I didn’t want to wake up. I was having a much better time asleep. And that’s really sad. It was almost like a reverse nightmare, like when you wake up from a nightmare you’re so relieved. I woke up into a nightmare.
—  Ned Vizzini, It’s Kind of a Funny Story
2

'Bee and Stag' Tetradrachm from Ephesos, Ionia, c. 390-325 BC, by the magistrate Phanagores

From almost the very beginning of the history of coinage the Greeks made coins depicting animals symbolic of their city. The the bee was one of the first symbolic animals ever used. The obverse of this coin shows a lovely  bee with straight wings and the inscription for Ephesus, E-Φ,  The reverse shows the forepart of a stag to the right, its head turned back with a palm tree and the inscription of the magistrate who issued the coin, ΦΑΝΑΓΟΡΗΣ.

Ephesos (Ephesus) used the bee on its coins since it was a producer of honey, so the bee advertised their most famous product. The bee was also mythologically connected to Ephesus because, according to Philostratos, the colonizing Athenians were led to Ephesus and Ionia by the Muses who took the form of bees.

The city was also the location of the famous Temple of Artemis. Her priestesses were called ‘melissai” or “honey bees” of the goddess. The stag, like the one used on this coin is also an attribute of Artemis, the goddess of the hunt. This animal was regarded as sacred to her and stag figures were said to have flanked the cult statue of Artemis in her  temple at Ephesus. The palm tree on the obverse alludes to Artemis’ birthplace, the island of Delos, where the goddess Leto gave birth to Artemis and her twin brother Apollo underneath a palm tree. This coin represents its city of origin well.

Ephesus was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometers southwest of present-day Selçuk in Izmir Province, Turkey. It was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital by Attic and Ionian Greek colonists.

you cannot debate someones life experiences unless you know for a fact (aka you were there and were a witness) it didnt happen

life experiences are not a debate

ive been bullied and harassed by cis people solely for the fact that im trans

that is not a debate or an opinion. its a fact

peoples lives are FACTS THAT HAPPENED

never, ever, ever tell someone something that happened to them didn’t happen

EVER

Question: 

In QED (Quantum Electrodynamics), when the repulsion of two negatively charged particles is described as the exchange of virtual photons, is a wavelength/energy imputed to those virtual photons?

Asked by tomcatpurrs

Answer: 

Excellent question.  Before we address it though, let’s reverse a bit and provide some background— just to make sure we’re all on the same page, so we can all participate in the discussion.

Photons are the quantum of light— we can think of them as particles that carry light over space. The history of “real” photons began in 1900 with Planck’s proposal of how the electromagnetic radiation emitted by an object (black body radiation) is related to its temperature.  Planck’s findings indicated that these energies must be quantized, meaning that they can only have specific values.

Building on Planck’s ideas, Lenard (1902) determined that the photoelectric effect depends on wavelength and not the intensity of the light, and Einstein (1905) concluded that Lenard’s discovery indicated that light itself must be localized in specific packets, rather than distributed in space uniformly.

While the idea of a particle of light might be ascribed to Einstein, conclusive evidence was not available until 1923, when Compton conducted his scattering experiments, and the term photon was supposedly first used by G.N. Lewis in a paper in 1926. (Check out the Wikipedia Page: “History of Quantum Mechanics” for more info and helpful links to some of the terms we’ve been referencing.)

Also during the 1920s, the fields of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and Quantum Field Theory (QFT) were developed in an attempt to unify relativity, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics – primarily emerging from the ideas and mathematical proposals from scientists like Dirac.

One of the goals of these new fields was to explain how forces, like the electromagnetic repulsion between electrons mentioned in the posted question, can act over distances.  Eventually, scientists were able to come up with an explanation that these forces are exerted by the transfer of virtual particles.

 A useful analogy to envision how the transfer of a virtual particle would explain force at a distance is to imagine two people standing opposite of each other on a sheet of ice.  If one of them throws a ball to the other, the person receiving the ball will be pushed and slide backwards— in other words, he experiences repulsion.  In the case of electron-electron repulsion, the “ball” is a virtual photon.

Virtual particles are actually predicted by several important equations and concepts in quantum mechanics (including Feynman’s famous diagrams).  They are considered virtual because they only exist for a very brief period of time – too brief to ever be observed directly.

image

Above: example of Feynman diagrams. Click on the diagram to read more about what Feynman diagrams are. 

While virtual particles only exist for extremely small amounts of energy, there are many experiments and observations that indirectly support their existence.  So even though virtual photons aren’t directly observable and permanent like “real” photons, there is ample support for the belief that virtual photons are indeed actual entities.  The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, which you may have heard about before, predicts their existence.

image

Above: Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

 Virtual photos (and other virtual particles) follow the uncertainty principle, which leads us back to the original question, finally!.  Since Heisenberg’s principle can be arranged to accommodate for uncertainty of time:

ΔEΔt = h/2π,

where ΔE is the uncertainty in energy, Δt equals the uncertainty of time, and h is Planck’s constant,

we can see that the right side of the equation is always a constant number. As such, it follows that the smaller the uncertainty in time, the greater the uncertainty in energy has to be in order to maintain the equality.

Since the fleeting existences of the virtual photons make the uncertainty in time extremely small, the uncertainty in their energies is necessarily large. There is no one set value for energy or wavelength, and there are a wide range of possible values. Even when we do the math, the uncertainty level is high, but that’s just the nature of the quantum world!

Lastly, we’d like to add that these ideas about virtual particles are theories. With the knowledge that we currently have, there seems to be ample evidence supporting these theories, but that doesn’t mean they’re unequivocally true. In fact, these ideas are still a matter of heated discussion and debate among many scientists, and as we discover more information about our universe, we may come to expand on these theories or perhaps prove them wrong. In the meantime, we encourage you to contribute your own thoughts to the ongoing discussion about the world of virtual particles!

Further Reading:

If you’re interested in learning more about virtual particles, try reading the blog post “Virtual Particles:  What Are They” posted by Harvard University Theoretical Physicist Matt Strassler. Professor Strassler makes a valiant effort to explain the complicated physics in not-so-complicated terms, and we definitely think it’s worth a read!

 Also:

Jones, Goronwy Tudor. “The Uncertainty Principle, Virtual Particles and Real Forces.” Physics Education 37.3 (2002): 223-33.

 Feynman, Richard P. QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1985. Print.

Answered by Brian C., Expert Leader

Edited by Peggy K. 

Unofficial Rec Bulletin #79

You can submit fics to be include in these here. Other recs/promos/etc can be dropped in our ask box. More info about the bulletin and submitted recs here. Link to previous bulletins.

Contents:

Fic Recs:

Other Recs/Promos:

Fic Recs:

Curiosity Killed The … [NC-17, 11,000 word count]

(fluff, su, season 9, humor, spells, animal transformation, fallen!cas, protective!cas, bottom!dean)
recced by flyingcatstiel

Dean is definitely not the clumsiest person on Earth, but accidents do happen. It’s just unfortunate that the creepy cat statue he managed to knock over carried a curse, and now he’s stuck as a half-human, half-cat. And it will only get worse.

The Dead Dean Clause [T, 4,900 word count, AO3 link]

(fluff, su, humor, preslash, happy canon, feelings recovery, pining!dean, 1st wave oneshot, law enforcement)
recced by mbrry

Sam drinks himself insane, Dean is drunk and belligerent, and Castiel learns how to lie. But it’s still happy. Really.

only if for a night [M, 18,200 word count]

(angst, su, danger sacrifice [kidnapped!cas ask], season 9, pining!cas, fallen!cas, hunter!cas, protective!dean, gay panic, cuddling, djinn dream)
recced by ananonymousrule

Castiel is captured by a djinn. Dean goes slightly crazy, and Cas discovers a thing or two about himself.

Link to sequel.

The Things I Can’t Say Are The Things You Need To Hear [T, 139,000 word count]

(angst, au, fluff, high school, slow building romance, pining!cas, protective!dean, depression, angel!family, bigbro!gabriel, abusive family, !samjess)
recced by hidinginpandorasbox

If Dean had picked tails in the coin toss, he wouldn’t have lost the bet, he wouldn’t have hit his head on the stairs going down to get Bobby’s toolkit, and he certainly wouldn’t have met and fell in love with a sad eyed boy who needs saving more than he lets on. But Dean picked heads.

Other Recs/Promos:

Dean/Cas Heartbreak Challenge

A challenge to write a heartbreaking Dean/Cas fic of at least 10k or 20k words (two tracks). Author signups are now open and close September 26th. Artists signups open on October 20th. Links to: schedule, rules, faq, and author signups.

Gabriel Big Bang

A big bang for Gabriel centric fic! Signups are now open! Author signups close November 23rd (completed drafts due March 15th). Artist signups close March 17. Links to: faq, rules, and schedule; signups for authors and artists.

S: a Supernatural Artbook - Preorders Open

A charity artbook in tribute to the CW show, featuring never-before-seen artworks from over 30 incredibly talented artists. All profits will go to Action Against Hunger. Preorder your copy here.

SPN Reverse Big Bang

It’s back! The reverse of the usual big bang, artists create one piece of art that will be posted anonymously to be claimed by an author. Authors are then expected to write a short fic (minimum of 3,000 words) based on the art they chose.
Signups are now open! Artist signups close October 19th. Author signups are close October 31st. Claims start November 1st, with reveals on November 3rd. FAQ & Rules; signups for artists, authors, and betas.

spnwrangler

The SPN tagwranglers on AO3 have started a blog! There will be guides, posts about current issues in tagging, as well as posts about the newest tags getting canonized!

allydia reverse bang!

this is an interest post for the possibility of an allydia reverse bang! i see a ton of fabulous allydia art floating around out there, but when you take major other pairings out of the allydia tag on ao3, there are minimal fics to be found. so i figured maybe we could combine the allydia art passion with the apparent lack of inspiration to create some amazing content!

quick definition of reverse bang: a reverse bang is, essentially, the opposite of a big bang. artists sign up first, then create art for the pairing, usually accompanying an au or fic idea they’d want to see. while they’re creating, the authors sign up, and when the art is done, authors will claim at least one piece of art for themselves. if there’s an uneven number, some authors may request to write for two pieces, or some pieces might get multiple fics! after a set period of time the fics come in and the posting starts, and lots of art and fic are officially sent out into the world.

if this sounds like it would be interesting to you, whether you’d like to be an artist, an author, a cheerleader, or a spectator who’s desperate for more allydia, please reblog this post! 

in order to allow you to start planning in case the project generates enough interest to move forward, i have created a tentative calendar (note that it is extremely subject to change for a variety of reasons):

  • October 15th: Author and Artist Sign-Ups Open
  • October 26th: Artist Sign-Ups Close
  • December 1st: Art DUE
  • December 5th: Author Sign Ups Close
  • December 7th: Art Claims Open
  • December 9th: Assignments Sent Out
  • January 15th: Fic DUE
  • January 25th: Posting Begins

if you are interested and don’t want to forget about it, you can follow the bang at allydiareversebang. that way, when we begin the bang you’ll see it! you can also track the #allydiarb tag for more information. 

let’s repopulate that allydia tag, everyone!

Can I also just say how much I liked that Jamie got all the cliche facial reaction shots usually done by women?

AND he got naked first. Instead of them having the female parading around naked with the male fully clothed, the roles got reversed. (I know they did it like it was in the book, but it’s rare to see this on TV, even for adaptations.)

anonymous said:

It looks like someone is trying to set you up so they can call you reverse racist rather then admit you are justly angry about the discrimination you face every day of your lives.

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