1. the quality or state of being turbulent; violent disorder or commotion.

2. Hydraulics: the haphazard secondary motion caused by eddies within a moving fluid.

3. Meteorology: irregular motion of the atmosphere, as that indicated by gusts and lulls in the wind.

Etymology: from Latin turbulentus, from turba, “confusion”.


Type 1a supernovae occur in binary star systems where a dense white dwarf star accretes matter from its companion star. As the dwarf star gains mass, it approaches the limit where electron degeneracy pressure can no longer oppose the gravitational force of its mass. Carbon fusion in the white dwarf ignites a flame front, creating isolated bubbles of burning fluid inside the star. As these bubbles burn, they rise due to buoyancy and are sheared and deformed by the neighboring matter. The animation above is a visualization of temperature from a simulation of one of these burning buoyant bubbles. After the initial ignition, instabilities form rapidly on the expanding flame front and it quickly becomes turbulent. (Image credit: A. Aspden and J. Bell; GIF credit: fruitsoftheweb, source video; via freshphotons)

Any time there is relative motion between a solid and a fluid, a small region near the surface will see a large change in velocity. This region, shown with smoke in the image above, is called the boundary layer. Here air flows from right to left over a spinning spheroid. At first, the boundary layer is laminar, its flow smooth and orderly. But tiny disturbances get into the boundary layer and one of them begins to grow. This disturbance ultimately causes the evenly spaced vortices we see wrapping around the mid-section of the model. These vortices themselves become unstable a short distance later, growing wavy before breaking down into complete turbulence. (Photo credit: Y. Kohama)

Is there a period in human development when we have a “teenage brain?”

That’s a great question because there is even the issue that has been raised as to whether adolescence is “for real” in a biological sense. I mean, there’s plenty of cultures where essentially, you know, you’re married off to somebody when you’re 13 or some such thing, and all you are is like an adult with acne, that it’s not a special stage. And the suggestion that this is something that the West kind of invented, dealing with the fact that there’s now viewed as a delay between when one starts one’s main occupation, when one finishes education, and at the earlier end when the hormones start. Ah, we’ll call this magical period in between adolescence. So if it’s just an artificial construct, everything the brain is doing during development should just be in a smooth curve like this, where somewhere arbitrarily oops, that’s what we call adolescence is starting. Made-up concept. But that’s not what you see, because it is distinctive.

Parts of the brain are pretty much going full bore by the time you’re a year old, 5 years old. There’s parts of the brain, the limbic system which is involved centrally in emotion, which are pretty much all there by the time adolescence is starting. Then another distinctive feature of adolescence, which tells you it’s not just this: The hormones start. So what’s the frontal cortex doing there? The easiest picture would be if it’s the one that’s just sluggishly going on. That’s not what you see though. Interestingly, by the beginning of adolescence your frontal cortex is bigger than it’ll be as an adult.


Ivy hung up with Terry as she sat in the cab on her way to the airport. She’d told him something had come up and he’d have to take care of the press by himself. As soon as she’d gotten off the phone with Sam she’d packed up Elena’s things, along with a few of her own and went straight to the airport.

Arriving she bought the earliest flight back to New York City. Ivy hated flying but finding Chrys was more important. As she boarded the plane with Elena and her bag of things, she could already feel the airsickness begin to kick in, but it could be the paranoia about what Chrys was doing. As she expected, the plane hit some wind on it’s way to landing in the city, shaking up Ivy’s already empty stomach and making Elena yet more fussy for the entire flight.

As soon as she landed she went straight to Chrys’ apartment, not caring that she’d probably run into Sam but hoping that her cousin had been found.

Turbulence is an excellent mixer. Here two fluorescent dyes are injected into a turbulent water jet. Flow is from the bottom of the image toward the top. The dyes are quickly mixed into the background fluid by momentum convection, their concentration decreasing with increased distance from the source. Large-scale structures like the eddies visible in this image drive this convection of momentum in turbulent flows. In contrast, consider laminar flows, where momentum and molecular diffusion dominate how fluids move. In such laminar flows, it’s even possible to unmix two fluids, a feat that cannot be accomplished in the jet above. (Photo credit: M. Kree et al.; via @AIP_Publishing)

Turbulence (Acoustic)
  • Turbulence (Acoustic)
  • At The Skylines
  • Empire EP

At The Skylines - Turbulence (Acoustic)

Was I a part of you? Were you a part of me? 
Time and time again we’re running on empty.
Was I a part of you? Were you a part of me? 
I’m off this broken ride, I can see clearly.

Whoa, you lied from the start.
The sky could fall down, and you could never see it coming.
Whoa, take me back to the start. 
So I can turn around, and walk the other way.


Yes, it is that ballet AU again. This one happened because the glasses in amatterofcomplication’s manip led deathtodickens to draw a magnificently romantic doodle, which she gave me leave to write into a story. So I thought about stars and glasses, and this is where it led. Also leading into this are Fluidity, Rotation, Momentum, and Prismatic, without which this won’t make a great deal of sense. It may not make a great deal of sense anyway; all I can say in my defense is that I am a fool for love.


“Ugh,” Myka says when she puts down her phone. “I can’t believe this.”

“Can’t believe what?” Helena asks. She is sitting on the floor with a foam roller under her thigh, working out a kink she’s been complaining about since she got home.

Myka is trying to hold back, at least for a little while, from volunteering her services as a masseuse. “Well, it’s not as bad as a balky hamstring, but I have to wear my glasses tomorrow. And Wednesday. They’re very sorry to have completely blown off ordering my new contacts, but there’s no way now to get them to me sooner than Wednesday afternoon.”

“You’re right,” Helena says, “it’s not nearly as bad as a balky hamstring.” But her tone is playful.

And Myka gives up. She doesn’t want to be an inch away from Helena, ever, and certainly not when they’re in the same room, the same room at home—well, technically this is still Helena’s home, because Myka still has her own apartment, because there’s a lease that won’t be up for another month. But after that… after that, they’ll officially live together, and then after that, they’ll officially promise to live together for the rest of their lives. It’s all happened so fast that Myka feels giddy, but she also feels absolutely certain. “Need some help with that hamstring?” she offers.

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