July 4th, 1915 - Gallipoli: Turkish Counterattack Driven Back
Pictured - The man in the middle is a Turkish sniper taken prisoner while camouflaged as a tree.
The Battle for Gully Ravine commenced on June 28th, and by the first week of July had wound down. The British offensive was a success, and though it did not capture the still-elusive target of Krithia it advanced the British line a few miles, closer to reaching the Dardanelles Straights. But the price of a few miles was a few thousand dead and wounded, including one French divisional commander. The Ottomans fell back but knew they could not allow the British to reach the Straights. On the 4th they counterattacked in hopes of driving the new front line back.
Unlike the British attack on the 28th, the Turks did not have the advantage of surprise. In one day they took 14,000 casualties, caused by the stubborn defense of the 52nd (Lowland) and 29th Royal Naval Divisions. Though the Turks lost thousands of troops, they also gained a hero - Mustafa Kemal. A divisional commander, Kemal had been the lifeblood the Turkish resistance to the Allies on Gallipoli. Only he had kept them from capturing the pivotal height of Achi Baba in the invasion’s first days. Now he fought in the front lines with his soldiers, often getting out of the trench to lead his men from in front. Somehow he was never wounded, and in doing so he achieved the awe of his men.
Pluschow pictured on November 6, 1914, after his escape from Tsingtao. The plane was burned shortly after the taking of this picture.
July 4, 1915, Derby–When the German port of Tsingtao [Qingdao] fell to the Japanese in November, the only German soldier to escape was Gunther Plüschow. The day before the fall of the city, Plüschow flew the sole remaining Taube airplane out with the final German dispatches, flying 160 miles before running out of fuel. He made his way to Nanking [Nanjing] and then onto Shanghai, where a friend’s daughter provided him with fake Swiss papers and a ticket on a ship to San Francisco. He then took a transcontinental train to New York, where on January 30, thanks to another friend, he obtained passage to (then-neutral) Italy. Unfortunately for Pluschow, the ship was forced to dock at Gibraltar due to storms, where he was arrested by the British authorities and sent to Britain as a POW.
By early May, he was being kept at Donington Hall in Leicestershire. Noticing a hole in the fence when a deer passed through it, he and Oskar Trefftz escaped during a storm on July 4. They walked ten miles to Derby, where they took a train to London before splitting up. Their descriptions were soon published in the papers, including Plüschow’s prominent dragon tattoo. Trefftz was soon recaptured, but Plüschow, having disguised himself as a laborer, eluded the authorities, sleeping at night in the British Museum. Eventually, he overheard a Dutch ship was due to depart from Tilbury in Essex and made his way there. After several failed attempts to board, he finally climbed up a rope and stowed away on board a lifeboat. Slipping off the boat in the Netherlands, he boarded a train to Germany and successfully crossed the border, despite being questioned by Dutch police while having no identification papers. Plüschow would be the only man to successfully escape a POW camp in Great Britain in either world war.
That’s right—none of those is his actual hand. This old trick is so tricky that to this day the phrase “clandestine macramé” delivers no Google results. From My Years at the Austrian Court by Nellie Ryan, 1915.
Cne Kiyotaké Shigeno, pilote de l'escadrille V 24
sur le terrain de Rosnay en août 1915 - Né à Nagoya (Japon), le 6
octobre 1882 - Fils de Kiyoshiko Shigeno et de Fusako Kurosaki - Brevet
de pilote civil n° 744 décerné sur Caudron à Issy-les-Moulineaux, le 19
février 1912 - Bat le record d’altitude du Japon avec la hauteur de 300
mètres, le 20 avril 1913 - S'engage dans l'armée française, sur ordres
de ses supérieurs, le 20 décembre 1914 - Brevet de pilote militaire n°
834 obtenu à l'école d'aviation militaire d'Avord, le 19 avril 1915 -
Pilote de l'escadrille V 24 du 20 mai au 1er juin 1916 - En mission à la
RGA du 31 août au 21 décembre 1915 - Hospitalisé puis convalescence du 8
septembre au 7 décembre 1915 - Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur, le 28
septembre 1915 - Détaché auprès de l'attaché naval du Japon du 22 au 29
mùai 1916 - Pilote de l'escadrille N 12 du 1er au 15 juin juin 1916 -
Antenne RGA du Plessis-Belleville du 15 juin au 19 septembre 1916 -
Pilote de l'escadrille N 26 / SPA 26 du 19 septembre 1916 au 11 mars
1919 - Hospitalisé et convalescence du 13 août 1917 au 23 février 1919 -
Marié avec Jeanne Aimard à Paris (75), le 18 octobre 1919 - Domiciliés
7, rue Toullier à Paris (75) - Décédé des suites d'une pneumonie, à
Ozaka (Japon), le 13 octobre 1924 - Photo Lucien Lanier transmise par
Mme Françoise Lannes, née Labenelle, que je remercie pour son aide.