Ask Ethan: If Matter Is Made Of Point Particles, Why Does Everything Have A Size?
“Many sources state that quarks are point particles… so one would think that objects composed of them — in this instance, neutrons — would also be points. Is my logic flawed? Or would they be bound to each other in such a way that they would cause the resulting neutron to have angular size?”
When we consider things like molecules, atoms, or even protons and neutrons, they all have finite, measurable sizes. Yet the fundamental particles that they’re made out of, like quarks, electrons, and gluons, are all inherently points, with no physical size to them at all. Why, then, does every composite particle not only have a size, but some of them, like atoms, grow to be relatively huge almost immediately, even with only a few fundamental particles involved? It’s due to three factors that all work together: forces, the quantum properties of the particles themselves, and energy. Since the strong and electromagnetic forces work against each other, quarks and gluons can form finite-sized protons; protons and neutrons assemble into nuclei larger than the protons and neutrons combined would make; electrons, with their low mass and high zero-point energy, orbit around nuclei only at great (relative) distances.
Washington State University Physicists create 'negative mass'
Washington State University physicists have created a fluid with negative mass, which is exactly what it sounds like. Push it, and unlike every physical object in the world we know, it doesn’t accelerate in the direction it was pushed. It accelerates backwards.
The phenomenon is rarely created in laboratory conditions and can be used to explore some of the more challenging concepts of the cosmos, said Michael Forbes, a WSU assistant professor of physics and astronomy and an affiliate assistant professor at the University of Washington. The research appears today in the journal Physical Review Letters, where it is featured as an “Editor’s Suggestion.”
Hypothetically, matter can have negative mass in the same sense that an electric charge can be either negative or positive. People rarely think in these terms, and our everyday world sees only the positive aspects of Isaac Newton’s Second Law of Motion, in which a force is equal to the mass of an object times its acceleration, or F=ma. In other words, if you push an object, it will accelerate in the direction you’re pushing it. Mass will accelerate in the direction of the force.
When humans launch to the International Space Station, they are members of expeditions. An expedition is long duration stay on the space station. The first expedition started when the crew docked to the station on Nov. 2, 2000.
Expedition 52 began in June 2017 aboard the orbiting laboratory and will end in September 2017.
FUN FACT: Each Expedition begins with the undocking of the spacecraft carrying the departing crew from the previous Expedition. So Expedition 52 began with the undocking of the Soyuz MS-03 spacecraft that brought Expedition 51 crew members Oleg Novitskiy and Thomas Pesquet back to Earth, leaving NASA astronauts Peggy Whitson and Jack Fischer and Roscosmos cosmonaut Fyodor Yurchikhin aboard the station to await the arrival of the rest of the Expedition 52 crew in July.
This expedition includes dozens of out of this world science investigations and a crew that takes #SquadGoals to a whole new level.
Take a look below to get to know the crew members and some of the science that will occur during the space station’s 52nd expedition.
Fyodor Yurchikhin (Roscosmos) – Commander
Born: Batumi, Adjar ASSR, Georgian SSR Interests: collecting stamps and space logos, sports, history of cosmonautics and reading Spaceflights: STS-112, Exps. 15, 24/25, 36/37, 51 Bio: https://go.nasa.gov/2o9PO9F
Jack Fischer (NASA) – Flight Engineer
Born: Louisville, Colorado. Interests: spending time with my family, flying, camping, traveling and construction Spaceflights: Expedition 51 Twitter:@Astro2Fish Bio: https://go.nasa.gov/2o9FY7o
Peggy Whitson (NASA) – Flight Engineer
Born: Mount Ayr, Iowa Interests: weightlifting, biking, basketball and water skiing Spaceflights: STS-111, STS – 113, Exps. 5, 16, 50, 51, 52 Twitter: @AstroPeggy Bio:https://go.nasa.gov/2rpL58x
Randolph Bresnik (NASA) – Flight Engineer
Born: Fort Knox, Kentucky Interests: travel, music, photography, weight training, sports, scuba diving, motorcycling, and flying warbirds Spaceflights: STS-129 and STS-135 Twitter: @AstroKomrade Bio:https://go.nasa.gov/2rq5Ssm
In addition to one tentatively planned spacewalk, crew members will conduct scientific investigations that will demonstrate more efficient solar arrays, study the physics of neutron stars, study a new drug to fight osteoporosis and study the adverse effects of prolonged exposure to microgravity on the heart.
Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA)
Solar panels are an efficient way to generate power, but they can be delicate and large when used to power a spacecraft or satellites. They are often tightly stowed for launch and then must be unfolded when the spacecraft reaches orbit.
The Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA), is a solar panel concept that is lighter and stores more compactly for launch than the rigid solar panels currently in use. ROSA has solar cells on a flexible blanket and a framework that rolls out like a tape measure.
Neutron Star Interior Composition Explored (NICER)
Neutron stars, the glowing cinders left behind when massive stars explode as supernovas, are the densest objects in the universe, and contain exotic states of matter that are impossible to replicate in any ground lab.
Systemic Therapy of NELL-1 for Osteoporosis (Rodent Research-5)
When people and animals spend extended periods of time in space, they experience bone density loss. The Systemic Therapy of NELL-1 for osteoporosis (Rodent Research-5) investigation tests a new drug that can both rebuild bone and block further bone loss, improving health for crew members.
Fruit Fly Lab-02
Exposure to reduced gravity environments can result in cardiovascular changes such as fluid shifts, changes in total blood volume, heartbeat and heart rhythm irregularities, and diminished aerobic capacity. The Fruit Fly Lab-02 study will use the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) to better understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for the adverse effects of prolonged exposure to microgravity on the heart.
Our planet is shown surrounded by an imaginary constellation shaped like a house, depicting the theme of the patch: “The Earth is our home.” It is our precious cradle, to be preserved for all future generations. The house of stars just touches the Moon, acknowledging the first steps we have already taken there, while Mars is not far away, just beyond the International Space Station, symbolized by the Roman numeral “LII,” signifying the expedition number.
The planets Saturn and Jupiter, seen orbiting farther away, symbolize humanity’s exploration of deeper space, which will begin soon. A small Sputnik is seen circling the Earth on the same orbit with the space station, bridging the beginning of our cosmic quest till now: Expedition 52 will launch in 2017, sixty years after that first satellite. Two groups of crew names signify the pair of Soyuz vehicles that will launch the astronauts of Expedition 52 to the Station.
Click here for more details about the expedition and follow @ISS_Research on Twitter to stay up to date on the science happening aboard YOUR orbiting laboratory!
request: You meet tom on insta because you made fun of him!
summary: reader lives in new york and makes fun of tom while he is in town, you make fun of him and you catch his eye…
word count: 560
You crossed and uncrossed your legs, uncomfortable in the crowded Times Square McDonalds. You didn’t even like it but your best friend was on her period and she liked this one best, so out of obligation you were here. While Y/F/N waited in the extensive line you scrolled through instagram.
You stared at the picture trying to figure out what it reminded you of. And then it hit you: JIMMY NEUTRON. You couldn’t help but snort out loud, you commented:
hahaha, you look like jimmy neutron, soft serve on your head 💩😂
Satisfied with yourself you leaned back in the seat. You placed your phone on the table when your friend returned to the table with her food.
“Hey what are you so smiley about?” Y/F/N asked. You felt your eyes roll and chuckled.
“Oh just this funny comment I left on Tom Holland’s instagram.” You knew that she would roll her eyes hardcore because she thought you liked Tom a bit too much.
“..Oh my god, girl look at your phone, HE COMMENTED AT YOU!” Y/F/N started freaking out. Scrambling for your phone, you tried not to get your hopes up. You knew she liked to make fun of you for your “little” obsession. It really is too bad he’s famous.
@tomholland2013 said: @yourinstagram wow thanks, love that lil dude
2 years later, you sit looking at the handsome boy across from you. Tom lifted his head to see you staring at him with an amused smile. He squinted his eyes and you and tilted his head in suspicion.
“What? You look like you just committed a crime and you look too proud of yourself.” You threw your head back and laughed at him.
“I was just thinking about how we met.” You know that your story isn’t super romantic or anything, I mean you made fun of him on instagram and then you guys got to talking on DM and it just escalated from there.
“A joke on instagram, led to me living with you. Technology is weird but without it I wouldn’t have the love of my life.” Tom reached over and lifted your hand to kiss it.
“You know, the other day this guy commented on one of my posts saying that I was gorgeous, maybe I should date him instead?” You jokingly pulled your hand out of his grasp and crossed your legs contemplatively on the couch.
Tom’s eyes turned dark and he slowly stood up, “You’re going to regret that.” You eyes widened in excited fear as he pounced on you and started tickling your belly.
“STOP, STOP OKAY OKAY I LOVE YOU!” You shouted in mercy. Tom retreated his offensive hands and flopped back next to you, causing your body to bounce a little from his weight displacing the pillows.
“That’s what I like to hear,” His breathing was a little labored, funny that tickling you could tire Spider-man out so much. He smiled the most sincere smile, one only Tom was capable of, and lifted a hand to your chin. Tilting your head to him you greeted his lips happily with yours. He kissed you gently, like he always does when he is sappy like this, and you couldn’t imagine a place you’d rather be than on your shared saggy couch wrapped up in Tom’s arms on a rainy Sunday morning.