a whole lot of isms
- Theism - the belief that at least one deity exists
- Liberal theism - belief that at least one deity exists, without adhering to an established religion
- Classical theism - at least one deity exists, who is the absolute metaphysically ultimate being
- Open theism - belief that at least one deity exists, and is open to influence through prayers, influence and actions of people
- Monotheism - belief in the existence of only one deity
- Polytheism - a belief in the existence of many deities
- Hard polytheism - a belief in many deities as distinct, separate beings
- Soft polytheism - a belief in many deities which not as separate beings but as different faces of one universal force
- Henotheism - belief that there many be more than one deity, but only one is worshipped
- Kathenotheism - the belief that there is more than one deity, but they are worshipped one at a time, as then they are treated as supreme in turn
- Monolatrism - the belief that there may be more than one deity, but only one is worthy of being worshipped
- Pantheism - the belief that the physical universe is equal to deity, and that deity exists in everything in the universe
- Panentheism - the belief that the physical universe is equal to deity, but that it also extends beyond it (deity is more than just the physical universe)
- Deism - belief that at least one deity exists and created the world, but does not intervene in human affairs or change natural laws
- Classical deism - the belief that human beings’ relationship with the creator god is impersonal (god will not individually intervene)
- Modern deism - classical deism integrated with modern philosophy and scientific ideas, posits that humans’ relationship with the creator god is transpersonal (god is above the personal/impersonal duality)
- Pandeism - belief that deity created the universe, but is now equivalent with it
- Panendeism - combines deism and panentheism, posits that the universe is part of (but not the whole of) deity
- Polydeism - belief that multiple gods exist(ed), but they do not intervene with the universe
- Autotheism or egotheism - divinity is inherently within oneself and one has a duty to become perfect/divine, can encompass self-worship
- Hedonism - belief that pleasure or happiness is the highest good, a devotion to maintaining personal pleasure
- Eutheism - belief that deity is wholly benevolent
- Dystheism - belief that deity is not wholly good, and is possibly evil
- Maltheism - the belief that a deity exists, but it is wholly malicious
- Misotheism - not a lack of belief in deity, but a hatred of any and all deities that might exist
- Animism - belief that non-human entities are spiritual beings, or contain some kind of life-principal
- Ditheism or duotheism - the belief that two deities exist and they are equal (e.g. the Lord and Lady in Wicca)
- Atheism - the lack of belief in any deity
- Agnosticism - the belief that it is unknown or unknowable whether or not deity exists (can be combined with other terms, e.g. “agnostic atheist” - belief that it is unknown or unknowable whether deity exists, and encompasses lack of belief in any deity)
- Gnosticism - the belief that it is possible to know whether or not deity exists (can be combined with other terms, e.g. “gnostic theist” - the belief in the existence of at least one deity, and the belief that it is possible to know for certain whether this deity exists)
EDIT: Adding, thanks to beyond-the-wand!
- Panapatheism - belief that multiple gods exist, but you don’t care to worship any of them
- Atheogenecism - belief that god/s did not create the universe or world, though it doesn’t necessarily mean that they don’t exist.
The Tools of an Atheist Debater
- Occam’s Razor: Since the existence of a deity is unnecessarily complex and the nonexistence of a deity is simpler of an explanation, the nonexistence is more likely.
- Problem of Evil: Since evil exists in the world, even as a deficiency of good, and since suffering exists, there can be no benevolent and omnipotent god since all of those would necessarily create a world free of evil. If a god can stop suffering and hasn’t, they aren’t benevolent. If a god can’t stop suffering, they aren’t omnipotent. Note: This is the most powerful argument
- Russell’s Teapot: used to invalidate “you can’t completely disprove god,” since you can’t completely disprove the existence of a teapot between earth and mars. Basically an argument of absurdity.
- Argument from Poor Design: An omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent god would create beings of optimal design, however there is suboptimal design everywhere. (Giraffe’s Larynx is excessively long, for example).
- Fate of the Unlearned: If your theology if correct, what about people who either are nor aware of it now or couldn’t possibly have been aware of it. For example, Christianity was never introduced to the Indians until the 15th century, so have they all been damned for reasons beyond their own capacity? WARNING: Encourages evangelicalism
- Who Designed the Designer (Ultimate Boeing 747): If a designer created everything, who created the designer. Argument of how a god arises. (Richard Dawkins)
- Problem of Hell: Hell punished the bad which is inconsistent with a benevolent and forgiving god (this is weaker).
Responses to Arguments for:
- Ontological Argument: This argument is that the highest being that can be conceived must necessarily exist since it can be conceived. Counters: Since you can imagine there being no being at all, that must also exist, thus the argument is fallacious or false. Also a lack of evidential reasoning, also conceiving it does not mean it has to exist.
- God of the Gaps: The proverbial “tide in, tide out, sun up, sun down” argument. Since we can’t explain a phenomenon, a deity must have caused it. Science invalidates, gets back to Occam’s Razor.
- There is good, etc: See Problem of Evil
These are your tools if you want or are put in a position to argue against god. Use carefully.