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Marie Curie

Marie Skłodowska-Curie (7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person (and only woman) to win twice, the only person to win twice in multiple sciences, and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris. She was born Maria Salomea Skłodowska in Warsaw, in what was then the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw’s clandestine Floating University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with physicist Henri Becquerel. She won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Her achievements included a theory of radioactivity (a term that she coined), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world’s first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I, she established the first military field radiological centres. Curie died in 1934 at the sanatorium of Sancellemoz (Haute-Savoie), France, due to aplastic anemia brought on by exposure to radiation – including carrying test tubes of radium in her pockets during research and her World War I service in mobile X-ray units created by her.

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Bay area nuclear plant elevating childhood cancer and Obama approved of us spending a new trillion dollars of tax money to make more nuclear weapons. Couldn’t they just cancel student debt and provide free college and healthcare for all instead?

[501] Published on Dec 17, 2014

Abby Martin Breaks the Set on Chelsea Manning’s Birthday, US-Cuba Breakthrough, Cameras on Cops, Nuclear Weapon Insanity & Cleaning Up Fukushima.

500 #Million Year Old #Vase Found In #Massachusetts #CoalMine: Nowadays, finding a strange #artifact in coal is a relatively #frequent occurrence. The first #discovery of this sort was made in #1851 when the workers in one of the Massachusetts mines #extracted a #zinc #silver-incrusted vase from a block of #coal, which dated all the way back to the #Cambrian era, which was approximately 500 million years ago. We have been here for #millions of years. #MacroEvolution does #not exist. Humans were created. Evolutionists will never find the missing link because there isn’t one. Carbon14 dating can only approximate ages back to about 50,000 years. #CarbonDating is limited. However, #Radiation has a standard and consistent decay rate and can be used to date back #billions of years. Modern #radiometric dating methods came into prominence in the late 1940s and 1950s. These methods focus on the decay of atoms of one chemical element into another. They led to the discovery that certain very heavy elements could decay into lighter elements – such as uranium decaying into lead. This work gave rise to a process known as #radiometricdating. This technique is based on a comparison between the measured amount of a naturally occurring radioactive element and its decay products, assuming a constant rate of decay – known as a half-life. That’s #4biddenknowledge #ThereIsNothingNewUnderTheSun

NGC 3572

NGC 3572 is a star cluster located towards the constellation of Carina, the Keel. The region is shaped by the strong stellar winds and radiation from this cluster, which create the interesting shapes and power the glow of the cloud.

Much of the cloud in the lower section of this image is the remains of the molecular cloud that formed the stars of the cluster. Its structure has been altered strongly under the influence of the star cluster. An odd structure above the nebula has been observed, possibly a dense leftover from the molecular cloud or perhaps a planetary nebula. Though born at around the same times, the lifetimes of stars in a star cluster are mainly determined by their mass. Eventually, the cluster will disperse, a process hastened by larger stars that erupt quickly into supernovae.

Image and information from ESO.

The Gilbert U-238 Atomic Energy Lab

The Gilbert U-238 Atomic Energy Lab was a toy produced between 1950 and 1951.  The toy allowed the user to conduct simple experiments with radioactive materials.  Kit included;

  • A Geiger counter
  • An electroscope
  • A Wilson cloud chamber
  • A spinthariscope
  • Four samples of uranium ore
  • Pb-210 lead isotope
  • Polonium
  • Ruthenium
  • Zinc
  • various other accessories

After only a year of production, the toy was pulled from the market for obvious reasons.

Fukushima’s children are dying 
June 16, 2014

Some 39 months after the multiple explosions at Fukushima, thyroid cancer rates among nearby children have skyrocketed to more than forty times (40x) normal.

More than 48 percent of some 375,000 young people—nearly 200,000 kids—tested by the Fukushima Medical University near the smoldering reactors now suffer from pre-cancerous thyroid abnormalities, primarily nodules and cysts. The rate is accelerating.

More than 120 childhood cancers have been indicated where just three would be expected, says Joseph Mangano, executive director of the Radiation and Public Health Project.

The nuclear industry and its apologists continue to deny this public health tragedy. Some have actually asserted that “not one person” has been affected by Fukushima’s massive radiation releases, which for some isotopes exceed Hiroshima by a factor of nearly 30.

But the deadly epidemic at Fukushima is consistent with impacts suffered among children near the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island and the 1986 explosion at Chernobyl, as well as findings at other commercial reactors.
 
The likelihood that atomic power could cause such epidemics has been confirmed by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, which says that “an increase in the risk of childhood thyroid cancer” would accompany a reactor disaster.

In evaluating the prospects of new reactor construction in Canada, the Commission says the rate “would rise by 0.3 percent at a distance of 12 kilometers” from the accident. But that assumes the distribution of protective potassium iodide pills and a successful emergency evacuation, neither of which happened at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl or Fukushima.

The numbers have been analyzed by Mangano. He has studied the impacts of reactor-created radiation on human health since the 1980s, beginning his work with the legendary radiologist Dr. Ernest Sternglass and statistician Jay Gould.

Speaking on the Green Power & Wellness Show, Mangano also confirms that the general health among downwind human populations improves when atomic reactors are shut down, and goes into decline when they open or re-open.

Nearby children are not the only casualties at Fukushima. Plant operator Masao Yoshida has died at age 58 of esophogeal cancer. Masao heroically refused to abandon Fukushima at the worst of the crisis, probably saving millions of lives. Workers at the site who are employed by independent contractors—many dominated by organized crime—are often not being monitored for radiation exposure at all. Public anger is rising over government plans to force families—many with small children—back into the heavily contaminated region around the plant.

Full article

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A cloud chamber and the birth of helium atoms.

The tracks here show the natural radiation in the atmosphere around us. Thicker tracks are big heavy alpha particles, whispy ones are beta particles, but they all work in the same way.

The atmosphere in the chamber contains a lot of alcohol vapour. When charged particles fire through the atmosphere they cause little droplets to form, and these are the clouds you can see.

This is similar to how a track forms behind an aeroplane, where the exhaust can help the droplets of moisture form together into a cloud.

When you then add an Americium pole into the chamber, the alpha particles emitted (with their two protons and two neutrons) grab electrons and form Helium atoms. 

Watch the full video with Dr Peter Wothers on YouTube.

xmiereex asked:

Sooo.. A friend of mine said something about a new "shield" being discovered around Earth..? What is this he speaks of..? Like another magnetic field or..? Bc I haven't seen or heard anything about it except from him. Then again, he tells me of things all the time that I later find to be false.

During the launch & flight of the Orion Capsule, mission control mentioned that the capsule would be passing through the “Van Allen Belts” which are area’s of concentrated radiation that was “captured” before it hit the earth. This it probably what your friend was talking about.

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In addition to the Magnetic Field lines there are also Van Allen Radiation belts that follow the contour of the of the earth’s magnetic field lines. Because the radiation belts are associated with the magnetic field lines, they are just as dynamic. The belts contain energetic electrons that form the outer belt and a combination of protons and electrons that form the inner belt.

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Some of these belts were discovered within the last 10 years. NASA launched the Van Allen Probes on August 30, 2012 to study these radiation belts. There are many layers to these belts and a third layer was discovered as recently as last year in 2013 by NASA’s Van Allen Probes (Check out the NASA page on the mission here). The Belts do shield the earth from radiation but many of there functions are still not understood.

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We do know that the effects of this radiation are non-negligible and we must therefore build space craft that can withstand it. It turns out that water works really well for stopping this radiation. The system that NASA’s new Orion spacecraft uses takes advantage of its water in this way (read NASA’s pdf on radiation and orion).

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Good ask, your friend wasn’t “wrong” so much as he didn’t have the full story. There are a lot of new things being discovered everyday and sometimes it can get confusing, but if you guys need things cleared up feel free to ask!

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Damage Control: Recovering From Radiation and Chemotherapy
Protein discovery could boost efficacy of bone marrow replacement treatments

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that a protein called beta-catenin plays a critical, and previously unappreciated, role in promoting recovery of stricken hematopoietic stem cells after radiation exposure.

The findings, published in the May 1 issue of Genes and Development, provide a new understanding of how radiation impacts cellular and molecular processes, but perhaps more importantly, they suggest new possibilities for improving hematopoietic stem cell regeneration in the bone marrow following cancer radiation treatment.

Ionizing radiation exposure – accidental or deliberate – can be fatal due to widespread destruction of hematopoietic stem cells, the cells in the bone marrow that give rise to all blood cells. A number of cancer treatments involve irradiating malignancies, essentially destroying all exposed blood cells, followed by transplantation of replacement stem cells to rebuild blood stores. The effectiveness of these treatments depends upon how well the replacement hematopoietic stem cells do their job.

In their new paper, principal investigator Tannishtha Reya, PhD, professor in the department of pharmacology, and colleagues used mouse models to show that radiation exposure triggers activation of a fundamental cellular signaling pathway called Wnt in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

“The Wnt pathway and its key mediator, beta catenin, are critical for embryonic development and establishment of the body plan,” said Reya, who also works at the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine. “In addition, the Wnt pathway is activated in stem cells from many tissues and is needed for their continued maintenance.”

The researchers found that mice deficient in beta-catenin lacked the ability to activate canonical Wnt signaling and suffered from impaired hematopoietic stem cell regeneration and bone marrow recovery after radiation. Specifically, mouse hematopoietic stem cells without beta-catenin could not suppress the production of oxidative stress molecules that damage cell structures. As a result, they could not recover effectively after radiation or chemotherapy.

More here

Pictured: The continuous, necessary production of blood cells, including these red blood cells captured in a scanning micrograph by Thomas Deerinck, is the responsibility of hematopoietic stem cells found in bone marrow.

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