Pictures from the liberation in 1945. Slandering, humiliation and shaming of people (mostly women) whom were accused and thought of as having been collaborationist with the German occupational forces was a quite widespread phenomenon after the war. The big photograph is from Marseille, France, where it was not at all uncommon for women to be forcefully shaven and paraded through the streets as a means of public disgrace to demonstrate the public resentment towards their collaborationist past (many of whom were probably innocent or just collaborating out of fear for their life). The second photograph is from a similar event in Milan, Italy. Notice the "M" in her forehead, for Mussolini. The third girl was claimed to have been involved in sexual relations with a German officer; something she was humiliated, and ultimately killed, for. It is a grievous reminder of the primitive bestiality and ruthlessness of human collective psychology.

anonymous said:

I don't get trans guys like you, always bashing on other trans guys while glorifying MTFs... But they're just a mean and discriminatory toward trans men as you claim trans guys are toward them, and they're always claiming we "don't really understand what it's like to transition" or whatever, but we do. It's fucked up and sexist (yeah, sexist) of you to claim that trans men somehow have it easier than trans women.

Anon, welcome to the wonderful world of having adopted Male Privilege. See, the statement you made about us having it “just as hard” as trans women is a statement coming from a place of privilege. You don’t know how difficult it is for trans women to transition, so don’t make grand statements to the contrary. Stating something as a fact does not make it so.

To explain where your statement goes astray, let me paint a picture: as we grow up and evolve and learn and shape ourselves based on the world around us, we are bombarded constantly with how things are “supposed to be.” Trans men are no stranger to that. We are read fairytales in which a weak, helpless woman in distress is rescued from a dragon/tower/evil scientist/evil stepmother/whatever by some dude, be it a warrior prince or a knight in shiny white armor or an adventurer or whatever. The end result of every one of those stories is the same: kids learn from a young age that women are inferior to men, that they need protection and guidance and the safety of a man. That’s just the beginning. You throw in TV dramas and giant billboard advertisements with airbrushed supermodels and see-through lingerie, teen magazines and news stories, and you’ll find the same underlying message of sexism (real sexism, not the kind you claim I harbor toward my brothers) and misogyny.

So while you grew up thinking “I’m a man,” and being constantly told from birth how men have it better, are stronger, smarter, more capable of going into the maths and sciences and law enforcement and the medical field and manual labor and literally any other field you can think of (except those “lesser” fields like housekeeping, nursing, teaching…. Those fields deemed “appropriate” for women and simultaneously made to be seen as inferior professions), trans women were bombarded with the “suck it up and be a man” mentality. They were told that being feminine and displaying any non-masculine characteristics was considered less-than, that it’s a privilege to be a man, and why would you ever want to lower your standing to that of a woman when you have the power and privilege of being male?

I’m not saying the struggle to transition lies with trans women alone. We all struggle, every one of our journeys is different and difficult and strenuous. I’m saying that, regardless of race, ethnicity, disability, age, creed, religion, etc., trans women have had to claw through layers of misogyny to even be able to get to a place where they could come out openly, whereas trans men are climbing the proverbial patriarchal hierarchy and end up sitting on a pretty male-privilege pedestal at the end.

*please keep in mind that this doesn’t even scratch the surface of this topic. And I would be remiss if I did not at least add that trans women of color have it harder than anyone else in the trans community (please feel free to argue with me, I have so many statistics to back that up it is literally not funny), and the more intersectional points of oppression an individual has in their life, the harder their struggle is going to be

Men, of course, aren’t the only ones who can be personally sexist. Certainly, some women dislike men, judge them on the basis of stereotypes, hold prejudiced attitudes toward them, objectify them sexually, consider them inferior, and even discriminate against them socially or professionally. We must keep in mind, though, that male sexism occupies a very different place in society from female sexism. The historical balance of power in patriarchal societies has allowed men as a group to subordinate women socially and sometimes legally to protect male interests and privileges. Because men dominate society, their sexism has more cultural legitimacy, is more likely to be reflected in social institutions, and has more serious consequences than women’s sexism.

David M. Newman

(“Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life” 9th Ed.)

People who dismiss the unemployed and dependent as ‘parasites’ fail to understand economics and parasitism. A successful parasite is one that is not recognized by its host, one that can make its host work for it without appearing as a burden. Such is the ruling class in a capitalist society.
—  Jason Read
The United States has more people in prison than any other country and incarcerates people at a higher rate than at any other time in history. Our crime rate, however, is not higher than in other countries or than it has been historically. Why, then, are so many Americans behind bars? The answer lies in the United States’ use of mass incarceration as a strategy to reduce crime, particularly to fight illicit drug use. Yet mass incarceration has not been effective at reducing crime and illicit drug use. It has, however, destroyed families and communities and has exacerbated racial inequality in that the primary victims of intensified law enforcement have been people of color.
Here’s the problem: Soccer is enjoyed by people who inhabit the United States, but because many of those people may be first or second generation immigrants, and in many cases many not speak English or have English as a primary language, it’s not culturally relevant to include in debates about the popularity of sport. Close to 5 million people in the US watched the Liga MX (Mexican soccer league) final between Leon and Pachuca, a number that compares favorably with the ratings for MLB playoff games, but it’s irrelevant because either it was watched in Spanish or watched by Spanish-speakers, I’m not sure which.
So if a person on US soil watches a game in Spanish, are they a foreigner? Are they tuning in to a sport broadcast in a foreign language and that’s what makes it foreign? This narrative of a “big four” underscores a troubling assumption. A sport is only truly “popular” in the United States if English-speaking, native born people follow it. When they do, then we can call it an “American sport.” I’d argue that there is a deep cultural marginalization going on when the preferred sport of the largest-minority ethnic group in the United States is viewed as marginal because it’s not viewed by “the wrong people.” To say people don’t follow soccer in the United States is a veiled way of saying that it’s not viewed by people that matter.

The sexual exploitation of women is especially predominant in advertising, which is impossible to escape because ads are omnipresent. Thin, barely clothed bodies appear in magazines and on the backs of buses. Intimate close-up shots of smoky bedroom eyes belonging to a woman wearing only lace negligee stare down at passerby from high billboards. Pelvic shots and chiseled bodies come through the television and the computer. They are in every clothing store and adorn the pages of weekly sales circulars.

The mechanism used in these ads is quite simple: Attractive bodies are employed to grab attention and simulate desire, which advertisers hope will then be transferred to the product. Buy the beer, get the girl. In this way, women’s bodies are equated with commodities, presented as rewards of consumption. By instructing men to regard women’s bodies as objects, ads help create an atmosphere that devalues women as people, encourages sexual harassment, and worse (Jacobson and Mazur 1995:84).

Often times the women portrayed in these ads are not even whole. The pictures show only legs, torsos, or an open mouth with rouge lip color provocatively placed atop a glass bottle. This reduces women to collections of parts, something less than human. This objectification and sexploitation has changed the rules of society and along with it the attitudes of men and women have changed.

Just as simple films relying on crude jokes and violence are perfect for the global marketplace, since they require little translation, so is advertising that relies entirely on image. Bare breasts and phallic symbols are understood everywhere. As are the nude female buttocks featured in the Italian and German ads for similar worthless products to remedy the imaginary problem of cellulite. Unfortunately, such powerful imagery of[ten] pollutes the cultural environment (Kilbourne 1999:72).

"If biology were the principle factor in human behavior, all around the world we would find women behaving in one way and men in another. Men and women would be just like male spiders and female spiders, whose genes tell them what to do. In fact, however, ideas of gender vary greatly from one culture to another-and as a result, so do male-female behaviors."

-James M. Henslin from Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach

Whereas racism relies on the belief that some races are better than others, colorism is the idea that, within races, lighter is better. Whereas racism is based on the worldview that the people of the world can be divided into discrete categories and judged on that basis, colorism gives differential value to people in the same racial group, based on a continuum from light to dark.

Tanya Golash-Boza on Skin-tone Stratification and Colorism in Race and Racisms: A Critical Approach.

I liked one of my cousin’s updates, which he had re-shared from Joe Kennedy, and was subsequently beseiged with Kennedys to like (plus a Clinton and a Shriver). I liked Hootsuite. I liked The New York Times, I liked Coupon Clipinista. I liked something from a friend I haven’t spoken to in 20 years—something about her kid, camp and a snake. I liked Amazon. I liked fucking Kohl’s. I liked Kohl’s for you.

My News Feed took on an entirely new character in a surprisingly short amount of time. After checking in and liking a bunch of stuff over the course of an hour, there were no human beings in my feed anymore. It became about brands and messaging, rather than humans with messages.

MORE: I Liked Everything I Saw on Facebook for Two Days. Here’s What It Did to Me

A New Tool for Analyzing Cultural Mobility

A dataset on the birth and death locations of distinguished individuals over 2,000 years is providing insights into cultural mobility, a new study reports. To better understand the spread of disease, the rise of conflict, and the evolution of cities, researchers have needed a way to quantitatively analyze the impact of individual historical developments on societal practices. They used the migration patterns of more than 150,000 notable individuals, as represented by their birth and death locations, and suggest that the consistent global patterns uncovered with their framework will help provide guidance with respect to predicting growth, size and distance distributions going forward, as well as better interpreting of cultural phenomena.

Read more about this research in the 1 August 2014 issue of Science here.

[Image courtesy of Maximilian Schich & Mauro Martino, 2014. Please click here for more information.]

© 2014 American Association for the Advancement of Science. All Rights Reserved.

Music tells us things — social things, psychological things, physical things about how we feel and perceive our bodies — in a way that other art forms can’t. It’s sometimes in the words, but just as often the content comes from a combination of sounds, rhythms, and vocal textures that communicate, as has been said by others, in ways that bypass the reasoning centers of the brain and go straight to our emotions. Music, and I’m not even talking about the lyrics here, tells us how other people view the world — people we have never met, sometimes people who are no longer alive — and it tells it in a non-descriptive way. Music embodies the way those people think and feel: we enter into new worlds — their worlds — and though our perception of those worlds might not be 100 accurate, encountering them can be completely transformative.
—  David Byrne, How Music Works, 2012

Pereira observed both boys and girls regulating their behavior in potentially harmful ways in order to adhere to gender norms. For instance, even girls who enjoyed sports often avoided physical activity at school because they assumed it wouldn’t be a feminine thing to do, they worried they might look unattractive while running, or they were mocked by their male peers for not being good enough. The girls also put themselves on diets because they believed desirable women have to be skinny.

“All of the girls were within very healthy weights, but they were all restricting their intake of food in some way. So what we’re really talking about here is 14-year-old girls, whose bodies are changing and developing, depriving themselves at every meal,” Pereira said. “In the extreme, that can lead to things like eating disorders. But even for the women who don’t reach the extreme, it can be very unhealthy for them.”

Meanwhile, the male participants in the study all faced intense pressure to demonstrate the extent of their manliness, which led to what Pereira calls “everyday low-level violence”: slapping and hitting each other, as well as inflicting pain on other boys’ genitals. They were encouraged to physically fight each other if they were ever mocked or offended. They felt like they had to drink unhealthy amounts of alcohol because that’s what a man would do. And they were under certain mental health strains, too; struggling with anxiety about proving themselves and suppressing their feelings, all while lacking a strong emotional support system.