hey ten do you know any resources for learning tagalog? i was going to try doing it on duolingo but they don't seem to have it and the language sites i'm looking at are all really hard to navigate
OOO wow nice im glad!! :^) here’s some stuff i found
- Basic Tagalog - the site itself is pretty useful, includes a dictionary and i think there’s audio clips of some words for the pronunciation!
- Tagalog Grammar - in the site there’s one lesson for free (but i think you have to buy the rest :^( ) but in the grammar section it’s all free i think
- here’s also a youtube playlist for the basics (it’s not in order in the playlist though but there’s numbers indicated)
- Tagalog 101 - the website is a little eye-straining but in the sidebar you could start with the Basics under Phrases & Vocabulary
- if you need me to pronounce any words, just let me know!
notes from yours truly: (this got really long so i divided it into sections; also i havent spoken tagalog to other ppl aside from my parents so i might’ve forgotten stuff, i also dont know if any of these are already covered in the links above haha)
- tagalog is phonetic, and the words are read as it is written. exceptions are “ng” [nang] and “mga” [ma-nga]
in casual conversation:
- use only the formal “po”/”opo” when you’re speaking to actual old people, to teachers/authorities, to parents, etc. you dont have to use it to someone who are only a few years older than you
- there’s no “hello” in tagalog specifically, but there’s “hoy/oy” or “huy/uy” (read as it is written) which is not very polite to strangers and should be used with friends or if you’re like a leader of a group that wants to call attention etc. very informal.
- or you could just use “hi” or “hello”. that works
- the same with “sorry” and “bye”. there’s tagalog words for them but they’re too formal to be used in casual conversations (it’s “paumanhin” and “paalam”, respectively) sentence example: “ay, sorry!” usually said when you bump into someone. (pronounced “SOH-ree”)
- as for “bye” its usually more like “BAH-bye”
- restrooms/washrooms are called CR (as in CEE-are) which means comfort room (idk why its called comfort room though)
- swear words are usually derived from spanish, as in “puta” (a lot of them are misogynistic though) (if you want a list hmu)
- words like “mayroon”, “kailan” and others are usually shortened into “meron”, “kelan” and so on. (it means “(to) have” and “when”, respectively)
- phrases like “sa akin” are usually condensed so it’s “sakin” (since “sa” ends in “a” and “akin” ends in “a”, for easier flow in talking it’s condensed into one word, but still means the same: “mine”)
- "ayoko" ("i don’t want") is actually "ayaw ko" but again, for easier flow it’s condensed to that.
- a lot of other phrases/words are shortened for easier flow in talking but still mean the same
words to note, also borrowed words:
- pronouns are gender neutral, same with the word for “child/son/daughter” which is “anak” (which i like better than “child” because child is kind of. infantilizing, u feel?) and “sibling/sister/brother” is “kapatid”
- "anak" means the same thing in indonesian and malay (since these countries are pretty close to one another and really influenced the language)
- there’s no gender neutral versions for “aunt/uncle” but there is one for “nephew/niece” which is “pamangkin”
- a lot of words like “cake”, “computer”, “toothpaste” etc. dont have words for them in tagalog, it’s usually almost the same pronunciation, only more… hard or phonetic. “keyk”, “kompyuter”, “tutpeyst”.
- there’s also borrowed words from spanish like “berde” (Tagalog) - “verde” (Spanish) but there’s a pure tagalog word for green which is “luntian”
- the same is for blue which is “asul” (Tagalog) - “azul” (Spanish) and the pure tagalog word is “bughaw”
- "la mesa" is "table", just like in spanish. sometimes it’s just "mesa" though
- the national anthem is called “Lupang Hinirang” and not “Bayang Magiliw” this isnt really important but a lot of filipinos get confused since Bayang Magiliw is the first line of the song
- you don’t add an “s” to plurals like “kapatids” but instead you put the word “mga” (pronounced [ma-nga]) before the noun, as in “mga kapatid”
- "ang" is usually used as a particle in describing something, like "mainit ang ulo" [adjective] + ["ang"] + [noun being described] which means "hot-headed"
- this isn’t always the format, since it could also be “ulong mainit” where “-ng” is added at the end of “ulo” (which means head) and then the adjective. [noun + “-ng” or “-g”] + [adjective]. this only works for nouns ending in vowels and ‘n’
- there’s also the “na” format which is like “kapatid na babae” meaning “sibling that is a girl” or “sister”. [noun] + [“na”] + [adjective] is the format.
- these arent the only uses of “ang”, “na”, and “ng”. there are more. i think thats covered in one of the links above :^)
- sentence structures are usually “[object/predicate] + [verb] + [subject]” as in “Kumakain ako” which literally translates to “Eating I (am)”, or “I’m eating”. another example: “Ten ang pangalan ko.” which means “Ten (is) my name”. the verb “ay” (which usually means “is”) isn’t present in this sentence form (idk if there are any exceptions)
- that’s the most commonly used sentence structure, i think.
- it could also be the other way around: “Ako ay kumakain” which is “I am eating.” another example is “Ang pangalan ko ay Ten” which is literally “The name (of) me is Ten”, or “My name is Ten”.
- there’s other sentence structures but i cant think of any patterns right now
verb conjugation (woohoo!)
- conjugation mostly happens inside the word. for example, “kain” is “to eat” and kumakain is “eating”. these type of affixes are called infixes (which i recently learned in my linguistics class, Nice)
- so past tense is “kumain”, insert “-um-” after the first consonant. “kumanta” is “sang” (as in the past tense of sing), etc. for verbs starting in vowels you put the “um-” before the vowel as in “umulan” meaning “rained”
- the “-ing” form, or present progressive (i think?? :-0) is to put “-um-” after the first consonant, and the vowel after it, and then the verb itself. example is “kumakain = k (first consonant) + um + a (vowel after consonant) + kain (the verb itself)”. another example is “umuulan” or “raining”, “kumakanta” is “singing”
- it’s always “um” when the verb has no object. but when there is, the infix you add is “-in-“. the rules are the same, you just add “in” instead of “um”.
- sentence example: “ang kinakain ko ay tinapay” or “I am eating bread.” the bread or “tinapay” is the object of the sentence.
- for the “in” form of verb, you can also add “-an” at the end, or when the verb ends with a vowel it becomes “han”, as in “kinantahan = k + in + anta + han” (remember the past tense conjugation, only this time it’s with “in”. and we added an “-han” at the end), this means “sung [for someone]”
- this is usually used when it’s “with/for/[other prepositions] someone or something or someplace” as the object, and if it’s a deliberate action. it’s bolded because it’s what distinguishes it from other forms, like when you didnt do something on purpose.
- as for “um” though that’s the plain form i guess? idk how to explain
- so “kinantahan” in a sentence will be “Kinantahan niya ako.” meaning “They sang for me.” (this has romantic connotations)
- as for the “accidental action” (as opposed to the deliberate one) you remove the “in” infix and add the “na-” prefix. “nakain” = “accidentally ate”
- the accidental action is always in the past tense
OK that’s enough for now i think? this got really long i apologize but i hope you have fun learning tagalog!! :^) if you need more help please let me know! (i wish i still had my filipino notes or my old textbooks for this so i could’ve given more stuff omg..)