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Why does English still have the “TH” sound?

The interesting thing about this topic is that English is one of two languages of the Germanic family that has retained the feature commonly called the <TH>-sound which stands for the dental fricatives /θ ð/. If you have a look at the map below which highlights the Germanic tongues in red, only Icelandic and British English (from England, Wales, Scotland + Northern Ireland) in darker red sport these sounds. It is also fascinating because there was a time when the ancestors of all these tongues had dental fricatives but lost them over the last centuries.

Then, why did English maintain a sound that was lost in almost all its sister-languages despite centuries of evolution side-by-side?

Grimm’s Law

First, you have to understand that on the whole, Germanic languages phonetically stand out from the rest of the Indo-European languages for a set of processes that made original IE sounds move one step closer towards fricatives. These evolutions were named Grimm’s Law, after Jacob Grimm discovered this phenomenon in 1875. This is a brief summary of what happened during the splitting of Germanic away from common IE:

This translates into these instances:

  • Greek: Podos/ Latin: Pedis/ Sanskrit: Pada vs English: Foot/ Danish: Fod/ Gothic:Fotus.
  • Greek: Tritos/ Welsh: Trydydd/ Russian: Tretij vs English: Third/ Old Saxon:  Thriddio/ Icelandic:  Þriðji.

There are many more examples but the most relevant here is of course the change of alveolar/dental stops /t d/ into the dental fricatives /θ ð/. This is the first steps in explaining the presence of dental fricatives in English. They descend from a millennia-old process that saw these sounds develop in all Germanic languages.

Verner’s Law

When Grimm’s Law was accepted, a new problem arose; some words clearly didn’t fit within the frame hypothesised by Grimm. For example, Proto-Indo-European pa’tēr turned into father instead of the expected fader while PIE ‘brahtēr gave brother like Grimm’s Law predicted. The alternation can also be found in different forms of verbs. So of course, Grimm must have missed something. It turned out that the solution lies in the change of accents in Proto-Germanic. While stress was relatively free (meaning rather unpredictable) in PIE, PG stress shifted and was placed on the root of the word. The evolution of the phonemes did not affect the consonant if it was word-initial or right behind a stressed vowel. The evolution of these consonants are illustrated in the table below:

This is the reason why PIE /t/ became [θ] and then [ð] in PG for *fadēr while *brōþēr remained untouched. This event helped increase the number  of instances of dental fricatives in Proto-Germanic. But it still doesn’t account for English dental fricatives. Be patient.

High German Consonant Shift  

A new phenomenon took place in the southern dialects of German in the 5th century that consisted in a large-scale shift in the consonantal system. By the mid-5th century, Old English had already been brought to Britain and thus remained utterly unaffected by these changes whose relevant features are the following:

  • θ > d
  • β > b
  • ð > d
  • ɣ > g

As you can see, the dental fricatives evolved into stops and were consequently lost in the phonology. The HGCS was not restricted to German as certain elements can be found as well in Dutch, Low German and Scandinavian Germanic. Probably under the influence of German in the following centuries, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish lost their own dental fricatives as there were multiple and intense cultural and linguistic exchanges between German and “Scandinavian”.

While English, isolated geographically from the rest of Europe and from Germanic influence because of Roman and Norman Conquest, kept /θ ð/. It’s interesting to note that Britons did not have as much as Romans and Normans the inclination to write. Manuscripts by monks may have helped bring a certain standardisation to the language.

Two additional and contradictory phenomena took place in Middle English where /d/ changed to [ð] and /ð/ to [d]. This is why fader changed to father and murðer changed to murder. The sequence of /d/ + unstressed ending -er triggered its evolution to [ð].

In short, dental fricatives appeared in Proto-Germanic via Grimm’s Law and Verner’s Law and Old English managed to maintain [θ] and [ð] because it left the continent before the effects of the High German Consonant Shift could be felt. Its geographical isolation (being on an island) certainly helped protect the relic of the Germanic legacy.

I saw once that Welsh may have had an influence on the upholding of these sounds since both languages had them. However, Latin and French were much more powerful influences on English but that did not impact the keeping of the dental fricatives so a foreign language influence is not really believable. However, French might have contributed to the phonemisation of [ð]. Before French came to Britain, /z v ð/ were only the voiced allophones of /s f θ/. By introducing new graphemes for sounds that were not “official” in English, it turned them into unquestionable elements of the phonology of English.

Isolation may be the biggest driving force on the upholding of these sounds since Icelandic, in a relative similar position, is the only other Germanic language with dental fricatives.

Further reading:

High German Consonant Shift

Grimm’s Law

Verner’s Law

Icelandic Phonology

anonymous asked:

Special characters pronunciation

Sæll (eða sæl), vinur minn,
(Hello, my friend,)

As per your request, I will go into some detail about how to pronounce the following special characters in Old Norse: þ, ð, æ, œ, ø, ǫ, and ö

If there are others that you would like to see discussed, please do not hesitate to let them be known.


þ (’thorn’) and ð (’eth’)

Both of these characters represent the English sound ‘th’ (a dental fricative), but ‘þ’ is unvoiced while ‘ð’ is voiced. When saying an ‘ð’, you should feel your vocal cords vibrating. Here are some English examples:

  • Þ, þ: thistle, cloth, thing
  • Ð, ð: bathe, clothe, they

In Old Norse, ‘þ’ can only appear at the beginning of a word (Þórr, þér, þing, etc.). There are, however, exceptions to this when considering compounds: Bergþórshváli = berg (rock face, geo.) + Þóra (a personal name, an gen. þórs) + hváll (hill). Yet, in this case, the proper name is actually Bergþóra (itself a compound), thus Bergthora’s Hill. Similarly, ‘ð’ never occurs at the beginning of a word, but rather in the middle or the end.

Here is a video by Dr. Jackson Crawford that may be helpful as well:


æ (’ash’)

This special character sounds like the ‘a’ in the English word ‘ash’ (this, of course, can change based on dialects). Here are some other English examples:

  • Æ, æ: ash, nap, trap, clash, cat

Although some of the English examples above contain a short ‘a’ sound, the vowel ‘æ’ is always long in Old Norse. See the video at the end of this post for an audio example (6:12).


œ and ø

These special characters have a bit of a special relationship with one another (as well as with the special characters below).

ø’ is very much like the sound of ‘e’ in the English word ‘pet’, except with rounded lips. Another way to explain this special character is that it is somewhat a combination of two sounds: ‘e’ and ‘o’. Thus, it is the ‘e’ sound in ‘pet’ with the rounded lips of an ‘o’. This sound should be made towards the front of your mouth. It takes a bit of practice, but you should be able to feel the front ‘pinched’ a bit, and your throat should open up a bit more. See the video at the end of this post for an audio example (6:36).

  • Ø, ø: the ‘e’ in ‘pet’ with the rounded lips of an ‘o

œ’ is essentially a long version of the ‘ø’ above. In certain manuscripts it is actually written as ‘ǿ’. Like most other accented vowels in Old Norse, this just lengthens the shorter sound. So, with that having been said: œ = ǿ = a long ‘ø’ = e+o. See the video at the end of this post for an audio example (7:45).

  • Œ, œ: ǿ

ǫ and ö

‘ǫ’ is essentially a shorter ‘á’ sound, which we have not discussed here. Nonetheless, it should sound something like this:

  • Ǫ, ǫ: the ‘au’ sound in ‘caught’, but with rounded lips and shorter than the ‘á’ (which is the same sound, but longer).

This is another difficult sound to get used to, but with practice it can be done. It is very similar to the ‘ø’ above, but instead of being a combination of the sounds ‘e’ and ‘o’, it is a combination of the sounds ‘a’ and ‘o’. Instead of being a front sound, it is more of a back sound (a more open throat and a less closed mouth). See the video at the end of this post for an audio example (8:08).

By the thirteenth century, ‘ǫ’ had begun to merge with ‘ø’, producing ‘ö’. This sound was also represented by ‘au’, ‘ꜹ’, and even ‘ø’. It is not the same sound as ‘ǫ’, but it is fairly similar. The difference is that ‘ö’ is a front sound, whereas ‘ǫ’ was more of a back sound. 

  • Ö, ö: similar to ‘ǫ’, but more like the ‘u’ in ‘cut’ with rounded lips.

‘ö’ is more commonly used for modern Icelandic, but some scholars use ‘ö’ to represent the Old Norse ‘ǫ’ (such as Jesse L. Byock). There is debate around this, but it really depends on the time period of the text being looked at, as well as the orthography associated with it. Dr. Jackson Crawford notes that ‘ǫ’ is the standard for Old Norse. Go to 8:38 of this video for some audio examples from Dr. Jackson Crawford:


Here is another video by Dr. Jackson Crawford that may be helpful for better understanding these characters and their pronunciations. Go to the timestamps mentioned above for the pronunciation of æ (6:12), ø (6:36), œ (7:45), and ǫ (8:08) in particular.


SOURCES:

As always, here are the sources that I have used (other than Dr. Jackson Crawford’s wonder YouTube channel) in the making of this post:

1. Jesse L. Byock, Viking Language 1: Learn Old Norse, Runes, and Icelandic Sagas. (Pacific Palisades, CA: Jules William Press, 2013), 330-331.

2. Guðvarður Már Gunnlaugsson, “Manuscripts and Paleography,” in A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture, edited by Rory McTurk. (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007), 258.


DISCLAIMER (I am also not much of a linguist, so I may have explained a few characters incorrectly; corrections may be made in the future.)

rankings of mcelroy brothers, updated for 2017 sensibilities

griffin: hell yeah! this mcelroy makes so many jokes; he invented joking about vore and piss, as well as the art of let’s play in 1998. don’t like the fact that he founded the alt-right too much but that’s in the past now

justin: justin was cloned from a fragment of griffin’s forehead in 2007, and ever since then has made tremendous progress towards becoming a real human. only thing that bugs me is that sometimes during an episode of mbmbam he starts hacking and gasping into the microphone and one of the boys has to grab a bendy straw out of the filing cabinet and start injecting soft foods into his body, but that’s an uncontrollable problem, i won’t judge.

neil cicierega: hahahahahahhahahhahahaha!!! neil cicierega = meme god. neil cicierega = meme music. neil cicierega = meme sounds. neil cicierega = dank meme. neil cicicerega = meme man. neil cicierega = i invented memes. niel cicierega = king of funny. neil cicierego= mouth memes. neil cicierega = shrek neil cicierega  = lol

nick robinson: ÿØÿà JFIF ` `  ÿá.ÖExif  MM *     &  b    1   &  ˆ2    ®‡i    Âê     V  Fê                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Windows Photo Editor 10.0.10011.16384 Windows Photo Editor 10.0.10011.16384 2017:04:12 20:45:24  &#144;    &#144;    0’‘   24  ’’   24      ê        ê                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2017:04:12 20:21:00 2017:04:12 20:21:00            ”    œ(        ¤    *       `     `   ÿØÿÛ C

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random things i’ve learnt about old english as a complete beginner. 

  • the language was used by germanic inhabitants of england around 5th-11th century
  • also called anglo-saxon; different from the language of the saxons in germany
  • there are 3 dialects of old-english (west saxon, kentish and anglian)
  • the alphabet was adopted from the latin one by christian missionaries 
  • spelling wasn’t really a thing
  • everything was recorded phonetically (by-sound)
  • (this makes translating a bitch but you can legit see the change in dialects and accent through time and region!!!)
  • the sound ‘th’ has two different letters thorn (Þ, þ) and eth (Ð, ð)
  • ash (æ) is used for elongated vowels like the a in fast
  • >80% of the 1000 most used modern english words originate in old engligh but only >50% of the 1000 most used old english words can be found in modern english
  • ‘there’ is one word found in old english but it’s spelt ‘ðǣr’
  • it’s an inflected language
  • meaning sentence structure is very loose and relies on variations of a word to get abstract meaning across
  • there are LOTS of variations for each word (ughhh that’s going to be tough to learn)
  • it’s just as, if not MORE confusing then modern english

creativexdreamer  asked:

Oh my gosh! The Balcony Scene. The flipping BALCONY SCENE! This may be my favorite scene in this story so far. It's just so good. And the adorableness of drunk Bucky is just too much. 😂👏🏼 I can't believe he actually recited Shakespeare to her, on the stairs no less. And Romeo and Juliet. Just perfection! Also Steve coming to get him at the end was a very nice touch. Love that Bucky had to have snuck out of his room. And also lastly Wanda and Natasha's reactions were the best. And the texts! í ½

Originally posted by sum1greater

Drunk Bucky is an absolute dream come true, especially the fact that he can perfectly recite Shakespeare, but had to be dragged away by Steve. His texts were great, but Nat and Wanda’s reactions were even better 😂

Balcony Scene (ALiL Deleted Scene)

A Basic Guide for Pronouncing Icelandic.

This is a subject that I frequently post about, and yet its basics have yet to be properly discussed. This post will help you to achieve familiarity with the Icelandic language, both in terms of written characters and their respective sounds. This guide may also be used as a method for pronouncing Old Norse. It is a lengthy guide, but that is because Icelandic, in all its beauty, is a bit difficult for most people to pronounce. In the end, this quite is only “basic” because it does not delve deeply into the linguistics behind certain sounds involved. Nonetheless, this guide should provide to be very helpful!

When working through this guide, try to avoid becoming overwhelmed. I strongly recommend working through only one section at a time.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

twitter(.)com/twicepeachmomo/status/855275487379181568 all I could see was mimo mimo mimo mimo

https://twitter.com/twicepeachmomo/status/855275487379181568

I LOVE ACTUAL GIRLFRIENDS

Anonymous said to incorrecttwicequotes: I need advice. Thinking like this is not healthy. I hope you or other onces could give me advice. This is a sensitive topic, I know. I hope once will not bash me. -🥔

It’s ok, feel free to share, you won’t receive any harsh judgement. If anyone gets nasty with you, I’ll be here so don’t worry. 

Anonymous said to incorrecttwicequotes: Since ð&#159;&#144;&#141;ð&#159;&#144;&#141; Mina issue, I fee like Mina is the most dangerous member of TWICE. I mean she’s silently deadly. I feel like she’s not just a quiet shy timid girl like she has other persona. What if she’s not what we thought she is. I’m really scared for her. What if theres another picture that’ll come out? I love her and want to protect. I dont know anymore really. When ð&#159;&#144;&#141;ð&#159;&#144;&#141;s twitter got hacked I was restless thinking that theres a possibility that another picture will come out that could ruin her-í ¾

The first photo was fake, so Bam’s phone getting hacked won’t be a problem for Mina. But it was awful that it happened to him. But yeah I agree with you, I’m worried for Mina but I know she’s never done anything wrong or appropriate that could be exposed. All of Twice are genuine girls and there’s not a strong chance of anyone exposing Twice for something bad, there are malicious people out there that could do something like that. All we can do is stand by our girls no matter what

Anonymous said to incorrecttwicequotes: On the Minayeon Carmilla AU did you slant the yes or am I tripping?

I’m pretty sure I didn’t slant it… Are you doing ok?

Anonymous said to incorrecttwicequotes: Would u lemme smash? Pls

Sana? Is that you?

Anonymous said to incorrecttwicequotes: Truuu twitter(.)com/toujourstwice/status/855087046192484352

https://twitter.com/toujourstwice/status/855087046192484352

Truth.mp3 plays loudly in the distance

Anonymous said to incorrecttwicequotes: Duuuuuude 👀👀👀👅👅💦💦 twitter(.)com/toujourstwice/status/855060619011260416

https://twitter.com/toujourstwice/status/855060619011260416

TALENT. BEAUTY. CHARMS. I MISS HER LOA ERA LOOK

Anonymous said to incorrecttwicequotes: This 😂😂 twitter(.)com/tzuyuday/status/855104414318809090 - tbh anon
Wait there’s another one!! twitter(.)com/imnayeoff/status/855088442002345985 - tbh anon

https://twitter.com/tzuyuday/status/855104414318809090

https://twitter.com/imnayeoff/status/855088442002345985

I FREAKING LOVE THIS MEME SO MUCH, ALL THESE ONES THAT HAVE BEEN MADE BY ONCE ARE SO FUNNY

jenparichart said to incorrecttwicequotes:

No difference

Why did you send me two identical photos I don’t understand

flickr

Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia, 1903 by Olga
Via Flickr:
Ея Императорское Высочество Великая Княгиня Ксенiя Александровна (Боярыня временъ Царя Алексѣя Михаиловича)

Be sure sexy teens in lingerie teen bimbo.

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PRONUNCIATION

The modern Icelandic alphabet has thirty-two letters, compared with twenty-six in modern English. There are two extra consonants (ð and þ), and an additional diphthong (æ). Readers may find a note on the pronounciations of specifically Icelandic letters helpful:

  • ð (Ð), known as “eth” or “crossed d,” is pronounced like the (voiced) th in breathe.
  •  þ (Þ), known as “thorn,” is pronounced like the (unvoiced) th in breaths.
  • æ is pronounced like the i in life.

 The pronunciation of the vowels is conditioned by the accents:

  •  á like the ow in owl
  •  é like the ye in yet
  •  í like the ee in seen
  •  ó like the o in note
  •  ö like the eu in French fleur
  •  ú like the oo in soon
  •  ýlike the ee in seen
  • au like the œi in French œil
  •  ei and ey like the ay in tray

(Iceland’s Bell )