retinoic-acid

Exploring Embryonic Development

Think about the way our bodies are assembled during early development and ask: How do neighboring cells know that they are supposed to become a nerve or a bone cell and how do these tissues find the correct place and alignment? Researchers at the University of Miami are answering these crucial questions.

In a new study, UM researchers describe the signaling systems that tissues use to communicate with their surrounding neighbors, at the head-trunk region. Their discovery may have important implications for the treatment of congenital defects like Spina Bifida and Chiari malformations.

“Our work describes a network of tissue communication events that ensure that the brain stays in the skull and the spinal cord in the spinal column,” said Isaac Skromne, assistant professor of Biology in the UM College of Arts and Sciences and principal investigator of the study.

The findings are published in the November issue of the journal Development in a study entitled “Retinoic acid regulates size, pattern and alignment of tissues at the head-trunk transition.”

The current study reports two major findings. First, it reveals that cells at the head-trunk junction communicate with each other not only to convey information on the type of tissue they will become, but also their location. Second, the study finds that signaling the identity and location of the tissues are separate events.

Previous work focused on understanding how tissues acquire their identity, without taking into consideration neighboring tissues.

“That is like knowing the size of each plot of land in a city block, without knowing the addresses,” Skromne said. “Now we know the addresses as well, and we show that each plot can take different addresses, potentially changing their relationship to the neighboring plots.”

For the study, the researchers analyzed zebrafish embryos, knowing that the findings about the development of this organism would be applicable to other vertebrates, said Keun Lee, first author of the paper and a medical student at the UM Miller School of Medicine. Lee carried out the study when he was an undergraduate student working in Skromne’s lab.

“We were hoping to understand the earliest mechanism of organizing nerve and bone-forming tissues in zebrafish embryos, because neuroskeletal malformation in newborn babies could severely compromise function,” Lee said. “Knowing the mechanism of the malformation in the zebrafish model would help develop interventions to prevent those defects in humans.”

The findings show that the coordination of brain and nerve tissue at the head-trunk transition in the zebrafish depends on two activities of a signaling molecule called retinoic acid. One activity specifies the size and the other the axial position of the hindbrain territory. In the future, the researchers would like to gain understanding of the type of information these signals carry.

“Now that we have the big picture of how the tissues are coordinated to form the neuroskeletal system at the head-trunk transition, we would like to know how tissue-specific genes are regulated,” Lee said.

The researchers hope that their findings will lead to the development of therapies that target these signaling networks, to prevent abnormalities on the head-trunk junction.

Retinoic acid gradient visualized for the first time in an embryo

Researchers from the RIKEN Brain Science Institute in Japan report a new technique that allows them to visualize the distribution of retinoic acid in a live zebrafish embryo, in real-time. This technique enabled them to observe two concentration gradients going in opposing directions along the head-to-tail axis of the embryo, thus providing long-awaited evidence that retinoic acid is a morphogen.

A morphogen is a substance governing the pattern of tissue development in the process of morphogenesis, and the positions of the various specialized cell types within a tissue.

Since morphogens diffuse through the tissues of an embryo during early development, concentration gradients are set up. These gradients drive the process of differentiation of unspecialised (stem) cells into different cell types, ultimately forming all the tissues and organs of the body.

STRECTH-X: Tretinoin 0.1%

I’ve mentioned in my previous post that stretchmarks are quite difficult to treat. There are numerous products that claim to reduce and diminish stretchmarks, but the one product that I’ve had good experience with is this good old tretinoin.

This tretinoin 0.1% formulation is quite potent. Not all dermatologists carry this product. In my readings, though, this is one topical medication that effects some improvement on stretchmarks. 

As you may recall, tretinoin or retinoic acid is a derivative of vitamin A. As an anti-aging treatment, tretinoin works by increasing the activity of skin cells and decreasing their cell-to-cell cohesion, thereby providing a mild exfoliating action. This results in a smoother and younger complexion. On stretchmarks, however, the mechanism of action is yet to be elucidated. (If you want to read more about tretinoin as an anti-aging treatment, read HERE.)

Based on my experience, my post-pregnancy abdominal and thigh stretchmarks improved in size and texture after using tretinoin 0.1% cream (and lotion) after 6 months. A word of caution: after a week of using tretinoin, my abdomen itched like crazy!!! And it started some mild peeling action too. I stopped treatment for a week, then when I resumed, I applied a moisturizer on top of the tretinoin. 

Overall, I’m happy that there was some improvement, but it did not completely erase the stretchmarks. There are several procedures that are said to reduce the stretchmarks, and I’ll blog about that soon.

If you want to know more about stretchmarks, click HERE.

Researchers engineer a 'cancer differentiation therapy' for leukemia.

Researchers engineer a ‘cancer differentiation therapy’ for leukemia. Thoughts health innovators?

Researchers at the Stanford University have discovered that when a certain aggressive leukemia is causing havoc in the body, the solution may be to force the cancer cells to grow up and behave.  After a chance observation in the lab, the researchers found a method that can cause dangerous leukemia cells to mature into harmless immune cells known as macrophages.  The study is published in the Proc…

View On WordPress

Type 2 Diabetes and Its Complications Can Be Prevented By Retinoic Acid

Type 2 Diabetes and Its Complications Can Be Prevented By Retinoic Acid

What Is Retinoic Acid?

Retinoid acidis a Vitamin A derivative that has various functions in the body such as the growth and maintenance of body cells and tissues. This is why all-trans retinoic acid is being manufactured in laboratories and is being used as a topical solution to treat various skin conditions such as acne; it can also be taken orally to treat certain conditions such as acute…

View On WordPress

These in vivo human results indicate that all three treatments tested are effective keratolytics, which may account to some degree for their effectiveness against acne vulgaris.

Furthermore, based on the stratified analysis of tape stripping, it appears that SA may be preferable for treating mild, superficial acne while BPO may be better suited for deeper, inflammatory acne lesions. The ability of BPO to loosen the SC at deeper levels complements its antimicrobial properties, resulting in an effective anti-inflammatory agent for papulopustular acne.

Additionally, BPO appears to be effective even with short-term administration. RA showed inferior SC disruption at 3 hr but significant disruption at 6 hr, indicating time-dependent keratolytic effects, consistent with its well-studied interaction with nuclear receptors and alteration of gene transcription.

ADDICTED to Tretinoin

If there is one nightly topical regimen that I must, must apply, it is this! I am addicted to tretinoin 0.05% cream. 

Tretinoin, topical retinoic acid, is a derivative of vitamin A. It is often said to be the gold standard in anti-aging medicines and is a typical mainstay of acne treatments. Tretinoin works by increasing the activity of skin cells and decreasing their cell-to-cell cohesion, thereby providing a mild exfoliating action. This results in extrusion of black/whiteheads, smoother and younger complexion.

During the first 4 to 6 weeks of treatment, your black/whiteheads and acne may increase. This is because tretinoin is working to lift up the deep-seated impurities in the skin. So don’t fret and don’t stop the treatment. (Many people are often discouraged because of this effect.) It’s best to wait for at least 6 weeks before passing judgement on the efficacy of the medication. However, if you develop redness, rash and itch, visit your dermatologist ASAP!

Words of caution on using tretinoin: Always use sun protection! Tretinoin makes your skin thinner and also reacts with sunlight making your skin more prone to painful sunburn. Always ask your dermatologist before combining any other topical treatment! Tretinoin may also cause dryness of the skin, and other medications may aggravate this. And lastly, do not use tretinoin when you are pregnant or suspect to be pregnant. Although topical in nature, oral tretinoin is a teratogenic drug, and it’s best to stay on the safe side.

Going back to my experience, I first used a lower potency of tretinoin (0.025%) when I started making it a nightly regimen some years ago. I gradually increased the potency to 0.05%. (There is even a 1% potency, but will cause your skin to dry and itch so much!!!) Í also started with a solution-based retinoic acid, but it dried my skin too much, so I switched to a cream-based medication. For about 2 to 3 weeks, I saw evident flaking and peeling of my skin and a bit of chapping on my lips. Afterwards, my skin adjusted to the treatment, and I have been using it (cream-based) religiously ever since. I use it on my face and neck. Well, I also use other products at night aside from tretinoin, but I’ll get to that at a later post.

I wear a broad spectrum sunscreen every morning! I am currently using Hamilton Quadblock SPF110, because the summer sun and heat is scorching!!! I am also very cautious about using a parasol/umbrella whenever I have to walk under the sun. I have experienced a painful burn when I started using tretinoin when I was still in college. But that was entirely my fault :( I used it without prescription and advise from a dermatologist, so I ended up with a sunburn. Ouch!

The first tretinoin cream I have ever used is Retin-A. As I said, I didn’t use it right. The next product I’ve tried is Galderma Retacnyl. I used for months, and it made my shallow face scars hardly visible. My skin became smoother. Then I tried Avene Ystheal+ Emulsion Lotion. It has a very fine consistency, and I truly fell in love with this product. However, it is quite pricey. Right now, I am using my clinic’s tretinoin cream. Well, I have been using it for quite sometime now, and I am addicted to it! It’s easy on the pocket, and works beautifully.

NPM-RAR binding to TRADD selectively inhibits caspase activation, while allowing activation of NFκB and JNK.

NPM-RAR binding to TRADD selectively inhibits caspase activation, while allowing activation of NFκB and JNK.

Leuk Lymphoma. 2015 Mar 19;:1-18

Authors: Chattopadhyay A, Abecassis I, Redner RL

Abstract
The t(5;17) variant of acute promeylocytic leukemia (APL) expresses a fusion of nucleophosmin (NPM) with the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA). We have previously shown that NPM-RAR is a binding partner of the tumor necrosis factor receptor type-I -associated DEATH domain protein TRADD. Binding of TNF to its receptor, TNFR1, induces recruitment of TRADD, and subsequent recruitment of a cascade of proteins that ultimate activate caspase 3, NFκB , and JNK. We have previously shown that NPM-RAR interaction with TRADD blocks TNF activation of caspase 3, caspase 8, PARP cleavage, and ultimately, apoptosis. We now report that NPM-RAR expression is permissive for TNF activation of NFκB and JNK. We propose that inhibition of TNF activation of apoptosis, while preserving TNF activation of NFκB and JNK pathways that stimulate cell growth and survival, represents a novel mechanism through which NPM-RAR contributes to development of the leukemic phenotype.

PMID: 25791120 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



via pubmed: lymphoma daily http://ift.tt/1HdNxwr

🎉🎉มาแล้ววว🎉🎉 ผลการยื่นตรวจสารอันตราย&สารต้องห้ามในเครื่องสำอางกับกรมวิทยาศาสตร์การแพทย์ #ช้าแต่ชัวร์เพื่อให้ลูกค้าเรามั่นใจว่าQueenBไร้สารอันตรายและปลอดภัยต่อผิวพรรณแน่นอน100%
❌No Hydroquinone
❌ปราศจากสารไฮโดรควิโนน
❌No Mercury
❌ปราศจากสารปรอท
❌No Retinoic Acid
❌ปราศจากกรดวิตามินA
👑QueenB👑 Absolute Brightening Treatment Mask อ่อนโยนต่อทุกสภาพผิวและสามารถใช้ได้ทุกเพศทุกวัยแม้แต่คุณแม่ตั้งครรภ์ก็ใช้ได้ไม่มีปัญหาแน่นอนค่ะ
______________________________________
👑 QueenB 👑
“The Queen Of Beauty”
#QueenB_skincare (at 👑✨ Line: queenbofficial ✨👑)

IJMS, Vol. 16, Pages 6235-6250: Abortive Infection of Snakehead Fish Vesiculovirus in ZF4 Cells Was Associated with the RLRs Pathway Activation by Viral Replicative Intermediates

Snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV) is a negative strand #RNA virus which can cause great economic losses in fish culture. To facilitate the study of SHVV-host interactions, the susceptibility of zebrafish embryonic fibroblast cell line (ZF4) to the SHVV was investigated in this report. The results showed that high amount of viral #mRNAs and c#RNAs were detected at the 3 h post-infection. However, the expressions of the viral #mRNAs and c#RNA were decreased dramatically after 6 h post-infection. In addition, the expressions of interferon (IFN) and interferon-induced GTP-binding protein Mx were all up regulated significantly at the late stage of the infection. Meanwhile, the expressions of Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) were also all up-regulated significantly during the infection. Two isoforms of DrLGP2 from zebrafish were also cloned and analyzed. Interestingly, the expression of DrLGP2a but not DrLGP2b was significantly up-regulated at both #mRNA and protein levels, indicating that the two DrLGP2 isoforms might play different roles during the SHVV infection. Transfection experiment showed that viral replicative intermediates were required for the activation of IFN-α expression. Taken together, the abortive infection of SHVV in ZF4 cells was associated with the activation of RLRs pathway, which was activated by viral replicative intermediates. http://bit.ly/1Bx4op8 #MDPI

🎉🎉มาแล้ววว🎉🎉 ผลการยื่นตรวจสารอันตราย&สารต้องห้ามในเครื่องสำอางกับกรมวิทยาศาสตร์การแพทย์ #ช้าแต่ชัวร์เพื่อให้ลูกค้าเรามั่นใจว่าQueenBไร้สารอันตรายและปลอดภัยต่อผิวพรรณแน่นอน100%
❌No Hydroquinone
❌ปราศจากสารไฮโดรควิโนน
❌No Mercury
❌ปราศจากสารปรอท
❌No Retinoic Acid
❌ปราศจากกรดวิตามินA
👑QueenB👑 Absolute Brightening Treatment Mask อ่อนโยนต่อทุกสภาพผิวและสามารถใช้ได้ทุกเพศทุกวัยแม้แต่คุณแม่ตั้งครรภ์ก็ใช้ได้ไม่มีปัญหาแน่นอนค่ะ
______________________________________
👑 QueenB 👑
“The Queen Of Beauty”
#QueenB_skincare (at 👑✨ Line: queenbofficial ✨👑)