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multilingual pronouns list

hi! so the mods here at qla have decided that since not all our readers are native english speakers, it would be in everyone’s best interests to start a collection of gender-neutral pronouns across all languages. if you don’t see your language or pronouns on the list (within reason, for accessibility purposes we can’t include every english variant of a pronoun), please let us know and include conjugations if possible! thank you!

for further expansions on grammar you can check the posts in the pronoun project tag:)

arabic ( عربي )

  • هما (they, originally dual, can work as a neutral singular third person)
  • انتما  (second person dual)

bulgarian (български език)

  • те/тях/техен/им (generally used for a group of people, could be used as singular as in “they”)
  • то/него/негово/му (means “it”, informal)

chinese (中文)

  • mandarin/普通话:  他 or 她 (tā) - only the pronunciation is gender-neutral unfortunately, the characters are gendered
  • cantonese/广州话: 佢 (keoi5/keúih) - them/him/her/it
  • 它 - also tā, but means “it”. ask before using as it could be derogatory
  • 牠 - ta1, used for non-human animals
  • add 們 (men) to either for plural, add 的 (de) to make it possessive
  • 那个人 (simplified) 那個人 (traditional) (na4ge4ren2- that person) and 这个人 (simplified) 這個人 (traditional) (zhe4ge4ren2- this person)

czech/čeština

  • onikání, which was used in the past as gender-neutral pronoun when refering to someone of lesser status. it’s oni/je/jejich/se they/them/their/themself and the use is: Oni jsou moc milým člověkem. - They are a very nice person.

danish/dansk

  • de/dem/deres
  • hen/hen/hens

dutch/nederlands

  • zij/hen/hun
  • ze/hun/ze - (note: literal translation of they, but ze is often used as “she”)

english

  • they/them/theirs
  • ze/zem/zeirs
  • xe/xem/xeirs (xyr)
  • hir/hirs/hirself
  • spivak: e/em/eir

esperanto

  • ri
  • Ŝli - combination of he/she, generally used like “they” in english

estonian/eesti keel

  • tema/teda/tema (formal)
  • ta/teda/tema

farsi

  • او

finnish/suomen kieli

  • se/sen (means it, informal)
  • hän/hänen (formal)

french/le français

  • ol/mo - ex: ol s’appelle Bidule et c’est mo pote.
  • ille (referring to oneself), ceulle (referring to someone else)
  • eux (sometimes used as a subject-position instead of object-position)

georgian/kartuli/ქართული

  • ის / იმან / იმის (is / iman / imis) = they / them / their

german/deutsch

  • xier/xieser/dier
  • xier/xies/xiem/xien
  • sie_er
  • er_sie
  • sier
  • es
  • sie_r
  • si_er
  • x
  • sie*
  • er*

greek/ελληνικά

  • αυτοί / εκείνοι ( are these the ones that mean it?? let me know so i can take them down)
  • αυτ@, εκείν@ (singular) φίλ@ς (plural) - not pronounceable, good for writing though

hebrew/’lvrit/עִבְרִית

  • there aren’t actually any gender neutral pronouns in hebrew sadly. the first set is all male pronouns and the second one is all female. like the word ze (זה) is male for ‘it’ and it has a female form which is ‘zo’ (זו). atzmam (עצמם) is plural male (but it is used sometimes as neutral tbh). also the second set is only female pronouns for she, her, hers and herself

    also about the plurals, you need to add either ם or ן to make these words plural either in a male or female form,  like the plural words aren’t actual words it needs to be עצמם\שלהם\אותם\הם and it’s the male form you just need to replace it with ן to make it female but people use these as gender neutral pretty often because that’s the closest you would get

icelandic/islenska

  • hín/hín/híni/híns
  • hé/hé/hé/hés
  • það - equivalent of “it”, ask before using, could be derogatory
  • hán/hán/háni/háns - mix of binary pronouns
  • when referring to an individual of an unspecified gender, use viðkomandi instead of hann/hún

ilokano/Ti Pagsasao nga Iloko

  • isuna (singular they), na (singular their), kaniana/kenkuana (singular theirs), isuda (plural they), da (plural their), kaniada/kadakuwada (plural theirs)

indonesian/bahasa indonesia

  • dia (third person singular), mereka (third person plural)

irish/gaeilge

  • sibh/siad

italian

  • ????

latvian/latviešu valoda/lettish

  • viņi/viņu/viņiem

lithuanian/lietuvių kalba

  • Jie/Jų/Jiems/Juos/Jais/Juose

malay/bahasa melayu/bahasa malaysia

  • dia

michif

  • wiya

norwegian/norsk

  • dem/dem/deres
  • hen/hen(henom)/hens(henoms)
  • hin/hin/hins
  • sir/sir/sirs

portuguese/lingua portuguesa/português

  • el@/del@
  • elx/delx
  • elæ/delæ

punjabi

  • all pronouns are neutral (he/she: “uha usa” or ਉਹ ਉਸ; him/her: “usa” or “usanū” which is ਉਸ or ਉਸਨੂੰ; his/hers: “usadā” or ਉਸਦਾ). also, the pronouns “he” & “she” in english both translate to “vah” (वह) in hindi. however, the rest of the pronouns are gendered. verbs are also generally gendered.

russian/ру́сский язы́к

  •  ох/ех/ех/ем/их/ниx

slovak/slovenský jazyk

  • oni/nich/im/ich/nimi

slovenian/slovenščina

  • oni/z njimi/njim (they/with them/to them). Now if you want to say: I want to help them - you don’t use ‘njim’ but ‘jim’. (Želim jim pomagati; Pomagati jim želim.)

spanish/español/castilano/castellano

  • Pronouns that can be written and pronounced:

    • Ella/la/-a (binary feminine): “Ella es la niña linda”
    • Él/el/-o (binary masculine): “Él es el niño lindo”
    • Elle/le/-e (neutral): “Elle es le niñe linde”
    • Ello/lo/-o (neutral, similarly to the english ‘it’ can be very offensive so please be careful and don’t use it unless you are told to do so): “Ello es lo niño lindo”
    • Elli/li/-i (neutral, cacophonic and uncommon): “Elli es li niñi lindi”
    • Ellu/lu/-u (neutral, cacophonic and uncommon): “Ellu es lu niñu lindu”

    Pronouns that can be written but not pronounced:

    • Ellx/lx/-x: “Ellx es lx chicx lindx” (I don’t know who told you otherwise, but this can be used by both poc and white folks)
    • Ell*/l*/-*: “Ell* es l* niñ* lind*”
    • Ell@/l@/-@: “Ell@ es l@ niñ@ lind@”
    • Ell_/l_/-_: “Ell_ es l_ niñ_ lind_”
    • Ellæ/læ/-æ: “Ellæ es læ niñæ lindæ”

swedish/svenska

  • hen/hen(henom)/hens(henoms) - variations are in parentheses, gender-neutral third person personal pronouns
  • den/den/dens (dess) (means ‘it’)
  • de/dem (dom)/deras

tagalog

  • Singular/Plural siya/sila (they) niya/nila (them/their) (sa) kanya/(sa) kanila (theirs/preposition them)

turkish/türkçe

  • o/onlar

welsh/cymraeg/y gymraeg

  • nhw/nhw/eu

Day 3 of Frans week ~!! An AU ~~ i LOVE Echotale and  i really enjoy those mint glowing colors <3 
@yoralim  (i love you~notice me i adore you forever;; ) 
(-+a little edit… . .. OMG i cant even-thank you so much omgomg ;ם;)
and 
@borurou Gsans creator  <3 
-
@fransweek

also im soooo hyped for all the love it got such a wonderful love fest! keep on the feel train everyone~!!~~!! 

(lil Edit 2- I’m doing color fixing to some drawings~ I have a lil colorblind that all my blues are mints and all my reds are pink~ but I found a way now to handle it! so yayyy~~right colors!)

Hebrew Basics #1: All about the Hebrew Alphabet

In order to learn a language, the very first thing you need to know is reading it. This is a basic step in all language studies. Hopefully you’ll start conquering that by the end of this lesson :)

The Hebrew alphabet… isn’t an alphabet. Technically speaking, it’s an “‘abjad” (an acronym of the first four letters of the Arabic ‘abjad), although it is commonly called an alphabet (as I’ll continue calling it for simplicity’s sake). Characteristic of Semitic languages (to which Hebrew belongs, among Arabic and many others, extinct and alive), the ‘abjad’s main characteristic is (almost) complete lack of vowels. Every letter stands for a consonant, and vowels are simply omitted. It’s equivalent to writing English “lk ths.”

While using an ‘abjad-like system with English is quite hellish, the case for Hebrew is quite different. Due to its relatively simple vowel system and unique Semitic grammar and morphology (how words are formed and act in a sentence), using an ‘abjad is actually quite a reasonable choice for Hebrew. Oversimplifying, Hebrew words are comprised of a root and a template, each contribute meaning to the final word. The root is comprised of (usually three) consonants, and the template describes the vowels, prefixes and suffixes you insert between and around the consonants.

The Letters

The Hebrew alphabet, called הָאַלֶף־בֵּית/אָלֶפְבֵּית הָעִבְרִי ha’álef-bét ha’ivrí, is comprised of 22 letters.

The first, most important fact is that Hebrew is read from right to left.

Note: the names aren’t all that important to learning the letters. Simply learning their pronunciation is enough at this point.

Five of the letters, for historical reasons, have two different forms - a word-initial and -medial form, and a separate final form. These are marked with a 1 on the table.

As you might have noticed, some letters have multiple pronunciations, and some of these overlap with one another. This was caused by many changes that happened to the language’s phonology over the years since the alphabet was created (some 3,000 years ago in its earliest forms).

The most notable of these letters are the בֶּגֶ״ד כֶּפֶ״ת* béged kéfet letters, marked with a 2. These days, for historical reasons**, only three letters actually change their pronunciation depending on their position in a word–ב bet, כ kaf, פ pe–and they are the only ones marked on the list, pronounced as /b~v/, /k~kh/, /p~f/, respectively. Generally speaking, for native words, at the beginning of a word and directly after a consonant (with no vowel in-between), they are pronounced with their ‘hard’ pronunciation (/b/ /k/ /p/), and in all other positions with their ‘soft’ pronunciation (/v/ /kh/ /f/). Loanwords do not follow these rules, and are pronounced as they are in the original language.

*Acronyms and initialisms, as well as Hebrew letter names and numerals, are marked by the Hebrew punctuation mark ״, called גֵּרְשַׁיִם gershayim, and placed before the last letter of the phrase. It is similar looking to the Latin quotation mark, and is often confused with it even by native speakers, but nonetheless different.

**You might have noticed that ‘historically’, ‘for historical reasons’, etc. are somewhat a trend in this lesson. Hebrew is an incredibly old language, about 5,000 years old in fact, riddled with old tales and tradition. During that period it changed a lot, it even died for 2,000 years and came back to haunt us in the last 150. Despite this, the Hebrew writing system as we know it today was tailored (albeit not perfectly) for Hebrew as it was spoken some 2,500 years ago, and remained relatively unchanged during that whole period. Therefore, there are a lot of peculiarities in the Hebrew alphabet that we simply do not have time to cover, stemming from the complicated history of the language.

There are also a handful of letters which, for historical reasons, are still pronounced the same.

  • א alef + ע áyin (+ ה he) = ‘ (glottal stop) or none (ה he only as none)
  • soft ב bet + ו vav = /v/
  • ח chet + soft כ kaf = /ch/*
  • ט tet + ת tav = /t/
  • hard כ kaf + ק qof = /k/*
  • ס sámekh + שׂ sin = /s/

*I still transcribe hard כ kaf and ק qof, as well as ח chet and soft כ kaf differently (/k/ vs /q/, /ch/ vs /kh/) because, well, it’s easier than the other homophones.


To form a word, simply string together letters - the vowels magically appear in your head!

ספר (séfer) - book

ספר (sapár) - barber, hairdresser

ספר (sipér) - (he) told, (he) cut hair

ספר (supár) - (passive of above verb)

ספר (sper) - spare (English loanword)

…Yeah, that’s easier said than done.

See, in general with the ‘abjad system, all words pronounced with the same consonants are written exactly the same, which can create a heck of a lot of homographs, words written the same but pronounced differently. This problem has been cleverly solved using אִמּוֹת קְרִיאָה - ‘imót kri’á (literally mothers of reading). These are letters in Hebrew that serve a double function as a consonant and a vowel, marked with a 3 on the table. Noticed the letters ו vav and י yod have multiple pronunciations?

In many words, vowels (especially /i/, /o/ and /u/) are marked using one of these letters to reduce the number of homographs. For example, the words listed earlier are usually written:

ספר (séfer) - book

ספר (sapár) - barber, hairdresser

סיפר (sipér) - (he) told, (he) cut hair

סופר (supár) - (passive of above verb) 

ספייר (sper) - spare (English loanword)

These letters can be conveniently memorized using the acronym אֶהֶוִ״י ‘eheví.

Interestingly enough, Yiddish, written with the same 22 letters, uses these letters (and some more) to create a full alphabet, where each and every vowel in a word is written, as well as the consonants. But we aren’t learning Yiddish here.

Learning when and where to put ‘imót kri’á comes with time, as it is often up to the reader where to put them. The style of writing I’ll be teaching with is called כְּתִיב חֲסֵר ktiv chasér, or ‘lacking spelling,’ where the bare minimum of ‘imót kri’á are used, and all vowels are indicated using vowel points, נִקּוּד niqúd, explained in the next section. This style is often used in children’s books and Biblical inscriptions; ktiv chasér is historically the only way Hebrew was written. This is in opposition to כְּתִיב מָלֵא ktiv malé, ‘full spelling,’ where ‘imót kri’á are used and vowel points aren’t; this is the style of writing virtually every modern Hebrew text is written in.

This might seem all confusing at this point, but let me assure you it isn’t. Once you wrap your head around it and start reading more and more of the language, you just instinctively know how a word is read off the bat. Context is usually more than enough to settle any ambiguities in how to read a word.


Vowel Points

Vowel points, נִקּוּד niqúd, are the diacritics used in Hebrew to indicate the vowels of a word, to complement the ambiguous ‘abjad system. These are the little dots and lines around each letter in previous examples.

Hebrew has five vowels: /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ - pronounced almost identically to those in Spanish and Greek, to name a few. However, it has 13 different vowel points. Historically, and still in some traditional readings of the Bible, each mark had a different pronunciation, but in Modern Hebrew a lot of them merged with one another.

The final form of מ mem, ם, is used as a placeholder here.

Make no mistake, the two vowels marked with an asterisk are in fact the same vowel. For now, know that in most cases it is pronounces as /a/. The /o/ pronunciation is rare, only in certain templates of words, and distinguishing between them is out of the scope of this lesson. For now, the only common word that uses the /o/ pronunciation is כָּל kol, meaning ‘all’.

Short and long vowels are only traditional nomenclature - in practice, all vowels in each row are pronounced with the same length. תְּנוּעוֹת חֲטוּפוֹת tnu’ót chatufót are stlightly different, but nonetheless pronounced the same. Note that the some long vowels use ‘imót kri’á intrinsically.

דָּגֶשׁ Dagésh:

The point on the bottom left, the דָּגֶשׁ dagésh, is an interesting topic. However, the only relevant point to this lesson is that it distinguishes between hard (with dagesh) and soft (without) pronunciations of בֶּגֶ״ד כֶּפֶ״ת béged kéfet letters.

שְׁוָא Shva:

There are two types of shva: נַע na’ ‘moving’ - indicating an /e/, and נַח nach ‘still’ - indicating no vowel. Distinguishing between them is way out of the scope of this lesson, so for now the only way to tell them apart is through experience and transliterations.

שִׁי״ן Shin Points:

You might have noticed the rogue ש shin at the bottom of the table there. ש shin is different to other letters with double pronunciations, as it had always had two different pronunciations. Therefore, it got a different point to distinguish between the two: a dot on the right spoke of the ש shin indicates the common /sh/ pronunciation - שׁ, and a dot on the left spoke indicates the rarer /s/ pronunciation - שׂ. Each pronunciation is subsequently called שִׁי״ן יְמַנִית shin yemanít ‘right שִׁי״ן’ and שִׁי״ן שְֹמָאלִית shin smalít ‘left שִׁי״ן’.

All word-final letters have no vowel, unless marked otherwise. Most letters cannot even take a vowel mark at the end of a word. Exceptionally, ה he, ח chet, final ך kaf, ע áyin, ת tav, in certain circumstances do take vowel marks. ש shin must always have either a left or a right point, but no other vowel mark.


Practice!

Try reading these basic Hebrew words, then look at the answer key at the end to see if you were right.

1. אֲנִי
2. כֶּלֶב
3. בְּתוֹךְ
4. שֻׁלְחָן
5. פְּרִי
6. כָּל
7. יַם
8. עֵץ
9. אֲדָמָה
10. שְׂמֹאל


Answer Key

  1. ‘aní – I (me)
  2. kélev – dog
  3. betókh – inside
  4. shulchán – table
  5. pri – fruit
  6. kol – all
  7. yam – sea
  8. ‘ets – tree
  9. ‘adamá – ground, earth
  10. smol – left (vs. right)

Alright then, that’s it for today! Follow me for more Hebrew lessons, hopefully they won’t all be as long as this one :D

לְהִתְרַאוֹת בַּפַּעַם הַבָּאָה! (lehitraót bapá’am haba’á)

See you next time!

אחותי הקטנה ביקשה מאמא שלי לקנות נוטלה, עכשיו עזבו את זה שאם כל אחד שהוא לא אחותי הקטנה והמפונקת היה מבקש היא לא הייתה מסכימה, או זה שהשחר העולה טעים בהרבה, כשראיתי מה היא קנתה נחרדתי קשות

כוסעמק, אדם לא יכול להנות משוקולד מזדיין בלי לראות פאקינג דרדסים בכל מקום? אלוהים אדירים, אני רוצה לפגוש באופן אישי את האדם שחשב על הרעיון זין הזה בשביל לירוק לו בפרצוף. יש דברים שהם לא נסלחים?!?!?!?!?! זה כמו לשחוט פרה קדושה. זה לא אנושי, זה לא הגיוני, זה לא בסדר- זה בלתי נסלח. אני רוצה את הנטולה הרגילה שלי בחזרה. כוס אמא של כל השותפים לדבר, אני ממש מקווה שזה יגיע לאו”ם.

את הפוסט הזה אני לא מתכוון לסיים בנימה חיובית, פשוט כי לצערנו אין כזו. שתפו כדי למנוע את הבושה

אתגר שבוע הספר!

Originally posted by mkgaud

בין התאריכים 7.6-15.6 יתקיים שבוע הספר העברי. לכבודו אני רוצה להכריז על אתגר, שבו בכל יום במשך השבוע הזה אנשים יצטרכו לפרסם תמונה/טקסט/כל דבר אחר בהתאם לנושא שהם ייבחרו מהרשימה הבאה:

  • ספרים שיש לך בבית
  • ספרים שמזכירים לך עונה מסוימת
  • ספרים שאקרא הקיץ הזה
  • בחר סופר והמלץ על כמה שיותר ספרים שלו
  • סדרת ספרים אהובה
  • טריולוגיה אהובה
  • ספרים ישראליים שאהבתי (בכל זאת, שבוע הספר העברי)
  • כריכות של ספרים עם אותה האסתטיקה (בונוס אם האסתטיקה מתאימה לבלוג שלך)
  • שיפ (זוג) ספרותי הכי אהוב
  • ספרים שקראת המון פעמים (אין דבר כזה יותר מידי!)
  • הספרים שתמליץ עליהם לכל אחד/אחת
  • ספרים מאותו הז'אנר/נושא/בעלי מאפיין משותף
  • ספר עם חתימת הסופר שבבעלותך
  • ספר שמשמעותי לך
  • ציטוט/ים אהוב/ים מספר/ים
  • הספרים שגרמו לך לאהוב לקרוא (או הספרים הראשוניים המשמעותיים שקראת)
  • פרסם משהו שכתבת
  • מה שבא לך!

Originally posted by happymoomin

איך עושים את האתגר?

בכל שבוע הספר, כל יום עליך לבחור קטגוריה כלשהי ולפרסם פוסט עליה עם התאג #אתגרשבועהספר. בפוסט יכול להיות כל דבר - תמונות אסתטיות של הספרים, תמונות של הכריכות שמצאת באינטרנט, סקירה בכתב של הספרים, ציורים שלך, עריכות, מוד-בורדס ומה לא!

אתגר נוסף לאנשים ואנשות שבבעלותם יותר מ-100 ספרים בבית או שהם/ן סתם עצלניות/ם:

נסו לענות על כל הקטגוריות רק עם הספרים שיש לכן בבית.

**הטקסט נוסח בלשון זכר/נקבה באקראיות לשם הנוחות שלי, אבל מיועד לכל מי שאוהב/ת ספרים**

בואו נעשה את זה!

Originally posted by elvenforestworld

תרשמו אותי לזה לעזאזל 👌👀👌👀👌👀👌👀👌👀 חרא טוב חרא טו-אוב 👌 זה✔️ חרא ממש 👌👌טוב בדיוק 👌👌 ש 👌ם 👌👌👌בדיוק ✔️שם✔️✔️ אם א1מר כך בעצמ י 💯 אם אני אומר/ת 💯 על זה בדיוק מדובר בדיוק שם בדיוק שם (פזמון: בדיוק שם) מםםםםם 👌👌👌💯 הוווווווווווואאווווו 👌👌👀 👀 👀👌💯👌👌👌👌 חרא טואוב

אופציה ניטרלית-מגדרית לכל מי שמרגיש/ה צורך בכך, או סתם אם נמאס לכן/ם מהמגדור שיש בעברית

מורה בבית הספר שלי החליט שבמקום לעשות אותיות סופיות שממגדרות אנשים, הוא הופך את המילים ללא-מגדריות בכך שהוא מחליף את הסיומות לאות ז.
מה זאת אומרת?
אנשים = אנשיז, כולן/ם = כולז, וכו
אחרי ששמעתי על זה התלהבתי ממש, והתחלתי לשחק קצת עם הרעיון. שינוי הסיומת לאות ז לא רק הופכת את המילה לניטרלית לחלוטין, אלא היא בכל זאת מאפשרת לנו להבליט את הנשיות / גבריות שבנו, אם אנחנו רוציז (רוצים/ות.. מתחיל להיקלט קצת?).
למשל, מישהי נונ-בינארי, שמרגישה יותר מחוברת לנשיות, יכולה לאמר “אני אוהזת שוקולד” - שילוב של הניטרליות של המגדר שלה, והחיבור שיש לה ללהיות נשית.
זה סתם רעיון כזה, ויש מילים שזה קצת מסתבך איתן, אבל בסך הכל אני חושבת שזה באמת נפלא ואני מקווה שזה יתפוס לפחות אצל חלק מהאנשיז.

נשרים וחיות אחרות

אזזזזז
כידוע לכולם פה בערך, אני מתנדבת במחלקת ציפורים בגן החיות התנכ”י. ומכיוון שזה בלוג שאני עושה בו מה שבא לי, החלטתי לספר לכם על פרוייקט ההשבה לטבע של העופות הדורסים בגן החיות התנכ”י.

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I have way much to say about it but I’m gonna have to keep it short.
I made the sketch for it to the fantasy challenge of @franshaven  two weeks ago when I saw the game of thrones episode when - SPOILER ALERT-
.
,
,
when John snow pet the Dragon and I was all like oooOoOo~~~ ;ם;
and now I saw the two last episodes .
I cant even found the words to explain all the many feeling I have.
if. I had any idea.…………this will happen. .… .
I’m not gonna talk about. but I’m gonna say . that I wanted to draw something else cause I actually don’t like how Sans and Frisk came out, the Dragon is the reason I decided to be ok with this pic ..
I’m gonna edit this later. …

wakyky15  asked:

I already miss your art, Villy! ;-;

you are so precious Pie i cant even begin to explain how much it means to me to hear it ;ם;  
the only things i draw lately are only sketches or other fandom posters design that they are work related~  

you know what? your sweetness filld with determination!
I’ve started a sketch for a new style im trying out, its a “Texture” coloring thingy that im gonna be practicing more after my big Con ~

so dedicated this to you! ill call it~~ flower pie!

ok I had to take a little break from my work cause I need my Ratio-frans for my soul , even if its the most sketch quick ~ whatever I don’t care I love them and I miss them ;ם;  and I actually really love how it came out! ;ם;  and maybe ill color it when I have life again! but no when ill have life again I’m gonna keep working on the actual comics~

ok ill be back to my factory hive ~ hope you like my babies <3

wakyky15  asked:

A3 with the babies from your AU x33

eeeeeeEeEeEeEeE~!!! PIIEEEE~~!!! you are so precious !!!! ;ם;  
you want to see my babies  ;-; you made me so so happy thank you so much~!!!! ;;;;;  i love you gurlll~<3 

and with the spirit of my texture style practice~ playing with de vinci like texture <3