vcp

4

Hanoi, Vietnam: Hundreds of thousands of people line the streets for the funeral procession of Comrade Vo Nguyen Giap, the revolutionary military leader who led the anti-imperialist victories against France and the U.S., October 12, 2013.

Comrade Võ Nguyên Giáp has died at the age of 102. Architect of the military defeat of French and U.S. imperialism in Vietnam, theorist and practitioner of People’s War, and lifelong communist revolutionary: His contributions to the struggle of the world working class and oppressed people are immortal. Presente!

New research model to aid search for degenerative disease cures

Efforts to treat disorders like Lou Gehrig’s disease, Paget’s disease, inclusion body myopathy and dementiawill receive a considerable boost from a new research model created by UC Irvine scientists.

The team, led by pediatrician Dr. Virginia Kimonis, has developed a genetically modified mouse that exhibits many of the clinical features of human diseases largely triggered by mutations in the valosin-containing protein.

The mouse model will let researchers study how these now-incurable, degenerative disorders progress in vivo and will provide a platform for translational studies that could lead to lifesaving treatments.

“Currently, there are no effective therapies for VCP-associated diseases and related neurodegenerative disorders,” said Kimonis, a professor of pediatrics who specializes in genetics and metabolism. “This model will significantly spark new approaches to research directed toward the creation of novel treatment strategies.”

She and her team reported their discovery Sept. 28 online in PLOS ONE, a peer-reviewed, open-access journal.

The UCI researchers – from pediatrics, neurology, pathology and radiological sciences – specifically bred the first-ever “knock-in” mouse in which the normal VCP gene was substituted with one containing the common R155H mutation seen in humans with VCP-linked diseases. Subsequently, these mice exhibited the same muscle, brain and spinal cord pathology and bone abnormalities as these patients.

VCP is part of a system that maintains cell health by breaking down and clearing away old and damaged proteins that are no longer necessary. Mutations in the VCP gene disrupt the demolition process, and, as a result, excess and abnormal proteins may build up in muscle, bone and brain cells. These proteins form clumps that interfere with the cells’ normal functions and can lead to a range of disorders.

Another study carried out by members of this group – and published in August in the journal Cell Death & Disease – made use of these genetically altered mice to examine the development of Lou Gehrig’s disease, or ALS. The researchers, led by Dr. Hong Yin and Dr. John Weiss in UCI’s Department of Neurology, documented slow, extensive pathological changes in the spinal cord remarkably similar to changes observed in other animal models of ALS as well as in human patients. ALS research is currently limited by a paucity of animal models in which disease processes can be studied.

Genetically modified mice have become important research models in the effort to cure human ailments. Mice bred to exhibit the brain pathology of Alzheimer’s disease, for example, have dramatically sped up the race to advance new treatments – one such model was developed at UCI. And many cancer therapies were created and tested using genetically altered mice.

VCP5 - Short Study Notes - Monitoring

Monitor ESXi, vCenter, and Virtual Machines

Alarms can monitor Virtual Machines, Hosts, Clusters, Datacenters, Datastores, Networks, vSphere Distributed Switches, Distributed Port Groups, and vCenter Server.

Two types of alarms:

  • Condition Based
  • Event Based

Valid Alarm Responses for Alarms created in vCenter

  • Run a Command
  • Send an Email
  • Send an SNMP Trap

SMTP and SNMP settings are configured in the vCenter Server Settings.

Sender account and SMTP server name (or IP address) must be configure to allow vCenter to send email responses to alarms.

SNMP Community Name, SNMP server name (or IP address), and SNMP port must be configured to send an SNMP response to alarms.

There are 4 vCenter statistics collection levels (1-4).  The default statistics level for vCenter 5 is 1.

  • Level 1 includes basic metrics - Average usage for CPU, memory, disk, and network.  Statistics for devices are not included at this level.
  • Level 2 includes all metrics (average, summation, and latest rollups types). Statistics for devices are not included at this level.
  • Level 3 - includes all metrics, including devices, for all counter groups.
  • Level 4 - All metrics supported by vCenter Server.

vCenter can keep statistics in intervals of 5 minutes, 30 minutes, 2 hours, and 1 day.

The Database Size tool can be used to estimated the size of the vCenter database. Enter the expected number of Physical Hosts and number of Virtual Machines in inventory and an estimated space requirement will be generated based on the statistics intervals and levels selected.

None, Error, Warnings, Information, Verbose, and Trivia are all vCenter logging options. The Trivia logging options captures the most data.

Logging and Statistics are configured in vCenter Server Settings.

System Logs can be exported from Home -> System Logs -> Export System Logs or from the Administration menu -> Export System Logs or File -> Export -> Export System Logs

ESXi Dump Collector can be configured to dump a host’s kernel core to a network server when a system failure occurs.

resxtop can be run from the vMA to remotely monitor ESXi performance Metrics

A few R/ESXTOP Metric Definitions

  • %SYS - Time spent running system services
  • %RUN - Percentage of total scheduled time
  • %RDY - Time a world is ready to run
  • %MLMTD - Time a world is ready to run but cannot due to CPU limit
  • %WAIT - Time a world spends waiting for resources.
  • %IDLE - Time a vCPU is in idle loop.
  • %SWPWT - Time a world is waiting for VMkernel to swap memory.
  • %USED - Physical CPU time accounted to a world.

The CPU Ready performance counter identifies the time a virtual machine is ready to use CPU but cannot because CPU resources could not be allocated.

Kernel Command Latency (usually 2-3 ms) data counter monitors the average time spent in the VMkernel per SCSI command.

Physical Device Command Latency (15-20ms) counter displays the average time the physical device takes to complete a SCSI command.

Device Latency (DAVG/cmds) + Kernel Latency (KAVG/cmds) = Guest Latency (GAVG/cmds)
High latency results in lower throughput.

Performance reports can be exported from File -> Report -> Performance

Performance report Chart Options: Line graph, Stacked Graph, or Stacked Graph (Per VM) - Size: Small, Medium, and Large

VCP5 - Short Study Notes - VMFS

VMFS-5 is the latest version of VMware Virtual Machine File System (VMFS)

VMFS-5 supports LUNs greater than 2 TB

GUID Partition Table (GPT) is used for VMFS-5

GPT is required for LUNs greater than 2 TB

64TB is the maximum size of a VMFS-5 datastore

A clean install of the ESXi 5 uses the GPT format

ESXi 5.0 installation does not create VMFS partitions on the second and successive disks.

Datastores upgraded to VMFS-5 will retain the MBR partition label until they are expanded beyond 2 TB.  When expanded beyond 2 TB the VMFS datastore will be converted to the GPT format.

VMFS-5 uses a unified block size of 1 MB and has a maximum file size of 2 TB.

VMFS-3 datastores can be upgraded to VMFS-5 online with no disruption.

VMFS-3 datastores upgraded to VMFS-5 maintain their configured block size.

vSphere 5 supports both VMFS-3 and VMFS-5.  4.x hosts cannot access VMFS-5 datastores.