hi! so the mods here at qla have decided that since not all our readers are native english speakers, it would be in everyone’s best interests to start a collection of gender-neutral pronouns across all languages. if you don’t see your language or pronouns on the list (within reason, for accessibility purposes we can’t include every english variant of a pronoun), please let us know and include conjugations if possible! thank you!
هما (they, originally dual, can work as a neutral singular third person)
انتما (second person dual)
bulgarian (български език)
те/тях/техен/им (generally used for a group of people, could be used as singular as in “they”)
то/него/негово/му (means “it”, informal)
mandarin/普通话: 他 or 她 (tā) - only the pronunciation is gender-neutral unfortunately, the characters are gendered
cantonese/广州话: 佢 (keoi5/keúih) - them/him/her/it
它 - also tā, but means “it”. ask before using as it could be derogatory
牠 - ta1, used for non-human animals
add 們 (men) to either for plural, add 的 (de) to make it possessive
那个人 (simplified) 那個人 (traditional) (na4ge4ren2- that person) and 这个人 (simplified) 這個人 (traditional) (zhe4ge4ren2- this person)
onikání, which was used in the past as gender-neutral pronoun when refering to someone of lesser status. it’s oni/je/jejich/se they/them/their/themself and the use is: Oni jsou moc milým člověkem. - They are a very nice person.
ze/hun/ze - (note: literal translation of they, but ze is often used as “she”)
Ŝli - combination of he/she, generally used like “they” in english
se/sen (means it, informal)
ol/mo - ex: ol s’appelle Bidule et c’est mo pote.
ille (referring to oneself), ceulle (referring to someone else)
eux (sometimes used as a subject-position instead of object-position)
ის / იმან / იმის (is / iman / imis) = they / them / their
αυτοί / εκείνοι ( are these the ones that mean it?? let me know so i can take them down)
αυτ@, εκείν@ (singular) φίλ@ς (plural) - not pronounceable, good for writing though
there aren’t actually any gender neutral pronouns in hebrew sadly. the first set is all male pronouns and the second one is all female. like the word ze (זה) is male for ‘it’ and it has a female form which is ‘zo’ (זו). atzmam (עצמם) is plural male (but it is used sometimes as neutral tbh). also the second set is only female pronouns for she, her, hers and herself
also about the plurals, you need to add either ם or ן to make these words plural either in a male or female form, like the plural words aren’t actual words it needs to be עצמם\שלהם\אותם\הם and it’s the male form you just need to replace it with ן to make it female but people use these as gender neutral pretty often because that’s the closest you would get
það - equivalent of “it”, ask before using, could be derogatory
hán/hán/háni/háns - mix of binary pronouns
when referring to an individual of an unspecified gender, use viðkomandi instead of hann/hún
ilokano/Ti Pagsasao nga Iloko
isuna (singular they), na (singular their), kaniana/kenkuana (singular theirs), isuda (plural they), da (plural their), kaniada/kadakuwada (plural theirs)
dia (third person singular), mereka (third person plural)
malay/bahasa melayu/bahasa malaysia
all pronouns are neutral (he/she: “uha usa” or ਉਹ ਉਸ; him/her: “usa” or “usanū” which is ਉਸ or ਉਸਨੂੰ; his/hers: “usadā” or ਉਸਦਾ). also, the pronouns “he” & “she” in english both translate to “vah” (वह) in hindi. however, the rest of the pronouns are gendered. verbs are also generally gendered.
oni/z njimi/njim (they/with them/to them). Now if you want to say: I want to help them - you don’t use ‘njim’ but ‘jim’. (Želim jim pomagati; Pomagati jim želim.)
Pronouns that can be written and pronounced:
Ella/la/-a (binary feminine): “Ella es la niña linda”
Él/el/-o (binary masculine): “Él es el niño lindo”
Elle/le/-e (neutral): “Elle es le niñe linde”
Ello/lo/-o (neutral, similarly to the english ‘it’ can be very offensive so please be careful and don’t use it unless you are told to do so): “Ello es lo niño lindo”
Elli/li/-i (neutral, cacophonic and uncommon): “Elli es li niñi lindi”
Ellu/lu/-u (neutral, cacophonic and uncommon): “Ellu es lu niñu lindu”
Pronouns that can be written but not pronounced:
Ellx/lx/-x: “Ellx es lx chicx lindx” (I don’t know who told you otherwise, but this can be used by both poc and white folks)
Ell*/l*/-*: “Ell* es l* niñ* lind*”
Ell@/l@/-@: “Ell@ es l@ niñ@ lind@”
Ell_/l_/-_: “Ell_ es l_ niñ_ lind_”
Ellæ/læ/-æ: “Ellæ es læ niñæ lindæ”
hen/hen(henom)/hens(henoms) - variations are in parentheses, gender-neutral third person personal pronouns
There seems to be this idea out there that the Icelandic language is an incredibly difficult language for English speakers to learn, so when I first started studying it I was a bit nervous. However, although I still haven’t been studying it for very long, I’ve yet to run across anything that’s scared me off, and quite a bit that actually makes it quite easy to pick up as a native English speaker. So to cast off some of the stigma, here are some things that make Icelandic easy to learn (or at least not as horrifying as I’d been led to believe):
Spelling is very consistent. Icelandic spelling is mostly phonetic, where each letter represents only one sound. While there are a few instances where letters aren’t pronounced exactly the same, the variations are regular so you can learn when they’re said differently instead of just having to guess, and over time they will become natural with practice. French is supposed to be relatively easy for English speakers to learn due to shared vocabulary, but Icelandic beats French hands down in this area.
Most of the sounds are similar to English. Many of the letters are pronounced basically just like English, and while it might look a little intimidating with all the extra vowels with accent marks and so on, most of those are sounds we actually have in English, they just represent them explicitly in Icelandic, which actually helps with the point about spelling above. Here is a great video that very clearly explains the Icelandic alphabet, and as you can see, out of the 14 vowels/diphthongs there are only 3 that aren’t in English. So sure, there are some sounds that aren’t in English, but that’s going to happen in almost any language, and Icelandic doesn’t seem to be any worse in this area than German, for example. In fact, if you know both German and English, you’re pretty much set when it comes to Icelandic phonemes.
The stress is always the same. In Icelandic words are always pronounced with the stress on the first syllable. In Spanish, for example, the stress changes based on which letters a word ends with and whether or not there are any accent marks, so you have to learn those rules and then memorize each exception so you know where to put the accent, and it can be a little tricky. In Icelandic there is only one rule that never changes, making it super simple.
There are only four cases. Okay, if you’ve never studied a language with cases before, having any at all can be a bit daunting coming from English since we don’t really use them much, but if you’re going to learn a language with cases only having four is pretty great! It’s the same number of cases as German has, and waaay better than Slavic languages that can have six or seven, and there are other languages which have even more.
There are only three new characters to learn. A lot of people seem to be intimidated by the special characters Ðð, Þþ, and Ææ, but if you compare those three
characters to languages like Greek, Russian, Arabic, or even Japanese – which has two separate syllabaries on top of thousands of kanji to learn – you can see how it’s nothing at all. Best of all, those characters represent sounds that already exist in English, so you can easily learn how to pronounce them. Ð is pronounced as the ‘th’ in ‘breathe’, Þ as the ‘th’ in ‘breath’, and æ as the ‘i’ in ‘hi’. In fact, if you want to say “Hi!” in Icelandic it’s exactly the same: “Hæ!” Similarly, “Bye!” is “Bæ!” You can see too how the spelling here is consistent in Icelandic, using only one character to represent the same sound, while in English we use ‘i’ in one word and ‘ye’ in the other, and in other words we might use even more spellings for the same sound, such as ‘ai’ or ‘y’, or even ‘igh’ (like in ‘sigh’). So even though you do have to learn a few new characters, it’s hardly any, and once you’ve learned them it actually makes Icelandic much easier to read and spell than it would be without them.
A lot of vocab comes from the same Germanic roots as English words. While English has borrowed a bunch of vocab from Latin languages, it still contains many words that come from its Germanic origins, which it shares with Icelandic. You’ve already seen hæ and bæ, and there’s also halló (hello), dóttir (daughter), móðir (mother), hér (here), frá (from), takk (thanks), heitt (hot), kalt (cold), hjálp (help), fiskur (fish), nót (net), undir (under), mús (mouse), and many more.
Basic grammar is very similar to English. Like I’ve said, I haven’t been studying long so I’m sure there’s more complicated stuff coming up, but in the basics I’ve run across so far the word order is so similar to English that you can pretty much take an English sentence and switch out the English words for their Icelandic versions and have a correct sentence. Some examples:
I am from Canada.
Ég er frá Kanada.
Are you from Iceland?
Ert þú frá Íslandi?
I am not from Spain.
Ég er ekki frá Spáni.
They come from Japan.
Þau koma frá Japan.
I don’t know about you, but the above doesn’t seem so difficult to me. Even if you haven’t learned the pronunciation yet, the grammatical structure is very familiar and many of the words look similar to their English counterparts.
Of course there are difficult things about Icelandic, but there are difficult things about every language. Icelandic is certainly not an impossible language to learn, and there are many things about it that are actually quite simple compared to other languages, or at the very least not any worse. If you’ve considered learning Icelandic, but were hesitant after hearing how terribly difficult it supposedly is, maybe this will show that it doesn’t have to be so scary after all.
I get A LOT of questions about Iceland and what it’s like living here. So today I have decided to not answer any of the useful things I could tell you and just make a big shitpost about the Icelandic language. 🔆
Pika- Okay. So keep in mind that Pikachu in Pokémon quite commonly says pika. Like a lot. Pokémon is/was on TV here just like most other countries. Okay so, wanna know what píka means in Ielandic. Vagina. Not even kidding a little. ⚡️🐱
Bra- No, bra does not mean anything related to underwear of any kind. According to us, it’s the sound that ducks make 🦆
Hjúkrunarfræðingur- I know you’re probably thinking that this must mean something very smart and complicated. Nope. This unneccessarily long ass word just means nurse. Yep. 👩🏻⚕️
Strætóstoppistöð- another unneccasserily long word. Simply means “bus stop” 👐🏻
Leðurblökumaðurinn- In almost every country in the world Batman is just called Batman or something very similar. Yeah.. we didn’t get the note. Leðurblökumaðurinn it is. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯
Kind- it does not mean anything related to kindness or any other emotional expression. It means sheep. And according to us it does not tell you “baah” it says “me”. If it happens two times it makes “meme”. Isn’t that just wonderful? 🐑
Geirvarta- it means nipple. The weird thing is that it is made from two words “Geir” which is a pretty common male name here, and “varta” which means “wart”. Imagine if the word for nipple would be “JasonPimple”?! Poor Geir..
Not language related but: we have an app here where you bump your phones together to see if you are related before you have sex with someone. You may have heard this somewhere before but I am here to confirm that this is true. There are only 300.000 people in the entire country so accidental incest is very much a possibility. ⚠️
In Iceland we don’t have just one Santa, no,we have 13. And yes they bring you small gifts each of the thirteen days leading to christmas, but they also are known for stealing hot-dogs and candles, eating all your skyr (fancy yoghurt), slamming doors, and other not so bad but mildly annoying things. But their mom is a hideous troll lady that lives in the mountains and eats children. Yikes.. 🎄💀
We have at least two letters that no other country in the world uses: ð (capital Ð) and þ (capital Þ) and also other rare letters that are only used here and in other Scandinavian countries: ö (Ö) and æ (Æ).
To make the sounds of Ð and Þ put your tongue between your teeth and blow. Softly for ð and hard for Þ (should sound like Th in Thor/thing/thunder/etc)
As per your request, I will go into some detail about how to pronounce the following special characters in Old Norse: þ, ð, æ, œ, ø, ǫ, and ö.
If there are others that you would like to see discussed, please do not hesitate to let them be known.
þ (’thorn’) and ð (’eth’)
Both of these characters represent the English sound ‘th’ (a dental fricative), but ‘þ’ is unvoiced while ‘ð’ is voiced. When saying an ‘ð’, you should feel your vocal cords vibrating. Here are some English examples:
Þ, þ: thistle, cloth, thing
Ð, ð: bathe, clothe, they
In Old Norse, ‘þ’ can only appear at the beginning of a word (Þórr, þér, þing, etc.). There are, however, exceptions to this when considering compounds: Bergþórshváli = berg (rock face, geo.) + Þóra (a personal name, an gen. þórs) + hváll (hill). Yet, in this case, the proper name is actually Bergþóra (itself a compound), thus Bergthora’s Hill. Similarly, ‘ð’ never occurs at the beginning of a word, but rather in the middle or the end.
Here is a video by Dr. Jackson Crawford that may be helpful as well:
This special character sounds like the ‘a’ in the English word ‘ash’ (this, of course, can change based on dialects). Here are some other English examples:
Æ, æ: ash, nap, trap, clash, cat
Although some of the English examples above contain a short ‘a’ sound, the vowel ‘æ’ is always long in Old Norse. See the video at the end of this post for an audio example (6:12).
œ and ø
These special characters have a bit of a special relationship with one another (as well as with the special characters below).
‘ø’ is very much like the sound of ‘e’ in the English word ‘pet’, except with rounded lips. Another way to explain this special character is that it is somewhat a combination of two sounds: ‘e’ and ‘o’. Thus, it is the ‘e’ sound in ‘pet’ with the rounded lips of an ‘o’. This sound should be made towards the front of your mouth. It takes a bit of practice, but you should be able to feel the front ‘pinched’ a bit, and your throat should open up a bit more. See the video at the end of this post for an audio example (6:36).
Ø, ø: the ‘e’ in ‘pet’ with the rounded lips of an ‘o’
‘œ’ is essentially a long version of the ‘ø’ above. In certain manuscripts it is actually written as ‘ǿ’. Like most other accented vowels in Old Norse, this just lengthens the shorter sound. So, with that having been said: œ = ǿ = a long ‘ø’ = e+o. See the video at the end of this post for an audio example (7:45).
Œ, œ: ǿ
ǫ and ö
‘ǫ’ is essentially a shorter ‘á’ sound, which we have not discussed here. Nonetheless, it should sound something like this:
Ǫ, ǫ: the ‘au’ sound in ‘caught’, but with rounded lips and shorter than the ‘á’ (which is the same sound, but longer).
This is another difficult sound to get used to, but with practice it can be done. It is very similar to the ‘ø’ above, but instead of being a combination of the sounds ‘e’ and ‘o’, it is a combination of the sounds ‘a’ and ‘o’. Instead of being a front sound, it is more of a back sound (a more open throat and a less closed mouth). See the video at the end of this post for an audio example (8:08).
By the thirteenth century, ‘ǫ’ had begun to merge with ‘ø’, producing ‘ö’. This sound was also represented by ‘au’, ‘ꜹ’, and even ‘ø’. It is not the same sound as ‘ǫ’, but it is fairly similar. The difference is that ‘ö’ is a front sound, whereas ‘ǫ’ was more of a back sound.
Ö, ö: similar to ‘ǫ’, but more like the ‘u’ in ‘cut’ with rounded lips.
‘ö’ is more commonly used for modern Icelandic, but some scholars use ‘ö’ to represent the Old Norse ‘ǫ’ (such as Jesse L. Byock). There is debate around this, but it really depends on the time period of the text being looked at, as well as the orthography associated with it. Dr. Jackson Crawford notes that ‘ǫ’ is the standard for Old Norse. Go to 8:38 of this video for some audio examples from Dr. Jackson Crawford:
Here is another video by Dr. Jackson Crawford that may be helpful for better understanding these characters and their pronunciations. Go to the timestamps mentioned above for the pronunciation of æ (6:12), ø (6:36), œ (7:45), and ǫ (8:08) in particular.
My Mods Folder is 12.3 GB and used to take 10-15 minutes to load. Tonight I removed all the spaces and special characters, and when I loaded my game it made a huge difference! 12.3 GB didn’t take any more than 2 minutes to load. And the game is a lot smoother now!
If your game is slow too, you can get it to run faster by renaming your packages! All you have to do is remove the spaces and special characters! eg.this is a file name_1.package > thisisafilename1.package
List of special characters: (for those who don’t know)
Asakusa in Japan Tokyo 日本東京淺草的小巷弄與晴空塔 I IMG_5493-12 by 銘俊 Via Flickr: Asakusa (浅草) is a district in Taitō, Tokyo, Japan, famous for the Sensō-ji, a Buddhist temple dedicated to the bodhisattva Kannon. There are several other temples in Asakusa, as well as various festivals.