Stressing Gorilla Glass Makes It Stronger
by Sophie Bushwick, Inside Science
Alterations to the usual glass production process, such as putting the material under stress, can introduce effects that linger even after the material hardens. While manufacturers have long exploited this phenomenon to strengthen glass, a new theory aims to get closer to understanding why it happens.
Glass is not as well understood as most materials, because it straddles the line between liquid and solid. In typical crystalline materials, molecules assemble into a set structure over the span of the entire material as the substance solidifies from a disordered liquid form. Glass, on the other hand, retains a liquid-like disorder even after it hardens.
Without a set architecture, these disordered molecules are particularly vulnerable to outside forces. If you push or pull on a substance, you create internal forces, or stress, in the material itself. Once you remove that force, you’d expect the molecules to return to equilibrium, removing the stresses. But glassy materials “remember” the long-gone force.
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Astronomy Textbook -- list 1
Time for a list of some of the textbooks I used and for which class they were used.
- Universe by Freedman & Kaufmann: Intro Astro I / II
- Optics by Hecht: Observational Astro
- Introduction of the Theory of Stellar Structure & Evolution by Prialnik: Stellar Evolution
- High Energy Astrophysics by Rosswog: High Energy Astro
- Numerical Recipes in C by Press, et al.: Computational Astro
- An Introduction to Modern Cosmology by Liddle: Cosmology
I can’t remember which book was used for my: theoretical astrophysics, solar system (was basically an orbital dynamics course).
The following are regarded as good intro books:
This only takes care of the astronomy books. It doesn’t mention the physics/math books! Nor anything graduate level.