& biological chemistry

Men and women get sick in different ways

Recent research in laboratory medicine has revealed crucial differences between men and women with regard to cardiovascular illness, cancer, liver disease, osteoporosis, and in the area of pharmacology

At the dawn of third millennium medical researchers still know very little about gender-specific differences in illness, particularly when it comes to disease symptoms, influencing social and psychological factors, and the ramifications of these differences for treatment and prevention. Medical research conducted over the past 40 years has focused almost exclusively on male patients.

A new article titled “Gender medicine: a task for the third millennium” presents research on gender-related differences conducted by Giovannella Baggio of Padua University Hospital and her team.

The article, which appears in the Journal “Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine” (CCLM), highlights evidence for considerable differences between the sexes in five domains – cardiovascular disease, cancer, liver diseases, osteoporosis, and pharmacology.

Typically perceived as a male illness, cardiovascular disease often displays markedly different symptoms among women. While a constricted chest and pain that radiates through the left arm are standard signs of heart attack in men, in women the usual symptoms are nausea and lower abdominal pain. Although heart attacks in women are more severe and complicated, when complaining of these non-specific symptoms women often do not receive the necessary examination procedures, such as an ECG , enzyme diagnostic tests or coronary angiography.

Colon cancer is the second most common form of cancer among men and women. However, women suffer this illness at a later stage in life. Furthermore, colon tumors typically have a different location in women, and they respond better to specific chemical treatments. Gender also has an impact on the patient’s responsiveness to chemotherapy administered to treat cancer, such as colon, lung, or skin cancer. In this way, gender impacts the course of the disease and the patient’s chances for survival.

Primary biliary cirrhosis is a liver disease that primarily affects women. The authors of the study provide clear evidence that for this disease and chronic hepatitis C, the genetic makeup and differing hormone levels of females are a primary risk factor. This finding also applies to osteoporosis. While typically viewed as a female disease because of the much higher rate of female patients, osteoporosis also strikes men. The study contends that osteoporosis is too often overlooked in male patients, and it documents a higher mortality rate among men suffering bone fractures.

Baggio and her team also show variation between men and women in the pharmacology of aspirin and other substances. Differences in action and side effects are attributable to different body types, varying reaction times in the absorption and elimination of substances, and a fundamentally different hormonal status. Thus, to administer medication safely and effectively, the dosage and duration of treatment must take the patient’s gender into account.

The study concludes that additional and more far-reaching clinical investigations of gender differences are needed in order to eliminate fundamental inequalities between men and women in the treatment of disease.

Sleepy genius?

What if Lance is a sleepy genius? As in, when he just wakes up but isn’t fully aware or is half asleep cause its the middle of the night, he suddenly gives clear cut answers and instructions and even the reasoning behind it when something is asked of him?

What if Hunk knew this because they were roomies?

What if it’s because Lance always stays up to study and takes tests on 4 - 6 hours of sleep? (cause he read that that’s how long it takes the brain to process information from short to long term)

What if Hunk quizzed him these mornings and that’s why Lance is so used to answering directly without getting distracted?

What if the rest of the team finds out during a drill or attack in the middle of the night where Lance is too sleepy to let extra things like his insecurities hold back his genius and immediately comes up with a plan of attack before anyone else even registers what’s happening?

What if it happens in smaller bursts instead?

Like Keith finding Lance sleeping in the control room with the maps open to where they fought Zarkon instead of the Milky Way and asking Lance what he was doing there and Lance answers him with theories and formulas and plans on finding Shiro and they’re all based on other studies he remembers reading on Earth and Keith is shocked since he usually only hears Pidge talk that.

Pidge finds out because she and Hunk were working on an invention and got stuck in the middle of their sleep cycle. So stuck they thought they might have to start over when suddenly Hunk has the idea to ask Lance first. Pidge has no idea why, but can’t ask because Hunk already left and took everything with him. So they find themselves at Lance’s door and Hunk opens it without knocking since Lance never locks it and see him sleeping, mask and all. Hunk wakes him up and asks him to look over the mechanism in his hands and tell him why it isn’t working and Lance just takes a moment, eyes sleepily passing over, and just points at something and says, in a voice that’s clearly not all awake, that he didn’t secure some wiring (or something) and that he’s missing something else before going off into a clear explanation on why it’s needed or the system wouldn’t work or would only work once. And Pidge is just blown away and brings out her laptop with the programming for the system and asks him to tell her why it isn’t working and he does the same thing since the program is to help the mechanism that Hunk is holding. And she’s just like “wtf. Lance, how are you this smart.” But that wakes him up enough to start acting like normal Lance, leaving Pidge super confused as Hunk thanks Lance and tells him to go back to sleep and pulls Pidge back to their workroom where he explains that Lance used to do that all the time when they were in the Garrison.

Coran finds out when he finds Lance asleep in the common room and wakes him to walk him back to his room. He asks Lance what he was doing there and Lance responds in rudimentary, but accent-less Altean that he was studying and Coran is just floored by this since he’s only heard number 5 ever attempt Altean. Some prompting reveals that Lance studied on his own into the night pretty often, not just language, but the new unit systems he has to go by (how many ticks in a varga, how many vargas in a quintant, etc) as well as some altean history and research he found in the data banks. And Lance just keeps talking about how the scientific discovery of a truth serum derived from the bud of an altean flower helped find a diplomatic spy in the court and goes off on a tangent of how they might be able to recreate it because it has similar effects to something on earth and starts talking chemistry and biological medicine. But before getting too far on that thought train, the moving and talking wakes Lance up enough to see Coran just staring at him with a look of slight shock and Lance back pedals saying (in English now) it probably wasn’t going to work anyway since this is mainly based on humans, apologizes to Coran for babbling and runs for his room.

Allura finds out when they’re having dinner after being awake for 3 days because the customs of the planet they’re trying to shmooze call for it or something. Lance is just sitting there with his eyes closed for the past 20 minutes (because he remembered that it kinda works as a pseudo sleep) when Allura starts muttering about diplomatic strategy to get the resources that they need from the King when Lance points out that it’s a matriarchy and she’d have better luck talking to the princess or the queen, neither of whom they haven’t even seen yet. And Allura just stops in her muttering and asks Lance to clarify and he goes off into this whole explanation about how the males of the species are physically smaller and seem to defer final answers to the females. Not to mention the King saying that the queen was too busy. Everyone assumed it meant she was taking over his duties, but Lance realized that the King’s duties included receiving guests when he met the prince and they talked about how his younger sister is the crowned princess in training earlier that day. Then Lance just keeps going about how the princess might be more amicable to giving the resources and even an alliance because she’s on her way to taking things over for her mother, the only thing stopping them was the Galra that had attacked, but that’s not an issue now because of Voltron, but the princess would relate more to Allura. Now everyone is just staring at Lance as he keeps going about the things he’s noticed and what he and the prince talked about and even how it ties in with some idea he had before or an invention that Hunk and Pidge were working on when suddenly Lance just stops, opens his eyes and looks around asking “what?”

“Your sleepy genius came out again.” Hunk said while smiling fondly. (Doesn’t know that Lance holds back because of insecurities and worrying others will expect more than he’s able to give if he gives them anything at all.)

And Lance would flush immediately and start apologizing, when Keith cuts in with a “Wait? That’s normal?”

“Oh yeah. Lance is super smart, but for some reason it only comes out like that when he’s super sleepy.”

And Pidge adds in “so that’s why you only ask him to look over stuff in the middle of the night.”

And Coran just smiles at the memory of having a late might scientific discussion with Lance in full Altean, but keeps it to himself since Lance looks so embarrassed.

Allura notices this too and just turns to Lance and thanks him for the insight and advice and she’ll try to speak to the queen or princess in when they go planet side again.

Fast forward, they found Shiro because of one of Lance’s sleepy genius plans and after a while, Shiro notices that people keep bothering Lance in the middle of the night for things. Except Allura who takes Lance with her as a second advisor to all diplomatic missions (after confronting him about how he should come to her and Coran when he notices things like that) instead of a representative of Team Voltron like Shiro. And when Shiro asks about it at breakfast one morning, everyone laughs and says “cause Lance is a sleepy genius.”

And I meant to write this as a list of headcanons, but my own sleepy genius made it into a half fic. Someone write this out better please!


12/04/17: {26 days} From physical to biological chemistry. I wanted to post something earlier in the day but I actually lost track of time as I was doing work and actually not procrastinating for once. So unfortunately the lighting here is awful 🙃 ft Michelle Branch and purple paper again.

Imagine Data Sneaking Kisses in the Turbo Lift

Imagine Data Sneaking Kisses in the Turbo Lift

Requested by: Anonymous

The first time he kissed you in the turbo lift, it was on the cheek.

Then Geordie walked in.

The next time it was on the lips.

Then the Captain walked in.

This was the cycle. Data would some how know the perfect timing and pepper you with kisses and some how manage to think he was being convincing. He though he was honestly fooling the entire crew.

In reality, everyone knew.

This was partially because you can’t control when you blush.

The other part, was Data would make up a subject that you two had allegedly been discussing.

It was always something to do with romance, or kissing, or the biological chemistry behind relationships.

He would try to pick something distant however even he slips up.

It became a running joke amongst the rest of the crew, which you were oblivious to.

Until today.

You walked over to the turbo lift and found two ensigns kissing. You coughed getting them to break apart so you could get up to your station.

Then one of them said

“Haha… guess I pulled a Data.”

You stared at the ensign.

“Excuse me?”

“You know! Like how Lt. Commander Data is always kissing his girlfriend or boyfriend or whatever in the turbo lift”

The other ensign was mortified. Only managing to say

“Um… that is his…”

Which made them bolt out of the lift on the next floor.

As Data stepped in.

“Oh good Data I have something we need to talk about”

He leaned down and pressed a kiss to your cheek, feather light.

“Yes Darling?”

You suddenly felt tongue-tied

“Never mind it can wait.”

He nods and pressed another kiss to your forehead then peppered a trail of them down till he reached your lips. There he held a still delicate kiss till pulling away as the lift doors opened.

“Oh hello Geordie, [_______] and I were just discussing the greatest romantic works in old earth literature”

Geordie was clearly trying to hide a smirk. Your face was burning red.

“Uh huh, well I’m sure that makes for… interesting conversation.”

You really need to talk to Data about subtlety.

Sarek's question about a kiss
  • Sarek: Amanda?
  • Amanda: Yes, Sarek?
  • Sarek: I have a personal inquiry as to your species display of romantic affection to one another.
  • Amanda: .... And what is your question?
  • Sarek: I have asked human males and have done research on the physiological effects that are produced after the physical contact made between a human male's and female's lips and still do not fully understand the reason behind the, "intoxicating effect" either party experiences after the emotional display. More specifically,I do not understand why I would be experiencing the effects of being intoxicated after we have kissed. I am Vulcan. My biological chemistry should not be affected the same way a Human male's would be after we've kissed.
  • Amanda: About how long have you been experiencing this "intoxicating effect?"
  • Sarek: For three weeks, four days, seven hours, and twenty-six minutes.
  • Amanda: Sarek... I switched my lipstick to chocolate flavor around that time.
  • Sarek: ...
  • Amanda: Do you want me to change it back to normal?
  • Sarek: No... I find the ability to experience this physiological effect among your species most fascinating.

Just because one has a basic understanding of a thing, that does not mean they are an expert on it.

Also, this just in: Gender is a state of mind, chromosomes, hormones, sexual organs and biological chemistry be damned.


Alan Turin Killed himself after saving England in world war two from further german attack with his invention of the first successful cryptography machine, he was ahead of his time, he also came up with an elegant mathematical system to account for biological chemical changes, his contributions would lead to the computer, & massive breakthroughs in biological chemistry among other things. He was shamefully sentenced to feminine hormone therapy for being gay.  He killed himself with an apple laced with Cyanide. 

Boris Belousov was in the process of making a similar discovery in Russia not even knowing about Turin’s work, but his research was disregarded by mainstream scientist in Russia making him shun science for the rest of his life quitting the field disillusioned.

Their contributions to science & medicine led the way to fractal mathematics used widely today in all fields of scientific research from organic, to cybernetic.


18/09/16 ; [ 7 of 100 days of productivity ]

so I managed to complete my metals notes for chemistry as well as biological molecules for biology yesterday!! i even squeezed in some time to make little notes of encouragements for my juniors & i feel so loved by them right now HAHA

-ps I didnt upload this last night because i slept while waiting for tumblr to load-