The Babylonian Empire was a Mesopotamian Semitic civilization that rose to power under the harsh rule of Hammurabi. While its capital city, Babylon, was the center of Mesopotamian civilization for nearly two millennia, the Empire of Babylonia was short-lived; it rose with Hammurabi in the beginning of the 18th century BC, and it disassembled after his death in 1750 BC.

The Babylonians valued hard work and education, symbolized in the proverb, “he, who would excel in the school of the scribes, must rise with the dawn”. There were libraries in most towns and temples, and both men and women were taught to read. Furthermore, the Babylonians were skilled in astrology and medicine, and believed in rationality and empiricism. However, they also lived under a set of strict and harsh laws implemented by Hammurabi. Death sentences were not rare and were sometimes given as punishment even for theft. It was Hammurabi’s belief that he was sent by God to bring righteousness and prevent the strong from harming the weak.

Compared to its short life, Babylonia left a great legacy. The Babylonian language would be used across the Middle East to communicate across borders. The invention of hanging gardens is attributed to Babylonia. And in Biblical history, Babylonia (and its capital) are often referenced as a symbol of the Antichrist’s evil world system - the quick rise to excess in comfort and power, followed by demise: “The great city of Babylon will be thrown down, never to be found again.” [Revelation 18:21]

kingsandqueensnet’s weekly series, week III: favorite empires

Time Travel Prompts

Just something fun, hope you enjoy!

1. So, I was one of the good guys – but then the world ended and so now I’ve traveling back in time and am pretending to be a super villain in order to save it.  I’m so evil.  Seriously though, it’s really difficult to pretend to be a bad guy, cut me some slack.
2. So I traveled back in time and they think I’m a witch, I still have twelve hours until my device works again so I’m going to have to stall.
3. I don’t really know how to ask this without sounding weird, but are you a time traveler too?  I don’t ask because I’ve been trying to find the historical thing ™ all day and I’d like some directions.
4. Every time I sneeze I travel to a random point in time.  On the bright side my Babylonian is improving.
5. I was crossing the 1900s street and now I’m in the future.  Don’t mind me, I totally know what these 1950s cars are.  Yes.  I know what I’m about.
6. So I accidentally created a paradox and I seem to fallen out of time into a waiting room.  It has excellent refreshments and also you.  So what are you in for?
7. I am one time traveler trying to assassinate the Archduke Franz Ferdinand seven different times.  This is not going well.
8. So it turns out if you run into your past self you don’t both disappear, you just get a really well suited roommate.
9. So I appreciate you’re the son of the pharaoh, but I have to get back to sixteenth century China, can you not follow me through time.  Or do.  You know, whatever.
10. So I traveled back in time for an unrelated purpose and now am raising myself.  I guess I really do look like my mom.
11. I thought some guy left his phone behind on accident and no, he left his time travel device behind on accident and now I am standing in front of King George.
12. When I took this job it was to be a reference librarian, now you have me traveling through time righting wrongs and saving the day.  I demand a raise and better coffee.
13. I’ve traveled forward in the future and every time it’s slightly different.  I guess the future really is flexible.
14. Rich people are ‘retiring’ back in time to make their money really stretch.  I’m a waitress who overheard and has snuck her way in to do the same.  They aren’t terribly happy about it.

anonymous asked:

The earliest civilizations to have used henna include the Babylonians, Assyrians, Sumerians, Semites, Ugaritics and Canaanites. The earliest written evidence that mentions henna specifically used as an adornment for a bride or woman’s special occasion is in the Ugaritic legend of Baal and Anath, inscribed on a tablet dating back to 2100 BC, found in northwest Syria. Henna has also been used extensively in southern China

Ok… I didn’t say anything about this but thank u for sharing

Cuneiform tablet with the Atrahasis Epic. Babylonian, about 17th century BC, from Sippar, southern Iraq.

A version of the Flood story

The story outlines the structure of the universe according to Babylonian beliefs. Heaven is ruled by the god Anu, the earth by Enlil and the subterranean sweet water by Enki. The text then explains how the minor gods work in the fields but then rebel. As a result, humans are made from clay, saliva and divine blood to act as servants of the gods.

This does not prove a perfect solution, as the humans reproduce and their noise disturbs Enlil’s sleep. He decides to destroy them with plague, famine, drought and finally a flood. However, each time Enki instructs one of the humans, Atrahasis, to survive the disasters. The god gives Atrahasis seven days warning of the flood, and he builds a boat, loads it with his possessions, animals and birds. He is subsequently saved while the rest of humankind is destroyed. However, the gods are unhappy as they no longer receive the offerings they used to. There is a gap in the text at this point but it does end with Atrahasis making an offering and Enlil accepting the existence and usefulness of humans.

Copies of this story have survived from the seventeenth to the seventh century BC showing that it was copied and re-copied over the centuries. This is the most complete version. There are clear similarities between this Flood story and others known in Mesopotamian literature, for example, the Epic of Gilgamesh. (BM)

Courtesy of & currently located at the British Museum, London, ME 78941. Photo taken by Popolon.

Neo-Assyrian Head of Pazuzu, Circa 8th-7th Century BC

Pazuzu was an Assyrian and Babylonian demonic god of the 1st millennium BC. He normally has a dog-like face like here, and where his body is depicted he has a scaly torso, a snake-headed penis, the talons of a bird and usually wings.

Although Pazuzu was a malevolent force, his image was used on amulets to ward off his enemy Lamashtu, a female demon that preyed on newborn babies and their mothers. The amulet was either worn by the mother or child and larger ones were placed above their bed on a wall.

His legend was adapted and used in The Exorcist films.

Both a cuneiform inscription and a map of the world. This Babylonian tablet shows (unsurprisingly) Babylon as the center of the world – the rectangle in the middle of the circle. Assyria, Elam and other places are also named. The central area is ringed by a circular waterway labelled ‘Salt-Sea’ with probably eight triangles labelled “region” or “island” with distances and vague, mythical descriptions.


Old Babylonian School Tablet: Wisdom and Math

This clay tablet from Ur, which would have been small enough to fit comfortably into the hand of a young scribe, has the typical round shape of a school tablet. On the obverse (top photo) is recorded a Sumerian proverb, which may have been intended to teach moral lessons to the students as well as help them practice writing, and on the reverse (bottom photo) is a mathematical calculation. Scribes would have had a diverse education to prepare them to compose and copy texts from a variety of genres, including mathematics and wisdom literature. (Source)

Old Babylonian, c. 1900-1600 BCE.

British Museum. Photo from CDLI.


Neo-Babylonian Chalcedony Cylinder Seal, c. 900-600 BC

The seal shows a priest of the god Dagon (aka Oannes) in a fish cape, holding a bucket and cone that’s used in a purifying sprinkling ritual. He is followed by a bearded worshiper raising one hand, facing a stylized Sacred Tree  or Tree of Life below a winged solar disc (representing the sun god Shamash) with  central and two side busts (possibly of Scorpion-men?), a crescent (representing the moon god Nanna/Sin), an eight-pointed star (representing the goddess Ishtar) and Seven dots in the sky (representing The Seven and the Pleiades).

The depiction on this seal of a priest wearing a fish cape is quite rare. It represents a priest of Dagon, the fish god, later known as Ichthys.  More…

Keep reading

Stone foundation tablet, limestone, 1849-1843 BC (Old Babylonian).

This tablet is plano-convex, with a cuneiform inscription of Sin-iddinam on two faces.

Inscription translation: 

Obverse: (For) Utu, / lord of justice of heaven and earth, / learned in decision, / the one who choses in favor of innocence, / the king of Ebabbar, / his king, / Sin-iddinam, / the shepherd who decorates everything / for Nippur, / the provider of Ur, / king of Larsa, / king of Sumer and Akkad, / the Ebabbar, / his beloved house,

Reverse: for the sake of his life, / he built (it) / For abundant distant days / he enlarged that dwelling place. / With the thing that he (Sin-iddinam) has done, / (may) Utu, / rejoice. / A life of sweet things / (and) bright days / as a reward, / may he (Utu) give to him (Sin-iddinam).

Courtesy & currently located at the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, USA. Accession Number: 41.222.


The Ishtar Gate was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon. It was constructed in about 575 BC by order of KingNebuchadnezzar II on the north side of the city.

Dedicated to the Babylonian goddess Ishtar, the gate was constructed using glazed brick with alternating rows of bas-relief mušḫuššu (dragons) and aurochs.

Originally the gate, being part of the Walls of Babylon, was considered one of the Seven Wonders of the world until it was replaced by the Lighthouse of Alexandria; in the 3rd century BC.

This photo was taken at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. A reconstruction of the Ishtar Gate and Processional Way was built in the Museum out of material excavated by Robert Koldewey and finished in the 1930s.

Photos taken with my Nikon D5000

Babylonian Bronze Four-Faced Statuette, Old Babylonian Period, 18th-17th Century BC

Possibly from the archaeological site of Ishchali (ancient Nêribtum) in Iraq.  Illicit diggers found this four-faced statuette, which may represent a god of the four winds. The god wears a low cap with a pair of horns meeting above each face. He carries a scimitar in his right hand and places his left foot upon the back of a crouching ram.

Mesopotamian religion had its roots in the worship of nature, such as the wind, water and animals. The forces of nature were originally worshipped as entities unto themselves. However over time, the human form became associated with these gods. In this example each face may represent each of the four winds. It is interesting to note that style of garment the figure is wearing is very similar to the manner in which the god Enki is commonly portrayed.