking” women. So, we will answer this question: were women “Vikings”?
In short, they were not likely “Vikings.” But, that is not the end of their story.
Representation in Literature
Interpreting the Realities
Bringing Everything Together
Many who are familiar with Norse Mythology will quickly note that there are many women who are extraordinary. The Valkyries and Freyja are most definitely not to be challenged nor taken lightly. This description of Freyja in the Prose Edda gives a clear foundation for the possibility of warrior women:
“Freyja is the most splendid of the goddesses. She has a home in heaven called Folkvangar [Warrior’s Fields]. Wherever she rides into battle, half of the slain belong to her. Odin takes the other half, as it says here: (Prose Edda, 35)
Folkvang it is called and there Freyja decides the choices of seats in the hall. Half the slain she chooses each day, and half belong to Odin. (The Lay of Grimnir, 14)”
Here we have a woman who has just as much authority in those that die in battle than Odin does. That is nothing to shy away, either. Mythology shows clear favor for strong women and it does not admire weak women.
Does this mean that women were warriors in days long since past? Not exactly. Even though the myths favor strong women, many goddesses still behave as one might expect. Freyja is definitely notable, but she is also a bit unique. It is also likely that such an image was done for the men themselves. I am quite sure a “Viking” would have enjoyed women taking him to the afterlife. Yet, still, the point here is that there does seem to be some level of acceptability of strong women.
Representation in Literature
This is where the lines begin to blur. We must move away from vague mythological interpretations and into the earthly representations of women. Old Norse literature seems to be covering a transition between the cultural norms of their myths and Christianity. There is noticeable tension. Yet, it is also clear in many sagas that women as “Vikings” was an anomaly. It was not supported and therefore the woman needed to be “saved” or “converted”, returning back to their acceptable social role. This is when we truly realize that the myths were not likely taken so literally. Here is a prime example:
“Among them was Lagertha, a skilled female warrior, who, though a maiden, had the courage of a man, and fought in front among the bravest with her hair loose over her shoulders. All marveled at her matchless deeds, for her locks flying down her back betrayed that she was a woman.
Ragnar, when he had justly cut down the murderer of his grandfather, asked many questions of his fellow soldiers concerning the maiden whom he had seen so forward in the fray, and declared that he had gained the victory by the might of one woman. Learning that she was of noble birth among the barbarians, he steadfastly wooed her by means of messengers, she spurned his mission in her heart, but feigned compliance. (In other words, she rejected him, but played along).
…Thus he had the maiden as the prize of the peril he had overcome. By this marriage he had two daughters, whose names have not come down to us, and a son Fridley…” (Viking Age Reader, 95-96)
Lagertha is a popular “Viking” woman in our modern age, yet in this literature from which she “originates,” she is merely a prize to be won. An obstacle to overcome. It is sad to mention that even their daughters were not cared enough for in the eyes of history to be remembered. Although women appear as strong and as warriors, this does not mean that is was approved, historically speaking. Instead, women as “Vikings” in historical literature (native literature, mind you) simply acts to personify a battle between freedoms and a the coming of a new age.
Interpreting the Realities
There is a middle ground, though. As we have now seen, women as warriors is acceptable in mythology, but not in society. Yet, there are many ways in which a woman can be strong and influential. The majority of literature reveals women to be strong when acting within their limitations. Women often pushed men to act, and those men often benefited from their counsel.
“Thorgils (a chieftain) said he was not obligated to take up a case that concerned Haflidi’s thingmen. She (Bjorg) pressed him very hard, and when Thorgils saw that, he said that she was in a hard predicament (he husband was killed by Haflidi’s nephew, he is also a chieftain and was her husband’s legal connection - obvious bias).” (Miller, 241)
Thorgils eventually helps Bjorg. It turned out that Thorgils profited greatly for representing her. Here a woman can be very influential and authoritative. She was able to convince another chieftain to act on her behalf. The Saga world was one of men, but women played a larger role in it than most other societies. The sagas did not like weak women just like they did not like weak men. Women were not put on pedestals, rather women put men on them and goaded them to stay there.
If you manage tor read a few Icelandic sagas, keep this in mind:
“The conventional women of the sagas is strong-willed and uncompromising. She is the self-appointed guardian of the honor of her men and as such she generally sees honor as unnuanced heroism.” (Miller, 212)
This runestone is known for being dedicated to a woman. It was raised at Hassmyra, Västmanland, Sweden. This woman is praised for what she did within the realm of the household, not based on achievements in battle. I personally have not worked much with this stone, so I cannot offer a translation of my own for what it says, but here is one done by Judith Jesch, author of Women in the Viking Age:
There will come to Hassmyra no better housewife, who arranges the estate.
Here is an image of this runestone:
The Oseburg Ship Burial
This burial was done for two women. It is a burial fit for a queen and the ship itself features intricate detail. One woman was middle aged (20-30) and the other was elderly (50+). They died around the year 830. This burial shows how women could truly achieve an impressive status in Viking Age society, but not through means of war and battle.
Burials of women are found in all parts of the world that the Viking went to. This does not mean that they were participating in raids though. Women, children, and livestock were often brought along for settlement reasons. Raids began to take on the role of both temporary and permanent settlement. This is the case because not many burials of women are found where settlement did not also take place. Women were colonizers, and their grave goods reflect aspects of commerce, not war.
Here are only a few of the items found in this burial:
Custom shoes for arthritis
And much, much more…
Here is an image of the ship they were buried in:
Bringing Everything Together
We now have a very complicated picture. Mythology reveals women in battle, literature represents woman as powerful warriors, and society suggests women who were strong, holding up their family and their husband. It is understandable that the image of women during the Viking Age is so often contested. So let’s finally answer that question.
Women were, historically speaking, not “Vikings.” At least, it is highly unlikely based on current evidence. Yes, there is some evidence floating around out there, but it is not secure evidence (so far). Yet, regardless, women had an unspoken authority. They were self-appointed heroines. Women gained their status in society through other means. They did not have to gain honor through battle. Women made due with their situation and managed to become influential and strong in their own way. They were by no means weak, and the men knew this. Sometimes men envied this, but they also benefited from women, whether they liked it or not. The women of the Viking world were strong and they were admired for it.
Yet, it is alright if we use these warrior women, like Lagertha, as heroes to look up to today. Our young women need strong women to look up to. They have the potential to rise where they were once forbidden to do so. Still we must not allow that to cloud the past. We interpret material much differently today than it was meant to be understood in another era - keep that in mind. History is not always the way we would like it to be.
“…it was the men, not the women, who were meant to die on raids…” (Miller, 208)
Skál og ferð vel, — Steven T. Dunn.
Next Week’s Lesson: Lesson 14 - Ships and Seafaring.
Jennifer Dukes-Knight, “Women,” Lecture, Viking History, University of South Florida, 2015.
Textual (In order of appearance):
Snorri Sturluson, Prose Edda, Translated by Jesse L. Byock, (London: Penguin, 2005), 35.
Angus A. Somerville and R. Andrew McDonald, ed. The Viking Age: A Reader, Second Edition (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures). (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014), 95-96.
William Ian Miller, Bloodtaking and Peacemaking: Feud, Law, and Society in Saga Iceland. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), 208, 212, 241.
Images (In order of appearance):
(link) Gustaf Eriksson, Date: 14 july 2005, Beskrivning: Odendisastenen i Fläckebo.
(link) Oseberg ship, Kulturhistorisk museum (Viking Ship Museum), Oslo, Norway.