Lesson 11 - Law in the Viking Age.

Komið þið sæl,

Note: [If you have not done so already, check out last week’s lesson. Visit “Viking History” on my blog to view all of the lessons.]

This week is a brief, uncomplicated overview of Viking Age Law. Most of this material, however, has been gathered from sources that pertain to later medieval Iceland. Still, the roots of Icelandic law run back to Viking Age Norwegian law. Keeping that in mind however, our understanding can never be without some level of doubt. Regardless, I think many will be surprised as to the level of sophistication within Viking Law.


  1. Introduction and Early Law
  2. Icelandic Law: The Gragas
  3. The “Thing” and an Overview of the System
  4. Legal Procedure from Njal’s Saga

Introduction and Early Law

The earliest legal texts that we have come from the eleventh and fourteenth centuries, so we must ask ourselves: do they really reflect the Viking Age? the answer likely lies somewhere in between yes and no, for they were likely orally transmitted, cultural customs, and later refined into a written codex.

One interesting artifact that we do have from the Viking Age, however, is called the Forsa Rune Ring (ca. 800).

This ring, which is about 30 centimeters in diameter (1 foot), actually possesses a legal inscription in runes. It was likely hung about an entrance or near a gathering area. The inscription regulates the maintenance of a cult/assembly site. This artifact allows us to gather better insight for how much later law texts reflect the actual Viking Age.

The earliest Norwegian law texts are Gulaþing and Frostaþing, ca. 935-961. these law texts survive into the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, but are fragmentary. These laws would later be used to develop Icelandic law.

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Love online video and learning random, fun stuff? Here’s a list of some of my favorite content providers!


  1. vlogbrothers 
  2. CrashCourse
  3. SciShow
  4. Healthcare Triage
  5. How to Adult
  6. The Financial Diet
  7. Thought Cafe
  8. TED-Ed
  9. TEDxTalks
  10. TEDxYouth
  11. Philip DeFranco 
  12. GCFLearnFree.org
  13. AlanBecker Tutorials
  14. AsapSCIENCE
  15. AsapTHOUGHT
  16. coolipra
  17. Cute Life Hacks
  18. DIY Creators
  19. Educators.com
  20. eHow
  21. Geneva Vanderzeil
  22. Google Science Fair
  23. Half Baked
  24. Howcast
  25. LittleTranscriber
  26. Maqaroon
  27. MidiMelody
  28. Mental Floss
  29. MidiMelody
  30. minutephysics
  31. Scientific American Space Lab
  32. sexplanations
  33. Skill:Draw
  34. studyign
  35. Tasty
  36. The Fitness Marshall
  37. blogilates
  38. The Game Theorists
  39. The School of Life
  40. thebrainscoop
  41. Vsauce
  42. watchwellcast
  43. withwendy
  46. Documentary Movies - Topic
  47. appsademia (Credits to my girl @pyrogirl88)


  1. Watch Documentary
  2. Top Documentary Films
  3. CBC Marketplace
  4. The Passionate Eye
  5. National Geographic  (Credits to my girl @pyrogirl88​)

Both parts of Crash Course Literature’s videos about Huckleberry Finn are now up:

Part One 
Part Two

The first video in the current series of CC Lit was about Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God.

You can find the other series of Crash Course Literature, as well as other humanities and science series, at youtube.com/crashcourse! We’re tremendously grateful to our Patreon supporters, who make Crash Course possible. You can check out the Crash Course Patreon here

As an IB Biology student who is very passionate about the subject, I thought it would be a nice idea to make a masterpost with useful links for anyone doing IB Biology or are considering studying it! 


SL Biology Subject Brief  / HL Biology Subject Brief 

PrepScholar Syllabus with topics

Command Terms 

Syllabus outline



BioNinja  also available as an app, great for studying notes on phone! 

OSC IB Blog 



IB Biology youtube channels:

Mr Lee: This guys is literally one of the best people at explaining very challenging topics, if you’re unsure about a topic/concept, you should check out his videos :) 

Stephanie Castle: She gives great tips, also has very concise and informative videos for quick review! 

IB Blue Print

Dan Rott

Other channels: 


Khan Academy Biology

Teacher’s Pet

These channels are great for general knowledge, as they cover a lot of the things specific to the IB syllabus. 

Biology Internal Assessment (IA)

IA Rubric

Study Guides

OSC Biology Study Guides: The most popular study guides are the OSC study guides, written by IB teachers, really great if you’re willing to spend some money. All of the study guides are for 2016 exams onwards!

PrepScholar study guide 

IB Guides

Oxford IB Diploma Guide: This study guide is super popular despite being on the old syllabus, but it can be used to practice and review certain topics/units!

Work Books

BioZone: This workbook is great for review, and testing your knowledge during and after lectures. 

Group Four Project

IBO guide

OSC Tips

Statistics in Biology

I-Biology Statistical Analysis: This one includes a presentation covering different ways to analyze data. 

IB Guides Data Analysis

If I made a mistake, or want me to add something, please do tell me! :) 


Now that we’ve started talking about identity, today Hank tackles the question of personhood. Philosophers have tried to assess what constitutes personhood with a variety of different criteria, including genetic, cognitive, social, sentience, and the gradient theory. As with many of philosophy’s great questions, this has much broader implications than simple conjecture. The way we answer this question informs all sorts of things about the way we move about the world, including our views on some of our greatest social debates.

Get your own Crash Course Philosophy mug from DFTBA: http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-philosophy-mug

The Latest from PBS Digital Studios: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV

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Lesson 12 - Blood, Feud, and Honor.

Komið þið sæl,

Note: [If you have not done so already, check out last week’s lesson. Visit “Viking History” on my blog to view all of the lessons.]

Last week we discussed the ideal system of law in Viking Age society. Yet, that is just the surface of the system that actually existed. Although not directly related, feud was the true process for obtaining justice. Law was merely a phase that most feuds would go through. This lesson aims to shed light on how justice was truly obtained, how honor governed all things within society, and how blood was the answer when honor was violated.

This is an area of Viking history with a good amount of complicated elements. I am going to attempt to simplify and condense it, but if there are any questions, I will happy answer them with greater, isolated detail.


  1. Defining a “feud”
  2. The Economy of Honor
  3. Vengeance
  4. Peace

Defining a “feud”

Characteristics of the feud process:

  1. Feud is a hostile relationship between two groups.
  2. Involved groups that can recruit in various ways (household, clientage, etc.)
  3. Violence is controlled and scaled, generally remaining between the involved groups.
  4. Collective liability (one person getting killed meant that any person from the other group could be killed in return).
  5. A notion of exchange (my-turn/your-turn).
  6. Score is kept.
  7. Honor as prime motivator.
  8. Governed by social norms (a well defined process).
  9. Culturally acceptable means of settlements and hostility.

Feud was frequently moral, often judicial, and always political. It was moral when social norms are violated (seating arrangements, gift giving, etc.). It was judicial when involving settlement and legal action (the law phase). It was political because it is the primary exchange of power and influence. Feud was far more than vengeance-killing alone. There is also no specific term for feud; it was a process not an institution.

The Icelanders did have a model for feud though, and it takes the vocabulary of gift giving and inverts it. Score is kept and a gift (or killing) is returned with another. Feud took place between people of relatively equal status and resources. It generally did not cross social strata and such conflict would be perceived differently. Those below the middling farmer could not afford to feud. Supporters who died in feud did not spark feuds themselves, because they were a part of the feud between the big men. Feud was not always the first course of action either, of course. If terms were good, matters settled quickly. Yet even settlement was not automatic and feud was never too far away.

Counsel was a major role in the feud process. Not seeking out advice from kin was seen as disrespectful and something that would lead to disaster. After all, kin were effected by feud as much as the complainant himself.

Much of the work behind the feud was actually in gaining support or preventing the other from gaining support themselves. From killings to legal action, support was needed. The uninvolved were crucial, for they were the audience and the judges who would distribute honor accordingly.

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hi! i really wanted to make this post because these are some youtube channels that i love and enjoy watching so why not share it? :D 

you probably know all of these but i still am going to share this post ._.

thank you for reading my first post and I’m more than happy if this post helped you or had a positive effect on you! 💕

more “helpful” posts:

online stationery shops



Hai lovelies !!  It’s been awhile since I’ve made an original post, but I’m back \o/! I’ve been trying to relax and enjoy my summer, (and study so my next school year isn’t a flop orz). But I’ve seen a lot of people make masterposts about what resources they use to study or review a certain topic, so I decided that I should make one! These are resources that I use regularly and have helped me get my life together. Hope this helps!

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Now that school is starting soon, I thought I could create a masterpost with the purpose of helping those who need tutoring, a crash course on a subject, or even just little bits of help on homework. I hope you enjoy! :)

All Subjects: 













-  http://www.howstuffworks.com




















Mini Things:




If you guys need anything else, please feel free to message me. I’m always here to help. Thank you! :) <3


This week, we’re continuing our discussion of Mark Twain’s ‘The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.’ This is part two of our talk about Huck Finn, and this time we’re looking at the metaphors in the book, a little bit about what the metaphors like the Island and the River and the Raft might mean, and why you should pay attention to said metaphors. We’ll also look at the ending of the book, which a lot of people (including us) believe isn’t up to the standards of the rest of the novel.

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anonymous asked:

What/who do you like to watch on YouTube?

Achievement Hunter and Rooster Teeth, top two haha, also Vlogbrothers, CrashCourse and SciShow all their stuff, Jacksepticeye, Laci Green, all of Zefranks old ashow videos, and like most people all of Dan and Phil’s stuff haha. Those are the ones that I’ll watch most of all

anonymous asked:

I won't accept anything less from the adaptation than a dramatization of all the tangents (bishop, nunnery, Waterloo, sewage system, even the smaller parts like the justification for using slang) with a voice-over reading out the original text, the voice turning out to be that of Marius, finishing the thing of with his Napoleon-speech.

Petition to get the series to just be Morgan Freeman reading the brick with a crashcourse style animation of the events


Get Your Crash Course Physics Mug here: https://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-physics-mug

Bridges… bridges, bridges, bridges. We talk a lot about bridges in Physics. Why? Because there is A LOT of practical physics that can be learned from the planning and construction of them. In this episode of Crash Course Physics, Shini talks to us about a particular mistake made in engineering the Millennium Bridge which allows us to talk about simple harmonic motion.

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Today, we continue our exploration of fluids and fluid dynamics. How do fluids act when they’re in motion? How does pressure in different places change water flow? And what is one of the motion annoying things about filming outside on a nice day? I’ll give you a hint on that last one… it’s lawn mowers.

In this episode of Crash Course Physics, Shini talks to us about how Fluids in Motion are really, really, REALLY powerful things.

Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

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20 episodes in, Hank still has a lot of problems saying philosophy words.

music: “Hyperfun”
Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0

Get your own Crash Course Philosophy mug from DFTBA: http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-philosophy-mug

The Latest from PBS Digital Studios: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV

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