The Temple of Athena Nike was named after the Greek goddess, Athena Nike. The temple is the earliest fully Ionic temple on the Acropolis. It was a prominent position on a steep bastion at the south west corner of the Acropolis to the right of the entrance, the Propylaea. In contrast to the Acropolis proper, a walled sanctuary entered through the Propylaea, the Victory Sanctuary was open, entered from the Propylaea’s southwest wing and from a narrow stair on the north. The sheer walls of its bastion were protected on the north, west, and south by the Nike Parapet, named for its frieze of Nikai celebrating victory and sacrificing to their patroness, Athena Nike.
Nike means victory in Greek, and Athena was worshipped in this form, as goddess of victory in war and wisdom. The citizens worshipped the goddess in hope of a successful outcome in the long Peloponnesian War fought on land and sea against the Spartans and their allies.
Celtic Gold Dagger excavated from Hallstatt dated about the 6th Century BCE on display at the Naturhistorisches Museum
The rare golden objects in the Hallstatt graves are rather small where as the gold objects found in barrow graves elsewhere from this period are significantly larger. Gold seems to have been reserved for the political elite and the lack of larger objects suggests richer lords resided elsewhere.
Busts of Kleopatra VII and Julius Caesar, dated to the 1st century BCE. The bust of Kleopatra is made of marble, and the bust of Julius Caesar is of green basalt. Both are currently located in the Atles Museum in Berlin.
20.7 m in height, 29 m in breadth, 70.1 m in length
The temple was of peripteral form, with a frontal pronaos (porch), mirrored by a similar arrangement at the back of the building, the opisthodomos. The building sat on a crepidoma (platform) of three unequal steps, the exterior columns were positioned in a six by thirteen arrangement, two rows of seven columns divided the cella (interior) into three aisles. Although it lies in ruins today, an echo of the temple’s original appearance can be seen in the Second Temple of Hera at Paestum, which closely followed its form. The temple featured carved metopes and triglyph friezes, topped by pediments filled with sculptures in the Severe Style, now attributed to the “Olympia Master” and his studio. According to Pausanias, the temple’s height up to the pediment was 68 feet (20.7 m), its breadth was 95 feet (29.0 m), and its length 230 feet (70.1 m). It was approached by a ramp on the east side. The main structure of the building was of a local limestone that was unattractive and of poor quality, and so it was coated with a thin layer of stucco to give it an appearance of marble to match the sculptural decoration. It was roofed with Pentelic marble cut into the shape of tiles. The marble was cut thinly enough to be translucent, so that on a summer’s day, “light comparable to a conventional 20-watt bulb would have shone through each of the 1,000 tiles.
Terra Preta soils are of pre-Columbian
nature and were created by humans between 450 BCE and 950
CE. The soil’s depth can reach 2 meters, and exists in small plots averaging 20 hectares along the Amazon river.
It was made by adding a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure to infertile soils, making them ideal for agriculture, and it can even renew itself slowly thanks to all the microorganisms living in it.
It’s such a rich soil that researchers are trying to recreate it on a larger scale and include it in
modern agriculture practices.
Detail of the Barberini Faun, either a Hellenistic statue dating to the 3rd to 2nd centuries BCE, or a later Roman copy. Marble. Currently located in the Glyptothek in Munich, Germany. Photo taken by F. Tronchin.
Ancient Greek gold ring with an engraved bee. The bee represents Ephesus and the Sanctuary of Artemis in Ephesus, as bees were common symbols for the goddess. Dated to the 3rd century BCE, found in the Getty Museum.