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I am 100% convinced that “exit, pursued by a bear” is a reference to some popular 1590s meme that we’ll never be able to understand because that one play is the only surviving example of it.

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Seriously, we’ll never figure it out. I’ll wager trying to understand “exit, pursued by a bear” with the text of The Winter’s Tale as our primary source is like trying to understand loss.jpg when all you have access to is a single overcompressed JPEG of a third-generation memetic mutation that mashes it up with YMCA and “gun” - there’s this whole twitching Frankensteinian mass of cultural context we just don’t have any way of getting at.

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no, but this is why people do the boring archival work! because we think we do know why “exit, pursued by a bear” exists, now, and we figured it out by looking at ships manifests of the era -

it’s also why there was a revival of the unattributed and at the time probably rather out of fashion mucedorus at the globe in 1610 (the same year as the winter’s tale), and why ben jonson wrote a chariot pulled by bears into his court masque oberon, performed on new year’s day of 1611.

we think the answer is polar bears.

no, seriously!  in late 1609 the explorer jonas poole captured two polar bear cubs in greenland and brought them home to england, where they were purchased by the beargarden, the go-to place in elizabethan london for bear-baiting and other ‘animal sports.’  it was at the time run by edward alleyn (yes, the actor) and his father-in-law philip henslowe (him of the admiral’s men and that diary we are all so very grateful for), and would have been very close, if not next to, the globe theatre.

of course, polar bear cubs are too little and adorable for baiting, even to the bloodthirsty tudor audience, aren’t they?  so, what to do with the little bundles of fur until they’re too big to be harmless?  well, if there’s anything we know about the playwrights and theatre professionals of the time, it’s that they knew how to make money and draw in audiences.  and the spectacle of a too-small-to-be-dangerous-yet-but-still-real-live-and-totally-WHITE-bear?  what good entertainment businessman is going to turn down that opportunity? 

and, voila, we have a death-by-bear for the unfortunate antigonus, thereby freeing up paulina to be coupled off with camillo in the final scene, just as the comedic conventions of the time would expect.

you’re telling me it was an ACTUAL BEAR

every time I think to myself “history can’t possibly get any more bananas” I realize or am made to realize that I am badly mistaken

Not just an actual bear. A polar bear cub.

Imagine a fully grown man running offstage to be “killed” by a baby polar bear.

exit, pursued by bear. i.e. THE BEST STAGE DIRECTION OF ALL FUCKING TIME

[Image description: an animated GIF of a tiny baby polar bear and their human keeper. The human places the bear cub on the floor and it waddles, very unsteadily toward the camera. Description ends]

This post has lived in my head since it was first posted almost 5 years ago.

The thing is: for modern audiences and theater producers The Winter’s Tale is something of a mess. Because most of the action immediately after “Exit, Pursued by bear” is a harvest/shepherd’s feast, with the guests breaking into random songs, and then stopping to watch a troupe of dancers perform, rinse and repeat, for a full half hour or so, and doesn’t seem to do much to move the story forward at all.

But Shakespeare wasn’t writing the play for us. He was writing for an audience with a whole bunch of people who didn’t usually go to hear a play, and only showed up to catch a glimpse of this bear everyone’s been talking about. That moment happens in the middle of the story. So how do you keep a whole chunk of the audience from leaving, after the cute white fluff ball has waddled his way across the stage?

You give them a musical concert and acrobat show – get them singing along to favorite songs they already know, get them to feel like they’re actually guests at a real feast, instead of just watching one. And then, at the height of the fun, when everyone’s laughing and having a grand ol’ time, you bring the plot back, and threaten the young heroine and her family with death by hanging.

Brilliant audience wrangling, if you ask me.

If I were going to do a revival/retelling, I might make it a Space Opera, and instead of a polar bear, promise a spectacle of a Jim Henson Workshop monster. And turn the shepherd’s feast scene into a rock concert with wild dancing and songs. I don’t know enough about current music to know who I’d try to get as Autolycus (pickpocket and song-leader at the party) though.

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…Theater, amirite? 😏

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READ THIS

“The goal in cosplay,” the impressively named Frenchy Lunning writes, "is not to produce and perform a character to take part in a theatrical narrative designed for an audience to view, but for an individual fan subject to embody and identify with an adored character whose persona is real for the fan, actor, and/or creator of the cosplay costume."

Two women writers collaborated under a male pseudonym to circumvent the sexism of Victorian society... Until that jerk Robert Browning spilled the beans. There's lots more to the story, though!

"In the records of forty-four Cook County coroner’s inquests she examined, [Leslie J] Reagan found that all the women who had abortions were working-class immigrants or the daughters of immigrants. The state’s focus “on regulating the use of abortion by working-class women” meant that policing largely exempted middle- and upper-class women."

I feel silly asking this because I'm a grad student and supposed to be good at research, but I've been having a hard time finding much in the way of queer theory that was written by queer men (especially queer trans men).

What would be the best way to find this on JSTOR?

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Dang, that's a tough one! You may be able to use this Queer Theory Reading List from Brown University as kind of a start by browsing the names of the authors, though we realize that's far from ideal.

Asking a librarian is always a good idea, they have a surprising amount of tricks up their capable sleeves.

And finally, there's our beloved Tumblr community: anyone here have suggestions for @ramshacklefey?

Last week, U.S. Rep. Mary Miller (ILL) thanked former President Donald Trump for the Supreme Court overturning Roe v. Wade, calling it a “victory for white life.” She claims to have misspoken, but racism is part of the DNA of the anti-abortion movement.

Dear JSTOR: Do you accept blood sacrifice or the tears of students as payment for access to your articles? Sincerely, a penniless history nerd who gazes at your library the way Apollo looked at Daphne.

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Have you tried registering for a free account? You get access to read from 8.5+ million articles. All you need is an email account, no need for blood sacrifices or tears! https://support.jstor.org/hc/en-us/articles/115004760028-MyJSTOR-How-to-Register-Get-Free-Access-to-Content

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also tumblr is the most rewarding place to do literary analysis because in academic papers you get peer recognition and approval but on tumblr you get gay people in the tags telling you they want to kiss you passionately with tongue because you recognize and understand themes and motifs