spinal-injuries

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Hundreds Protest Baltimore Police Over Death Of Freddie Gray

BALTIMORE – Hundreds of people took to the streets here on Saturday to demonstrate against police brutality and call for accountability for the police officers involved in the arrest of Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old who died April 19 as the result of a severe spinal injury that occurred when he was taken into custody a week earlier.
Charles Thomas stood outside his apartment in the Gilmor Homes on Saturday and watched as the crowd gathered. Thomas, 63, remembered Freddie as “quiet” and said he would hang out in the Homes to “cut the fool with the fellas.”

Read on for more details on the developing story here.

Police Admit Mistakes In Arrest And Death Of Man Who Was ‘Folded Like Origami’

Baltimore protesters plan to shut down the city Saturday with their biggest rally yet over the death of Freddie Gray, who went into a coma and died of a spinal injury last Sunday after being arrested by police. After daily protests and growing public outrage, the Baltimore police department admitted Friday that the officers made mistakes in their treatment of 25-year-old Gray.

anonymous asked:

What happened in baltimore if you dont mind me asking?

a man named freddie gray was arrested (the reason was unclear) and he was put into a squad car, something unknown happened and freddie came out with broken ribs and spinal cord injuries. he died from the spinal cord injuries but the officers involved have not given a clear explanation as to how he was injured in their captivity and they were suspended with pay. 

people were of course outraged by this and began peaceful protests since last week i believe and tonight the protests got out of hand.

certain individuals began destroying property downtown, throwing bricks and rocks at cars and businesses and destroying shops.

you can read more about it here

i am just so saddened that this violence has happened amongst the peaceful protests that has been happening.

2

My name is Angie. I’m a 20 year old bedbound woman with a spinal injury, facing imminent homelessness. I was evicted from my subsidised apartment on 22nd April and will need to pay unaffordable private rental in the coming 6 months.

My current rent is $280, which is $200/week higher than my previous subsidised rent.  Additionally weekly doctors’ appointments require patient transport of ~$1000 per round trip, and the specialist appointments can cost about $200. I  also have ongoing home nursing expenses ($240/week) due to my disability.

I currently have $1870 dollars in savings and will run out in 2 weeks. I am completely unable to sit/walk, so homelessness would be life threatening to me. 

Links: YouCaring & costs outline| PayPal | Image description | FAQs | Bank balance and outstanding accounts

Even small amounts will accumulate and will save my life.

8

UNARMED BLACK MAN KILLED IN POLICE CUSTODY

On April 12, Freddie Gray, healthy and whole, was arrested by the Baltimore Police.

According to his family and attorney Billy Murphy, when Freddie arrived at the hospital he had three broken vertebrae, his spinal cord was severed 80 percent, his voice box damaged, and his brain was swollen.

He died a week later from a “significant spinal injury”, police confirmed on Monday, while claiming it remained unknown how he was hurt. Chiefs said Gray appeared to have been injured while locked alone in a compartment of their transportation wagon.“When Mr Gray was put in that van, he could talk, he was upset. And when he was taken out of that van, he could not talk and he could not breathe,” deputy police commissioner Jerry Rodriguez said at a press conference.“It’s clear that what happened happened inside the van,” said mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake. “We don’t have any procedure that would have an officer riding in the back of the van with the suspect.”

The police thus far have refused to give any reasonable explanation of how Gray went from healthy to dead in their custody. New incident reports that were just released state that Gray “was arrested without force or incident” and that he “suffered a medical emergency” in the back of the police van after his arrest. However there was also a video taken of the arrest by a bystander which appears to show the police were lying because they did in fact use excessive amount of force to the point that you can see Freddie limping while being dragged to the police van.

Here’s the thing: spines don’t sever themselves.

So, whatever the case, the police report is grossly inaccurate. Either Gray suffered those catastrophic injuries during his arrest or he suffered them in the van.

We need answers.

Source / Source / Source / Video

Study Reveals Secret of Zebrafish: 

Scientists at Monash University in Australia have found how the zebrafish heals its spinal cord after injury.

The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a tropical fish belonging to the family Cyprinidae. This species is a popular aquarium fish and is also an important model organism in scientific research. It has the amazing ability to regenerate fins, skin, the heart and the brain.

A new study in the describes the role of a protein in the remarkable self-healing ability of the fish. The finding could eventually lead to ways to stimulate spinal cord regeneration in humans.

“When the spinal cord is severed in humans and other mammals, the immune system kicks in, activating specialized cells called glia to prevent bleeding into it,” explained study co-author Prof Peter Currie.

“Glia are the workmen of nervous system. The glia proliferate, forming bigger cells that span the wound site in order to prevent bleeding into it. They come in and try to sort out problems. A glial scar forms.”

However, the scar prevents axons, threadlike structures of nerve cells that carry impulses to the brain, of neighboring nerve cells from penetrating the wound. The result is paralysis.

“The axons upstream and downstream of the lesion sites are never able to penetrate the glial scar to reform. This is a major barrier in mammalian spinal cord regeneration,” Prof Currie said.

In contrast, the zebrafish glia form a bridge that spans the injury site but allow the penetration of axons into it. The fish can fully regenerate its spinal cord within two months of injury. “You can’t tell there’s been any wound at all,” Prof Currie said.

 Foetal stem cells repair spinal cord injury in rats

A study has been published showing how injecting foetal neural cells into the damaged spinal cords of rats led to a marked regeneration of the neural pathways.

According to a team from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and colleagues in the Czech Republic, the Netherlands and Slovakia, once cells extracted from the foetal spinal cord were grafted on to the damaged region, links between the injected cells and existing ones developed and debilitating muscle spasms subsided.

“The primary benefits were improvement in the positioning and control of paws during walking tests and suppression of muscle spasticity,” said Martin Marsala, a professor in UC San Diego’s department of Anesthesiology and coauthor on the paper, publishedin the Stem Cell Research and Therapy  journal online. “We have also demonstrated that grafted neurons can develop contacts with the host neurons and, to some extent, restore the connectivity between centres, above and below the injury, which are involved in motor and sensory processing.”

The rats were injured three days prior to treatment, with a circular rod used to compress the L3 vertebra for 15 minutes. Damage to the L3 is associated most commonly with herniated discs and is a hot spot for chronic back pain in humans. Mice that received the graft also received immunosuppressants for the duration (they died two months later, in a “planned sacrifice”) and the grafts were stained with immunofluorescence so it was clear where the original tissue began and ended. The subjects were then monitored for any improvements in movement — noting things like gait and ability to climb ladders — and frequency of muscle spasms during computer-controlled ankle rotations.

Although there wasn’t any improvement of note when it came to things like the ladder climbing test, muscle spasms did significantly subside, normal heat and pain sensitivities returned and the rats appeared to have better control over their paws. Perhaps more significantly, the team came away with physical evidence of the regeneration with MRI scans picking up the immunofluorescent stem cell grafts and showing how they had filled the hole in the spinal region left by the rod damage, with the “development of putative GABA-ergic synapses between grafted and host neurons”. 

Although the study provided significant results, the team ultimately wants to opt-out of using embryonic spinal stem cells. This is not because of the inevitable moral questions that arise from using foetal cells, but because in an ideal world we don’t want to be administering immunosuppressants — the only way of avoiding that is to use cells produced by our own bodies. This could be achieved by using pluripotent stem cells from patients, then turning them into neural precursors. Making sure these cells are stable enough to insert into a human spinal cord is key to the therapy being taken forward, but there are already plans to take the study up a notch with human trials involving patients with injuries between T2 and T12 that have no motor or sensory functions below the injury. It’s also already being done elsewhere in the world.

StemCells Inc has been using human neural stem cells derived from adult tissue — known as HuCNS-SC cells (an engineered cell devised by the company) — in small trials on patients suffering from severe spinal cord injuries. After six months, sensory functions had begun to return in two of the three patients involved in the trial, with those improvements persisting for the duration of the year-long trial.

“Between the six- and 12-month evaluations, one patient converted from a complete to an incomplete injury,” said Armin Curt, professor at the Spinal Cord Injury Centre at Balgrist University Hospital in Zurich, where the trial took place. “While much more clinical research needs to be done to demonstrate efficacy, the types of changes we are observing are unexpected and very encouraging given that these are patients in the chronic stage of complete spinal injury.”  

Unlike the rat study, the Zurich trial is not however a controlled clinical study and took in just those three patients. Nevertheless, the results are astounding and show great promise for using a patient’s own cells one day in the future.

Elsewhere this week, a team at the University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine has announced it has managed to induce improved muscle function in rats with a model of terminal motor neurone disease ALS, using adult stem cells from human bone marrow. The cells were once again engineered to fulfill a specific function — in this case the team wanted them to promote regrowth of damaged nerve cells and targeted the point where the nerve meets the muscle (where degeneration commonly begins). The cells would not become neurons, but release growth factors.

The procedure did not cure the animals of their affliction, but helped slow the disease’s progress and reinstate some muscle function. The team’s argument is that working with what you’ve got left is far easier than starting from scratch and regrowing complex structures using cells that are potentially unwieldy once injected.

“These motor nerve cells have extremely long connections, and replacing these cells is still challenging,” said Masatoshi Suzuki, assistant professor of comparative biosciences at UW. “But we aim to keep the neurons alive and healthy using the same growth factors that the body creates, and that’s what we have shown here.”

bbymurdock asked:

ok ok ok but what if azazel doesnt decide where he takes groups to when he worked for shaw, shaw did. so he assumed erik would pick by thinking of the place he wanted to take them to. but erik doesnt know that. so everyone's confused when they leave the beach and reappear at charles's mansion

Um, yes, YES. So they suddenly appear at the mansion and Erik is shocked and Raven is pretty much like wtf? And Erik turns to demand that Azazel take them somewhere else - a safehouse or really anywhere but here but Azazel just calmly replies, “This is where you wanted to go most, so this is where we came.” Erik goes a bit pale at the revelation, and he’s determined to do it right this time, so he makes everyone link hands again. He notices Raven glancing back repeatedly at the mansion, and then Erik’s eyes catch on the satellite in the distance and…

Azazel asks him if he’s ready and Erik says yes, and they appear back on the beach, startling everyone who’s crowded around Charles. Erik throws off the helmet and drops to his knees beside Charles and says, “We don’t have to agree on everything, but I want you by my side.” And this time, because Charles can see Erik’s mind, Charles gets it. Erik’s not asking Charles to kill all humans, or even kill anyone, Erik just wants to know that he has a place to be, someone he can always come back to, and Charles is willing to provide that, though they’ll no doubt butt heads constantly. 

Charles sends his answer straight into Erik’s mind. He’s upset and confused and a little betrayed but Erik is here, Erik came back, and that’s good enough for now. Erik lifts Charles like he’s the most precious cargo in the world, and this time, when they disappear from the beach, they all disappear together.

“Enough is enough!” hundreds of people chanted over and over in Baltimore last night, at a rally for Freddie Gray, a young black man who died in police custody earlier this month. A federal civil rights inquiry was launched Tuesday.

“We’ve had some other problems with African-Americans dying in police custody and at the hands of police officers here in Baltimore city,” says Leonard Hamm, a former commissioner of the Baltimore Police Department who served from 2004-2007.

Talking with NPR’s David Greene, Hamm cites a “disconnect” between the police and the community. And he said that the city has to work to close that gap.

‘Sliver Of Hope’ In Freddie Gray Case, Former Baltimore Police Chief Says

Photo credit: Drew Angerer/Getty Images

Caption: Protesters rally after a march for Freddie Gray that ended in front of the Baltimore Police Department’s Western District police station Tuesday. Gray, 25, died from spinal injuries on April 19, one week after being arrested.

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Cortex - 5 Seconds

Ofta är det lätt att glömma att Freddie Wadling inte alltid varit en liten krökt trollgubbe. Det är som att hela hans sätt att vara och tala numera hör hemma i hans sentida Edgar Allan Poe-spökkaraktär på ett kusligt passande vis. Och denna karaktär passar till den förhållandevis tillbakalutade musiken han primärt ägnar sig åt idag. Men en gång i världen gjorde han legendariskt häftig post-punk i bandet Cortex. De är typexemplet på ett band som jag inte så ofta lyssnar på, men varje gång jag gör så undrar jag varför jag inte alltid gör. Jag har varit så less på allt vad post-punk heter det senaste året att jag trodde att jag aldrig någonsin skulle känna något för en sådan akt igen. Men så kom jag ihåg denna dänga häromdagen. Ack underbara synthslingor! Ah, tralligheten! Basen! Åh Freddies ljuva ungdom!

/E

U.S. Justice Department Opens Investigation Into Baltimore Police Custody Death of Man Freddie Gray

U.S. Justice Department Opens Investigation Into Baltimore Police Custody Death of Man Freddie Gray

© Provided by Associated Press Batts, center, speaks to the media at a news conference on the death of Freddie Gray with Deputy Commissioner Jerry Rodriguez, left, and Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake in Baltimore, Monday, April 20, 2015…

The Justice Department said Tuesday it has opened an investigation into the death of a Freddie Gray, a black man who died of spinal injuries he suffered during an…

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What Can Brain-Controlled Prosthetics Tell Us About The Brain?

The ceremonial opening kick of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Sao Paolo, Brazil, which was performed—with the help of a brain-controlled exo-skeleton—by a local teen who had been paralyzed from the waste down due to a spinal cord injury, was a seminal moment for the area of neuroscience that strives to connect the brain with functional prosthetics. The public display was a representative of thousands of such neuroprosthetic advances in recent years, and the tens of years of brain research and technological development that have gone into them. And while this display was quite an achievement in its own right, a Drexel University biomedical engineer working at the leading edge of the field contends that these devices are also opening a new portal for researchers to understand how the brain functions.

Karen Moxon, PhD, a professor in Drexel’s School of Biomedical Engineering Science and Health Systems, was a postdoctoral researcher in Drexel’s medical school when she participated in the first study ever to examine how the brain could be connected to operate a prosthetic limb. More than 15 years after that neuroscience benchmark, Moxon’s lab is showing that it’s now possible to glean new insight about how the brain stores and accesses information, and into the causes of pathologies like epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease.

In a perspective published in the latest edition of the neuroscience journal Neuron Moxon and her colleague, Guglielmo Foffani from San Pablo University in Spain, build a framework for how researchers can use neuroprosthetics as a tool for examining how and where the brain encodes new information. The duo highlights three examples from their own research where the brain-machine-interface technology allowed them to isolate and study new areas of brain function.

“We believe neuroprosthetics can be a powerful tool to address fundamental questions of neuroscience,” Moxon said. “These subjects can provide valuable data as indirect observers of their own neural activity that are modulated during the experiments they are taking part in. This allows researchers to pinpoint a causal relationship between neural activity and the subject’s behavior rather than one that is indirectly correlative.”

The challenge faced by all scientists who study the brain is proving a direct relationship between the action of the subject and the behavior of brain cells. Each experiment is designed to chisel away at the uncertainty in this relationship with the goal of establishing causality—proof that the behavior of neurons in the brain is actually what is causing a subject to perform a certain action. Or, conversely, that a certain neural behavior is the direct result of an external stimulus.

Neuroprosthetics, according to Moxon, could be the way around this obstacle. This is because the prosthetic, as a stand-in for an actual body part or set of them, is also a vehicle for getting real-time feedback from the brain.

“Subjects can be viewed as indirect observers of their own neurophysiological activity during neuroprosthetic experiments,” Moxon said. “To move the prosthesis they must think both about the motor functions involved and the goal of the movement. As they see the movement of the prosthetic their brain adjusts in real time to continue planning the movement, but doing it without the normal feedback from the moving body part—as the prosthetic technology is standing in for that part of the body.”

This separation of planning and movement control was pivotal to Moxon’s research on how the brain encodes for the passage of time, which she recently reported in the Journal of Neuroscience. But this is just one example of how brain-machine-interface technology can be used to experimentally tease out and observe new certainties about the brain.

Moxon, who was recently elected a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineers, suggests that in addition to the study of how neurons encode and decode information in real time, incorporating neuroprosthetics into experiments could also show how this coding process changes with learning and is altered in pathological conditions like the ones that cause epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease.

“While the past 15 years have witnessed tremendous advancements in neuroprosthetic technology and our basic understanding of brain function, the brain-machine-interface approach is still expanding the landscape of neuroscienctific inquiry,” Moxon said. “By circumventing classical object-observer duality, the BMI research paradigm opens doors for a new understanding of how we control our own brain function including neural plasticity—and this has the potential to lead to new treatments and therapies for epilepsy, Parkinson’s and other pathologies.”

Few Details Revealed About Baltimore Man Who Died After Spine as Reportedly Severed in Police Custody

Few Details Revealed About Baltimore Man Who Died After Spine as Reportedly Severed in Police Custody

© Provided by Associated Press Gray, 25, of Baltimore, died Sunday at a hospital, a week after he was hurt following an arrest. (Algerina Perna/The Baltimore Sun via AP) WASHINGTON EXAMINER OUT

Relatives, activists and even Baltimore city officials have more questions than answers about what happened to Freddie Gray, a 25-year-old man who died one week after he was rushed to the hospital with…

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Spinal injuries are among the most disabling conditions affecting wounded members of the U.S. military. Yet until recently, the nature of those injuries had not been adequately explored.

 

In a new study recently published in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS), a team of orthopaedic surgeonsreviewed more than eight years of data on back, spinal column, and spinal cord injuries sustained by American military personnel while serving in Iraq or Afghanistan. The injuries were then categorized according to anatomic location, neurological involvement, the cause of the injury, and accompanying wounds.

 

The resulting analysis is an important first step in helping orthopaedic surgeons develop treatment plans for these service members, as well as for severely injured civilians who sustain similar disabling injuries.