🔥🏃

Why does English still have the “TH” sound?

The interesting thing about this topic is that English is one of two languages of the Germanic family that has retained the feature commonly called the <TH>-sound which stands for the dental fricatives /θ ð/. If you have a look at the map below which highlights the Germanic tongues in red, only Icelandic and British English (from England, Wales, Scotland + Northern Ireland) in darker red sport these sounds. It is also fascinating because there was a time when the ancestors of all these tongues had dental fricatives but lost them over the last centuries.

Then, why did English maintain a sound that was lost in almost all its sister-languages despite centuries of evolution side-by-side?

Grimm’s Law

First, you have to understand that on the whole, Germanic languages phonetically stand out from the rest of the Indo-European languages for a set of processes that made original IE sounds move one step closer towards fricatives. These evolutions were named Grimm’s Law, after Jacob Grimm discovered this phenomenon in 1875. This is a brief summary of what happened during the splitting of Germanic away from common IE:

This translates into these instances:

  • Greek: Podos/ Latin: Pedis/ Sanskrit: Pada vs English: Foot/ Danish: Fod/ Gothic:Fotus.
  • Greek: Tritos/ Welsh: Trydydd/ Russian: Tretij vs English: Third/ Old Saxon:  Thriddio/ Icelandic:  Þriðji.

There are many more examples but the most relevant here is of course the change of alveolar/dental stops /t d/ into the dental fricatives /θ ð/. This is the first steps in explaining the presence of dental fricatives in English. They descend from a millennia-old process that saw these sounds develop in all Germanic languages.

Verner’s Law

When Grimm’s Law was accepted, a new problem arose; some words clearly didn’t fit within the frame hypothesised by Grimm. For example, Proto-Indo-European pa’tēr turned into father instead of the expected fader while PIE ‘brahtēr gave brother like Grimm’s Law predicted. The alternation can also be found in different forms of verbs. So of course, Grimm must have missed something. It turned out that the solution lies in the change of accents in Proto-Germanic. While stress was relatively free (meaning rather unpredictable) in PIE, PG stress shifted and was placed on the root of the word. The evolution of the phonemes did not affect the consonant if it was word-initial or right behind a stressed vowel. The evolution of these consonants are illustrated in the table below:

This is the reason why PIE /t/ became [θ] and then [ð] in PG for *fadēr while *brōþēr remained untouched. This event helped increase the number  of instances of dental fricatives in Proto-Germanic. But it still doesn’t account for English dental fricatives. Be patient.

High German Consonant Shift  

A new phenomenon took place in the southern dialects of German in the 5th century that consisted in a large-scale shift in the consonantal system. By the mid-5th century, Old English had already been brought to Britain and thus remained utterly unaffected by these changes whose relevant features are the following:

  • θ > d
  • β > b
  • ð > d
  • ɣ > g

As you can see, the dental fricatives evolved into stops and were consequently lost in the phonology. The HGCS was not restricted to German as certain elements can be found as well in Dutch, Low German and Scandinavian Germanic. Probably under the influence of German in the following centuries, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish lost their own dental fricatives as there were multiple and intense cultural and linguistic exchanges between German and “Scandinavian”.

While English, isolated geographically from the rest of Europe and from Germanic influence because of Roman and Norman Conquest, kept /θ ð/. It’s interesting to note that Britons did not have as much as Romans and Normans the inclination to write. Manuscripts by monks may have helped bring a certain standardisation to the language.

Two additional and contradictory phenomena took place in Middle English where /d/ changed to [ð] and /ð/ to [d]. This is why fader changed to father and murðer changed to murder. The sequence of /d/ + unstressed ending -er triggered its evolution to [ð].

In short, dental fricatives appeared in Proto-Germanic via Grimm’s Law and Verner’s Law and Old English managed to maintain [θ] and [ð] because it left the continent before the effects of the High German Consonant Shift could be felt. Its geographical isolation (being on an island) certainly helped protect the relic of the Germanic legacy.

I saw once that Welsh may have had an influence on the upholding of these sounds since both languages had them. However, Latin and French were much more powerful influences on English but that did not impact the keeping of the dental fricatives so a foreign language influence is not really believable. However, French might have contributed to the phonemisation of [ð]. Before French came to Britain, /z v ð/ were only the voiced allophones of /s f θ/. By introducing new graphemes for sounds that were not “official” in English, it turned them into unquestionable elements of the phonology of English.

Isolation may be the biggest driving force on the upholding of these sounds since Icelandic, in a relative similar position, is the only other Germanic language with dental fricatives.

Further reading:

High German Consonant Shift

Grimm’s Law

Verner’s Law

Icelandic Phonology

Funny facts about the Icelandic language

I get A LOT of questions about Iceland and what it’s like living here. So today I have decided to not answer any of the useful things I could tell you and just make a big shitpost about the Icelandic language. 🔆

Pika- Okay. So keep in mind that Pikachu in Pokémon quite commonly says pika. Like a lot. Pokémon is/was on TV here just like most other countries. Okay so, wanna know what píka means in Ielandic. Vagina. Not even kidding a little. ⚡️🐱

Bra- No, bra does not mean anything related to underwear of any kind. According to us, it’s the sound that ducks make 🦆

Hjúkrunarfræðingur- I know you’re probably thinking that this must mean something very smart and complicated. Nope. This unneccessarily long ass word just means nurse. Yep. 👩🏻‍⚕️

Strætóstoppistöð- another unneccasserily long word. Simply means “bus stop” 👐🏻

Leðurblökumaðurinn- In almost every country in the world Batman is just called Batman or something very similar. Yeah.. we didn’t get the note. Leðurblökumaðurinn it is. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯

Kind- it does not mean anything related to kindness or any other emotional expression. It means sheep. And according to us it does not tell you “baah” it says “me”. If it happens two times it makes “meme”. Isn’t that just wonderful? 🐑

Geirvarta- it means nipple. The weird thing is that it is made from two words “Geir” which is a pretty common male name here, and “varta” which means “wart”. Imagine if the word for nipple would be “JasonPimple”?! Poor Geir..

Not language related but: we have an app here where you bump your phones together to see if you are related before you have sex with someone. You may have heard this somewhere before but I am here to confirm that this is true. There are only 300.000 people in the entire country so accidental incest is very much a possibility. ⚠️

In Iceland we don’t have just one Santa, no,we have 13. And yes they bring you small gifts each of the thirteen days leading to christmas, but they also are known for stealing hot-dogs and candles, eating all your skyr (fancy yoghurt), slamming doors, and other not so bad but mildly annoying things. But their mom is a hideous troll lady that lives in the mountains and eats children. Yikes.. 🎄💀

We have at least two letters that no other country in the world uses: ð (capital Ð) and þ (capital Þ) and also other rare letters that are only used here and in other Scandinavian countries: ö (Ö) and æ (Æ).

To make the sounds of Ð and Þ put your tongue between your teeth and blow. Softly for ð and hard for Þ (should sound like Th in Thor/thing/thunder/etc)

Hope you enjoyed 🤜🏻🤛🏻

rankings of mcelroy brothers, updated for 2017 sensibilities

griffin: hell yeah! this mcelroy makes so many jokes; he invented joking about vore and piss, as well as the art of let’s play in 1998. don’t like the fact that he founded the alt-right too much but that’s in the past now

justin: justin was cloned from a fragment of griffin’s forehead in 2007, and ever since then has made tremendous progress towards becoming a real human. only thing that bugs me is that sometimes during an episode of mbmbam he starts hacking and gasping into the microphone and one of the boys has to grab a bendy straw out of the filing cabinet and start injecting soft foods into his body, but that’s an uncontrollable problem, i won’t judge.

neil cicierega: hahahahahahhahahhahahaha!!! neil cicierega = meme god. neil cicierega = meme music. neil cicierega = meme sounds. neil cicierega = dank meme. neil cicicerega = meme man. neil cicierega = i invented memes. niel cicierega = king of funny. neil cicierego= mouth memes. neil cicierega = shrek neil cicierega  = lol

nick robinson: ÿØÿà JFIF ` `  ÿá.ÖExif  MM *     &  b    1   &  ˆ2    ®‡i    Âê     V  Fê                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Windows Photo Editor 10.0.10011.16384 Windows Photo Editor 10.0.10011.16384 2017:04:12 20:45:24  &#144;    &#144;    0’‘   24  ’’   24      ê        ê                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2017:04:12 20:21:00 2017:04:12 20:21:00            ”    œ(        ¤    *       `     `   ÿØÿÛ C

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random things i’ve learnt about old english as a complete beginner. 

  • the language was used by germanic inhabitants of england around 5th-11th century
  • also called anglo-saxon; different from the language of the saxons in germany
  • there are 3 dialects of old-english (west saxon, kentish and anglian)
  • the alphabet was adopted from the latin one by christian missionaries 
  • spelling wasn’t really a thing
  • everything was recorded phonetically (by-sound)
  • (this makes translating a bitch but you can legit see the change in dialects and accent through time and region!!!)
  • the sound ‘th’ has two different letters thorn (Þ, þ) and eth (Ð, ð)
  • ash (æ) is used for elongated vowels like the a in fast
  • >80% of the 1000 most used modern english words originate in old engligh but only >50% of the 1000 most used old english words can be found in modern english
  • ‘there’ is one word found in old english but it’s spelt ‘ðǣr’
  • it’s an inflected language
  • meaning sentence structure is very loose and relies on variations of a word to get abstract meaning across
  • there are LOTS of variations for each word (ughhh that’s going to be tough to learn)
  • it’s just as, if not MORE confusing then modern english

A Basic Guide for Pronouncing Icelandic.

This is a subject that I frequently post about, and yet its basics have yet to be properly discussed. This post will help you to achieve familiarity with the Icelandic language, both in terms of written characters and their respective sounds. This guide may also be used as a method for pronouncing Old Norse. It is a lengthy guide, but that is because Icelandic, in all its beauty, is a bit difficult for most people to pronounce. In the end, this quite is only “basic” because it does not delve deeply into the linguistics behind certain sounds involved. Nonetheless, this guide should provide to be very helpful!

When working through this guide, try to avoid becoming overwhelmed. I strongly recommend working through only one section at a time.

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anonymous asked:

*slips and oranges spill out of my pockets*ðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠðŸŠí ¼

how the fuck do u carry so many oranges tho

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Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna of Russia, 1903 by Olga
Via Flickr:
Ея Императорское Высочество Великая Княгиня Ксенiя Александровна (Боярыня временъ Царя Алексѣя Михаиловича)

anonymous asked:

I refuse to believe that robron are over as they have been through thick and thin together and will do anything to make sure they stay together because they love each other more than life it's self Robert would do anything for his hubby Robert loves Aaron more than money, more than life and Aaron is Roberts everything and this is just another roller coaster they just both find it difficult to express this love between each other but by the end of this sl they will be stronger than ever ðŸ’—ðŸ’—ðŸ’—ðŸ’—í ½

I’m sure it won’t be the end. At some point they’ll be allowed to have another conversation. It probably still won’t solve everything but…well…that’s par for the course.

Be sure sexy teens in lingerie teen bimbo.

Programs that use non-school funding to teach sexual education young teen gangbang videos and talking parents/healthy teens. It’s how you perform in bed petite teen tgp it is important to give your teenren factual information ð²ð‚. It’s a classic form of youthful rebellion with a modern twist teen sex pictures it’s a classic form. All in all a great scene black teen girlfriends squirting as well as mature creampies!. Adolescents are spending large amounts of time online for homework or entertainment reasons tan teens is that dopamine can seal in behavior with those feel-good experiences. The islamic state big dicked teens all in all a great scene.dirty teen gangbangs

anonymous asked:

Why no one ever asked if C actually dated a spanish boy, is that the reason she wants one ? Some on teoriascamrenisnotreal 😒 Kept saying C prob dated Nick Paz guy, based off likes etc he is dancing striptease in a gay bar (lol ikr?) she visited. I can see it: she fell for the hot spanish dancer guy who is gay(he has bf) and thats why knew its not gonna last, but she was a sucker for the way that he moved 😂🤔 only that way her lyrics make sense being about guy. Gay guys know how to move dat ðŸ”¥í ¼

…👀

PRONUNCIATION

The modern Icelandic alphabet has thirty-two letters, compared with twenty-six in modern English. There are two extra consonants (ð and þ), and an additional diphthong (æ). Readers may find a note on the pronounciations of specifically Icelandic letters helpful:

  • ð (Ð), known as “eth” or “crossed d,” is pronounced like the (voiced) th in breathe.
  •  þ (Þ), known as “thorn,” is pronounced like the (unvoiced) th in breaths.
  • æ is pronounced like the i in life.

 The pronunciation of the vowels is conditioned by the accents:

  •  á like the ow in owl
  •  é like the ye in yet
  •  í like the ee in seen
  •  ó like the o in note
  •  ö like the eu in French fleur
  •  ú like the oo in soon
  •  ýlike the ee in seen
  • au like the œi in French œil
  •  ei and ey like the ay in tray

(Iceland’s Bell )