Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis (XGP)

This patient was diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, the CT scan demonstrates a markedly dilated left renal pelvis and calyces with a large staghorn calculus in the renal pelvis, the left kidney is mildly enlarged and multilobulated, the renal cortex has a thin rim of relatively intense enhancement, these findings are consistent with XGP; the xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a chronic renal infection that leads to scarring of the renal cortex, dilatation of the calyces and renal pelvis and diffuse infiltration of the renal parenchyma with lipid laden macrophages intermingled with lymphocytes, plasma cells, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and occasional giant cells, 'xanthogranulomatous' refers to the yellow masses that form in the kidney as a result of the high lipid content of the infiltrating macrophages

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