旅

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multilingual pronouns list

hi! so the mods here at qla have decided that since not all our readers are native english speakers, it would be in everyone’s best interests to start a collection of gender-neutral pronouns across all languages. if you don’t see your language or pronouns on the list (within reason, for accessibility purposes we can’t include every english variant of a pronoun), please let us know and include conjugations if possible! thank you!

for further expansions on grammar you can check the posts in the pronoun project tag:)

arabic ( عربي )

  • هما (they, originally dual, can work as a neutral singular third person)
  • انتما  (second person dual)

bulgarian (български език)

  • те/тях/техен/им (generally used for a group of people, could be used as singular as in “they”)
  • то/него/негово/му (means “it”, informal)

chinese (中文)

  • mandarin/普通话:  他 or 她 (tā) - only the pronunciation is gender-neutral unfortunately, the characters are gendered
  • cantonese/广州话: 佢 (keoi5/keúih) - them/him/her/it
  • 它 - also tā, but means “it”. ask before using as it could be derogatory
  • 牠 - ta1, used for non-human animals
  • add 們 (men) to either for plural, add 的 (de) to make it possessive
  • 那个人 (simplified) 那個人 (traditional) (na4ge4ren2- that person) and 这个人 (simplified) 這個人 (traditional) (zhe4ge4ren2- this person)

czech/čeština

  • onikání, which was used in the past as gender-neutral pronoun when refering to someone of lesser status. it’s oni/je/jejich/se they/them/their/themself and the use is: Oni jsou moc milým člověkem. - They are a very nice person.

danish/dansk

  • de/dem/deres
  • hen/hen/hens

dutch/nederlands

  • zij/hen/hun
  • ze/hun/ze - (note: literal translation of they, but ze is often used as “she”)

english

  • they/them/theirs
  • ze/zem/zeirs
  • xe/xem/xeirs (xyr)
  • hir/hirs/hirself
  • spivak: e/em/eir

esperanto

  • ri
  • Ŝli - combination of he/she, generally used like “they” in english

estonian/eesti keel

  • tema/teda/tema (formal)
  • ta/teda/tema

farsi

  • او

finnish/suomen kieli

  • se/sen (means it, informal)
  • hän/hänen (formal)

french/le français

  • ol/mo - ex: ol s’appelle Bidule et c’est mo pote.
  • ille (referring to oneself), ceulle (referring to someone else)
  • eux (sometimes used as a subject-position instead of object-position)

georgian/kartuli/ქართული

  • ის / იმან / იმის (is / iman / imis) = they / them / their

german/deutsch

  • xier/xieser/dier
  • xier/xies/xiem/xien
  • sie_er
  • er_sie
  • sier
  • es
  • sie_r
  • si_er
  • x
  • sie*
  • er*

greek/ελληνικά

  • αυτοί / εκείνοι ( are these the ones that mean it?? let me know so i can take them down)
  • αυτ@, εκείν@ (singular) φίλ@ς (plural) - not pronounceable, good for writing though

hebrew/’lvrit/עִבְרִית

  • there aren’t actually any gender neutral pronouns in hebrew sadly. the first set is all male pronouns and the second one is all female. like the word ze (זה) is male for ‘it’ and it has a female form which is ‘zo’ (זו). atzmam (עצמם) is plural male (but it is used sometimes as neutral tbh). also the second set is only female pronouns for she, her, hers and herself

    also about the plurals, you need to add either ם or ן to make these words plural either in a male or female form,  like the plural words aren’t actual words it needs to be עצמם\שלהם\אותם\הם and it’s the male form you just need to replace it with ן to make it female but people use these as gender neutral pretty often because that’s the closest you would get

icelandic/islenska

  • hín/hín/híni/híns
  • hé/hé/hé/hés
  • það - equivalent of “it”, ask before using, could be derogatory
  • hán/hán/háni/háns - mix of binary pronouns
  • when referring to an individual of an unspecified gender, use viðkomandi instead of hann/hún

ilokano/Ti Pagsasao nga Iloko

  • isuna (singular they), na (singular their), kaniana/kenkuana (singular theirs), isuda (plural they), da (plural their), kaniada/kadakuwada (plural theirs)

indonesian/bahasa indonesia

  • dia (third person singular), mereka (third person plural)

irish/gaeilge

  • sibh/siad

italian

  • ????

latvian/latviešu valoda/lettish

  • viņi/viņu/viņiem

lithuanian/lietuvių kalba

  • Jie/Jų/Jiems/Juos/Jais/Juose

malay/bahasa melayu/bahasa malaysia

  • dia

michif

  • wiya

norwegian/norsk

  • dem/dem/deres
  • hen/hen(henom)/hens(henoms)
  • hin/hin/hins
  • sir/sir/sirs

portuguese/lingua portuguesa/português

  • el@/del@
  • elx/delx
  • elæ/delæ

punjabi

  • all pronouns are neutral (he/she: “uha usa” or ਉਹ ਉਸ; him/her: “usa” or “usanū” which is ਉਸ or ਉਸਨੂੰ; his/hers: “usadā” or ਉਸਦਾ). also, the pronouns “he” & “she” in english both translate to “vah” (वह) in hindi. however, the rest of the pronouns are gendered. verbs are also generally gendered.

russian/ру́сский язы́к

  •  ох/ех/ех/ем/их/ниx

slovak/slovenský jazyk

  • oni/nich/im/ich/nimi

slovenian/slovenščina

  • oni/z njimi/njim (they/with them/to them). Now if you want to say: I want to help them - you don’t use ‘njim’ but ‘jim’. (Želim jim pomagati; Pomagati jim želim.)

spanish/español/castilano/castellano

  • Pronouns that can be written and pronounced:

    • Ella/la/-a (binary feminine): “Ella es la niña linda”
    • Él/el/-o (binary masculine): “Él es el niño lindo”
    • Elle/le/-e (neutral): “Elle es le niñe linde”
    • Ello/lo/-o (neutral, similarly to the english ‘it’ can be very offensive so please be careful and don’t use it unless you are told to do so): “Ello es lo niño lindo”
    • Elli/li/-i (neutral, cacophonic and uncommon): “Elli es li niñi lindi”
    • Ellu/lu/-u (neutral, cacophonic and uncommon): “Ellu es lu niñu lindu”

    Pronouns that can be written but not pronounced:

    • Ellx/lx/-x: “Ellx es lx chicx lindx” (I don’t know who told you otherwise, but this can be used by both poc and white folks)
    • Ell*/l*/-*: “Ell* es l* niñ* lind*”
    • Ell@/l@/-@: “Ell@ es l@ niñ@ lind@”
    • Ell_/l_/-_: “Ell_ es l_ niñ_ lind_”
    • Ellæ/læ/-æ: “Ellæ es læ niñæ lindæ”

swedish/svenska

  • hen/hen(henom)/hens(henoms) - variations are in parentheses, gender-neutral third person personal pronouns
  • den/den/dens (dess) (means ‘it’)
  • de/dem (dom)/deras

tagalog

  • Singular/Plural siya/sila (they) niya/nila (them/their) (sa) kanya/(sa) kanila (theirs/preposition them)

turkish/türkçe

  • o/onlar

welsh/cymraeg/y gymraeg

  • nhw/nhw/eu
Oh, wow. It's Munday already. Put some of these in my askbox and I'll respond OOC.
  • ᄏ: Play any instruments?
  • ω: Have you ever dyed your hair? If so, what color(s)?
  • △: Have you ever painted the walls of your room?
  • 【・ヘ・?】: Ever tripped in front a bunch of people?
  • *: When was the last time you tied your hair up? (if your hair is long enough)
  • 旦: Last time you drove your car (if you can drive/have one)?
  • 愛: Are you currently dating?
  • 太: When it's New Year's, do you make New Year Resolutions and actually commit to them?
  • @: Ever felt attracted to the opposite sex before?
  • 空: Did you ever throw up after one roller coaster ride or a few?
  • ☆: Have you ever played games such as 'Spin the Bottle'?
  • ⊙: Are you happy with where you are in life right now?
  • ピ: Did you like Pokemon as a child?
  • ♪: Do you find yourself singing or humming to yourself sometimes?
  • ☁: Ever wanted to learn a foreign language?
  • ス: Have you ever swallowed gum?
  • ⅚: Post the link if your current favorite song.
  • ღ: Post a gif of what you're currently feeling right now.
  • ≘: Have you ever watched the sun rise?
  • ☄: Would you defend a friend if they were in danger?
  • ➍: Ever been to a concert? Was it fun?
  • ♛: Do you like group projects?
  • 高: How often do you use headphones/earbuds?
  • ಲ: Headphones or earbuds?
  • ♞: Showers or baths?
  • ✗: Walks on the beach or in a forest?
  • ⊙﹏⊙: Which horror movie scared you the most? If any?
  • ^∇^: Has your best friend ever made you angry?
  • (._.): Do you think you are an awkward person?
  • メ: Cupcakes or muffins?
  • ♯: Would you like to be able to fly?
  • ℝ: What color shirt are you currently wearing?
  • Æ: What color underwear did you wear yesterday?
  • ☪: Have you ever flipped off someone?
  • ♬: Cats or dogs?
  • 礼: Would you swim in the lake or ocean?
  • の: Chocolate or Vanilla?
  • ◐: Have you ever seen a meteor shower?
  • ᄇ: Have you ever broken a bone?
  • ℨ: If you could go anywhere in the world, where would you go?
  • ♔: Know the Duck Song? The Llama Song? Banana Phone?
  • ۞: What shows did you watch when you were a child?
  • ▼: Could you live without the internet?
  • Д: Strangest food you've eaten?
  • 까: Cookies or brownies?
Headcanons list! (Add more if you wish)
  • ½ = How the character feels about people taller or shorter than them
  • ± = The character and what they think about math
  • † = How the character feels about murder
  • @ = How the character appears online
  • ¥ = How the character handles money or spends it
  • ° = The character’s temperature preferences 
  • æ = The character and languages (Known or Want to Learn)
  • ↔ = The character’s ability to read directions
  • ♥ = Character’s preference for relationships (sexuality, type of person, etc.)
  • zzz= What time the character enjoys sleep or being awake
  • ☂ = Weather the character enjoys
  • ♪ = What music the character likes
  • ( =①ω①=) = What animals the character likes and if they have a pet/pets
  • (・∀・ ) = The character’s emotional state most of the time
  • ☆~(ゝ。∂)= How the character greets people
  • ⊙﹏☉ = What flusters the character
  • (≧∇≦) = What makes the character happy
  • (/□\*)・゜ = What makes the character blush
  • (;╹⌓╹) = What scares the character
  • (;へ:) = What makes the character cry
  • (´ q ` ” ) = The character’s “guilty” pleasure
  • (・□・;) = What makes the character uncomfortable
  • (*^◇^)_旦 = What the character likes to eat and drink
  • 。゚(TヮT)゚。 = What makes the character laugh
  • (´;Д;`) = What worries the character
  • (⑅ ‘﹃’ ) = What the character daydreams or thinks about
  • ( ⌒o⌒)人(⌒-⌒ ) = Friends the character has or would like to make

anonymous asked:

Special characters pronunciation

Sæll (eða sæl), vinur minn,
(Hello, my friend,)

As per your request, I will go into some detail about how to pronounce the following special characters in Old Norse: þ, ð, æ, œ, ø, ǫ, and ö

If there are others that you would like to see discussed, please do not hesitate to let them be known.


þ (’thorn’) and ð (’eth’)

Both of these characters represent the English sound ‘th’ (a dental fricative), but ‘þ’ is unvoiced while ‘ð’ is voiced. When saying an ‘ð’, you should feel your vocal cords vibrating. Here are some English examples:

  • Þ, þ: thistle, cloth, thing
  • Ð, ð: bathe, clothe, they

In Old Norse, ‘þ’ can only appear at the beginning of a word (Þórr, þér, þing, etc.). There are, however, exceptions to this when considering compounds: Bergþórshváli = berg (rock face, geo.) + Þóra (a personal name, an gen. þórs) + hváll (hill). Yet, in this case, the proper name is actually Bergþóra (itself a compound), thus Bergthora’s Hill. Similarly, ‘ð’ never occurs at the beginning of a word, but rather in the middle or the end.

Here is a video by Dr. Jackson Crawford that may be helpful as well:


æ (’ash’)

This special character sounds like the ‘a’ in the English word ‘ash’ (this, of course, can change based on dialects). Here are some other English examples:

  • Æ, æ: ash, nap, trap, clash, cat

Although some of the English examples above contain a short ‘a’ sound, the vowel ‘æ’ is always long in Old Norse. See the video at the end of this post for an audio example (6:12).


œ and ø

These special characters have a bit of a special relationship with one another (as well as with the special characters below).

ø’ is very much like the sound of ‘e’ in the English word ‘pet’, except with rounded lips. Another way to explain this special character is that it is somewhat a combination of two sounds: ‘e’ and ‘o’. Thus, it is the ‘e’ sound in ‘pet’ with the rounded lips of an ‘o’. This sound should be made towards the front of your mouth. It takes a bit of practice, but you should be able to feel the front ‘pinched’ a bit, and your throat should open up a bit more. See the video at the end of this post for an audio example (6:36).

  • Ø, ø: the ‘e’ in ‘pet’ with the rounded lips of an ‘o

œ’ is essentially a long version of the ‘ø’ above. In certain manuscripts it is actually written as ‘ǿ’. Like most other accented vowels in Old Norse, this just lengthens the shorter sound. So, with that having been said: œ = ǿ = a long ‘ø’ = e+o. See the video at the end of this post for an audio example (7:45).

  • Œ, œ: ǿ

ǫ and ö

‘ǫ’ is essentially a shorter ‘á’ sound, which we have not discussed here. Nonetheless, it should sound something like this:

  • Ǫ, ǫ: the ‘au’ sound in ‘caught’, but with rounded lips and shorter than the ‘á’ (which is the same sound, but longer).

This is another difficult sound to get used to, but with practice it can be done. It is very similar to the ‘ø’ above, but instead of being a combination of the sounds ‘e’ and ‘o’, it is a combination of the sounds ‘a’ and ‘o’. Instead of being a front sound, it is more of a back sound (a more open throat and a less closed mouth). See the video at the end of this post for an audio example (8:08).

By the thirteenth century, ‘ǫ’ had begun to merge with ‘ø’, producing ‘ö’. This sound was also represented by ‘au’, ‘ꜹ’, and even ‘ø’. It is not the same sound as ‘ǫ’, but it is fairly similar. The difference is that ‘ö’ is a front sound, whereas ‘ǫ’ was more of a back sound. 

  • Ö, ö: similar to ‘ǫ’, but more like the ‘u’ in ‘cut’ with rounded lips.

‘ö’ is more commonly used for modern Icelandic, but some scholars use ‘ö’ to represent the Old Norse ‘ǫ’ (such as Jesse L. Byock). There is debate around this, but it really depends on the time period of the text being looked at, as well as the orthography associated with it. Dr. Jackson Crawford notes that ‘ǫ’ is the standard for Old Norse. Go to 8:38 of this video for some audio examples from Dr. Jackson Crawford:


Here is another video by Dr. Jackson Crawford that may be helpful for better understanding these characters and their pronunciations. Go to the timestamps mentioned above for the pronunciation of æ (6:12), ø (6:36), œ (7:45), and ǫ (8:08) in particular.


SOURCES:

As always, here are the sources that I have used (other than Dr. Jackson Crawford’s wonder YouTube channel) in the making of this post:

1. Jesse L. Byock, Viking Language 1: Learn Old Norse, Runes, and Icelandic Sagas. (Pacific Palisades, CA: Jules William Press, 2013), 330-331.

2. Guðvarður Már Gunnlaugsson, “Manuscripts and Paleography,” in A Companion to Old Norse-Icelandic Literature and Culture, edited by Rory McTurk. (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007), 258.


DISCLAIMER (I am also not much of a linguist, so I may have explained a few characters incorrectly; corrections may be made in the future.)

flickr

Asakusa in Japan Tokyo 日本東京淺草的小巷弄與晴空塔 I IMG_5493-12 by 銘俊
Via Flickr:
Asakusa (浅草) is a district in Taitō, Tokyo, Japan, famous for the Sensō-ji, a Buddhist temple dedicated to the bodhisattva Kannon. There are several other temples in Asakusa, as well as various festivals. 浅草(あさくさ)は、東京都台東区の町名。または、旧東京市浅草区の範囲を指す地域名である。 淺草(日語:浅草/あさくさ Asakusa),本身既是東京都台東區的一個地名,也是以淺草寺為中心的周邊繁華街區的總稱。在近年東京都內實行區份合併以前,淺草本來是東京都內的一個區的名稱。

My Mods Folder is 12.3 GB and used to take 10-15 minutes to load. Tonight I removed all the spaces and special characters, and when I loaded my game it made a huge difference! 12.3 GB didn’t take any more than 2 minutes to load. And the game is a lot smoother now!

If your game is slow too, you can get it to run faster by renaming your packages! All you have to do is remove the spaces and special characters!
eg. this is a file name_1.package  > thisisafilename1.package

List of special characters: (for those who don’t know)

 é ”, ; . : ~ ! > £ ’ < ^ # $ + % ½ & { / [ (  _ * ? \ - ] ) } € @ æ ß ü ğ ı ç ö ¨

Please spread the word!

Things I dislike

-people saying McFucking or Mcfreaking or anything similar
-the word yikes
-unironically saying triggered when talking about someone
Example: “lmao ur triggered aren’t u haha fuckin sjw kek’d mlg I’m 12 and a half”