Strep throat

is caused by streptococcus pyogenes. Sore throats can also be caused by viruses, but the difference between the two is the production of pus which is seen in the bacterial infection. If this bacterium produces an exotoxin (called erythrogenic toxin) it can cause a skin rash, accompanied by a sore throat and fever, (like the ”usual” strep throat). In that case it’s called scarlet fever.

The red spots on the soft palate in the picture above are called Forchmeimer spots, and are actually petechiae caused by the exotoxin. They can also be seen in measles and rubella. 

Strep pyogenes is a gram positive bacteria

  • Common cause of pharyngitis
  • Causes impetigo, wound infections, cellulitis
  • Rarely necrotizing facitis or penumonia
  • It produces toxins which can cause scarlett fever
  • Post infectious immune mediated disease- glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever

Treat with penicillin and erythromycin

Pyogenes is my attempt at making a NICE male character. He worked in law enforcement in some capacity on Grismara, and is highly intelligent as well as athletic and in very good shape (for a contagion-infected-mordesh). Unfortunately he is rather entirely FAIL when it comes to social interaction. Not so much in a Sherlock way, more of in an adorable Spencer Reid way.

He enjoys reading a good book, playing with pets, and is a terrible softie who would probably love hugs if he knew what to do with them.

GAS, Group A Streptococcus Invasive Infections...

What a title, huh?

Yea, I am clearly still in school and apparently in a microbiology class… struggling to write this paper.

I chose this topic because I thought it was going to be a piece of cake to write and my husband’s aunt suggested it. A piece of cake all right… I initially did not want to write about this topic because I thought it did not have such an impact on our society. Such a pig-headed thing to say. Patients still have to go through debridement if the infection isn’t caught in time.

I must make a connection between Streptococcus pyogenes, its M-protein on its cellular membrane, and its ability to produce these two exotoxins which lead to apoptosis. Why? Because I am trying to get a decent grade for this INSANE report and it is only supposed to be a five to seven page paper. I have over ten sources… It isn’t looking that way.

This is me stating the next following statements. I am not ripping off someone’s hard work… I am gathering my thoughts so I can write this horrible paper… M-proteins are a virulence factor because they have the ability to inhibit phagocytes from doing their job. On top of that, S. pyogenes have the ability to produce exotoxins which can take on similar traits of antigens and can produce an immune response. T-cells then begin to attack where the microbes are currently stationed which at this point should be fascia layer of the skin because we are talking about necrotizing fasciitis… Horrible smells/gases are produced because the microbes are consuming the fascia and forming a byproduct/waste… The person begins to experience pain if they haven’t already… There you have it! Any time you have a cut… always wash it because you never know what could happen.

I think we got it folks! Obviously I have to add a little more details, but I think we just about got it. Yah…

3

And of COURSE we can’t be making new toons without another Mordesh! Meet Pyogenes… .again with my bacterial naming lol.

I seem to have an inability to play non psychotic male characters… . I’m gonna try though! He looks like he’d be a big sweetie! (Hopefully he won’t end up with an H.H. Holmes-esque murder palace >_<)

Had some fun earlier with some prepared slides and my phone at the LABplus facility

image

Okay so this one was a sample of Acidiplasma cupricumulans (taken on x100 magnification with oil submersion) which is from the Archaea domain. It’s found in highly acidic mine drainage and is used for bio-mining. It really likes acidic environments and won’t grow in anything above pH 1.0

image

This slide is of a bacteria called Leptospirillium ferrooxidans (again, with x100 mag and oil most of these are) and it’s also used for bio-mining. It’s used to mine for copper and strangely uranium on commercial scale. It’s isolated from acid mine drainage, mines and mineral heaps.

image

Alright on this write up this sounds plain nasty. It’s name is Staphylococcus pyogens which translates to “the berry found in flexible chains that produce pus.” Essentially this is found in wound infections and can range from mild infections to life threatening ones. The examples on the sheet included impetigo and necrotising fasciitis. Nice. 

image

Okay this one isn’t mag x100, it’s on x4 but I wanted to show the kind of structure this bacteria forms. On the slide it makes a ring of bacteria which are all interwoven. This made it a bit hard to draw in my notes to be honest.

image

This is the slide of Sphaerotilus natans x100. I think with these I’ve messed up with the oil as at this point the bottle was a bit leaky and it got everywhere but it still shows how they overlap and their shape really shows in these. Their name means “The spherical flock that swims” so I’m assuming the ring is a section of a spherical structure although it is hard to see any flagella or cillia on my photo to determine how they swim.

image

This next one is a mixed culture from cheese. to be honest I was expecting a lot more diversity on this one but there only seems to be two obvious types of organism just looking at the morphology of the cells. I’m not entirely sure on what they are so any comments would be appreciated.

image

This one is one that sticks in my head because it’s ‘Star Jelly’ or ‘Witch’s Jam’ which are macroscopic congregations of Nostoc punctiforme which occur after the cell’s re-hydration of its dormant state called a heterocyst.

image

(still on Nostoc punctiforme) its name means “the nostril-slime-like organism with pin-prick markings” The pin pricks aren’t so clear in these pictures but it’s a type of Cyanobacteria which means they photosynthesize.

I thought these were quite cool and so I’d share them. Although next time i’m taking wet wipes or something to keep my hands clean in-between setting up the oil and adjusting the microscope it got everywhere my phone is still covered in it which is probably why the pictures get gradually blurrier. Anyway I hope someone else thinks these look cool and find them generally interesting. :D

Giant Pyogenic Granuloma in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Giant Pyogenic Granuloma in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Case Rep Dermatol. 2014 9;6(3):227-231

Authors: Plovanich M, Tsibris HC, Lian CG, Mostaghimi A

Abstract
Pyogenic granuloma, also known as lobular capillary hemangioma, is a common benign vascular proliferative lesion that can present at any age on the skin or mucous membranes. Most lesions do not exceed 2 cm, but there are a handful of giant cutaneous pyogenic granulomas that have been reported, often in individuals with underlying immune dysfunction. Here, we report the first giant pyogenic granuloma in a patient with a hematological malignancy, chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

PMID: 25408651 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]



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Here's Why Other People's Farts Smell Way Worse Than Your Own

So maybe you were too embarrassed to ask, but we’re guessing you’ve been wondering why your flatulence is so much less offensive than that of other people.

It turns out that science has several explanations, according to a new video (above) from the YouTube series ASAPScience.

For starters, “the more familiar you are with something, whether it be a song, picture, or even a smell, the more likely you are to prefer it,” series co-creator Mitchell Moffitt says in the video, “and because the bacterial population in your body producing these smells is completely unique from every other individual, our farts truly have a one-of-a-kind brand that your nose can differentiate.”

And then there’s the fact that others’ farts can actually make you sick.

“There are many reported cases of farts spreading Streptococcus pyogenes, a pathogen that can cause tonsillitis, scarlet fever, heart disease, and even flesh-eating disease,” Moffitt says in the video. “The pathogen is expelled as fecal matter or poop particles in the air… Of course, this was a major concern for our ancestors who ran around naked, but for us underwear or pant-wearing folks, farts don’t pose a real threat.”

You’re welcome.

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via IFTTT

Here's Why Other People's Farts Smell Way Worse Than Your Own

So maybe you were too embarrassed to ask, but we’re guessing you’ve been wondering why your flatulence is so much less offensive than that of other people.

It turns out that science has several explanations, according to a new video (above) from the YouTube series ASAPScience.

For starters, “the more familiar you are with something, whether it be a song, picture, or even a smell, the more likely you are to prefer it,” series co-creator Mitchell Moffitt says in the video, “and because the bacterial population in your body producing these smells is completely unique from every other individual, our farts truly have a one-of-a-kind brand that your nose can differentiate.”

And then there’s the fact that others’ farts can actually make you sick.

“There are many reported cases of farts spreading Streptococcus pyogenes, a pathogen that can cause tonsillitis, scarlet fever, heart disease, and even flesh-eating disease,” Moffitt says in the video. “The pathogen is expelled as fecal matter or poop particles in the air… Of course, this was a major concern for our ancestors who ran around naked, but for us underwear or pant-wearing folks, farts don’t pose a real threat.”

You’re welcome.

أنواع الأوساط الغذائية للبكتيريا وخصائصها

1- Chocolate Agar
• بيئة غنية Enriched Media تنمو عليها أغلب البكتيريا 
• تحتوي على عوامل X و V الناتجة من تفجر كريات الدم الحمراء RBCs والتي يمكن من خلالها نمو Heamophilus spp و Neisseriae والتي تعتبر هذه الأنواع من البكتيريا صعبة النمو Fastidious .






2- Blood Agar 
• بيئة غنية Enriched Media تنمو عليها معظم البكتيريا 
• بيئة تفريقية Differential بين أنواع البكتيريا المحللة للدم عن طريق التحلل الكامل للدم Beta hemolytic مثل Sterpt. Pyogenes و Sterpt. Agalactiae أو التحلل الجزئي للدم مثل Alpha hemolytic مثل Sterpt. Pneumonia و Sterpt. Viridans أو عدم التحلل للدم Non hemolytic مثل Sterpt. Faecalis و Sterpt. Bovis . 






3- MacConkey Agar 
• بيئة تفريقية للتفريق بين البكتيريا المخمرة للاكتوز Lactose fermenting والتي تأخذ اللون الأحمر مثل E.coli و Klebsiella و Enterobacter ، وبين البكتيريا الغير مخمرة للاكتوز Non-lactose fermenting والتي ليس لها لون (شفاف) مثل Proteus و Salmonella و Shigella .
• تحتوي على Crystal violet أو Bile Salts بحيث تسمح للبكتيريا السالبة لصبغة جرام بالنمو وتثبط نمو الموجبة لصبغة جرام







4- (stine Lactose electrolyte deficient (CLED
• وسط لزراعة عينات الجهاز البولي .
• بيئة تفريقية للتفريق بين البكتيريا المخمرة للاكتوز Lactose fermenting والتي تأخذ اللون الأصفر مثل E.coli ، وبين البكتيريا الغير مخمرة للاكتوز Non-lactose fermenting والتي ليس لها لون (شفاف) مثلAcnitobacter بسبب وجود الكاشف Bromo-thymol blue .
• لها نفس وظيفة الـ MacConkey Agar 






5- (Xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD
• بيئة اختيارية تفريقية لـ Salmonella و Shigella حيث أن الـ Salmonella تأخذ اللون الوردي لوجود Phenol Red مع وجود لون أسود في المركز نتيجة تحلل مواد موجودة في البيئة ينتج عنها غاز H2S والـ Shigella تأخذ مستعمراتها اللون الوردي فقط .






6- Salmonella Agar (S.S Agar) Shigella
• بيئة اختيارية لا تسمح بنمو البكتيريا الموجبة لصبغة جرام وبعض البكتيريا السالبة لصبغة جرام ماعدا Salmonella Shigella & بسبب وجود Na-citrate & bile salts 
• بيئة تفريقية لـ Salmonella و Shigella حيث أن الـ Salmonella تأخذ لون البيئة (شفاف) مع وجود لون أسود في المركز نتيجة تحلل مواد موجودة في البيئة ينتج عنها غاز H2S والـ Shigella تأخذ مستعمراتها لون الوسط(شفاف) .






7- (Mannitol salt Agar (MSA
• بيئة تفريقية للتفريق بين Staphylococcus species و Staphylococcus aureus التي تخمر المانيتول بتأثيرها على لون الكاشف Phenol Red وتعطي اللون الأصفر بينما الـ Staph. الأخرى لا تخمر المانيتول .
• بيئة اختيارية لأن تركيز الأملاح العالي (Nacl 7.5%) الموجود فيه يثبط نمو الميكروبات الأخرى .







8- (Thiosulphate citrate bile salt Agar (TCBS 
• بيئة اختيارية لعزل الكوليرا Vibrio Cholerae 
• تثبط نمو معظم الـ Enterbacteria والبكتيريا الموجبة لصبغة جرام بسبب احتوائها على مواد مثبطة وكذلك قلوية PH الوسط العالية.







9- Mueller Hinton Agar 
• بيئة ضعيفة المواد الغذائية .
• مناسبة لعمل اختبارات الحساسية لأنها لا تحتوي على أية نسب من المواد الكيميائية بحيث لا تتفاعل مع المضادات الحيوية .





10- Bile Esculine
• بيئة تفريقية بين الأنواع المختلفة من الـ Streptococcus و الـ Enterococcus (Strept. Faecalis) التي تفرز عند نموها على هذه البيئة إنزيماً يفكك مادة الأسكولين فيتشكل مركب أسكولتين والذي يتحد مع أيونات الحديد الموجود بالبيئة على شكل سترات الحديد ويتكون مركب اسود يدل على وجود Enterococcus
• أيضاً وجود (4% أملاح الصفراء) يثبط الكثير من البكتيريا دون أن يؤثر على نمو Enterococcus .





11- (Sabouroud Dextrose Agar (SDA
• بيئة اختيارية لنمو الفطريات .
• الـ PH حامضي لذلك لا تسمح بنمو البكتيريا .






جدول يوضح العينات الطبية والأوساط المفضلة لزراعتها كما يُعمل به في كثير من المستشفيات 









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Types of the media and samples
بواسطتي بتعاون مع الأخ HIV


Mac Conkey Agar
Selective medium
"stool , sputum , Eye , Ear , wound , vagina sample "
selective for G -ve bacteria and also Group D in G+ve bacteria can grows on this media
and differential between lactose fermentation bacteria and non lactose fermentation bacteria

CLED Agar
Used on Urine samples
for G+Ve and G-Ve bacteria
properties:- Inhibition Proteus Swarming Species on this media like Mac Conkey media
CLED in the upper part of the media which seen in the picture below
and the other one is Horse blood agar 

XLD medium
Used on stool sample
XLD selective media for G -ve bacteria
and differential for lactose ferment and non lactose ferment

Chocolate Agar
for Haemophilus & Neissria
and also another bacteria which grow in blood agar can grow in this agar easily
" sputum , Eye , Ear , blood , nasal , csf sample "

Blood Agar
"sputum , Eye , Ear , nasal , blood , wound , vagina"
Most of the bacteria can grow in this media
and we dont use this media in stool sample

Manitol salt Agar
Used in suspected (Nosocomial infection) ” MRSA” (Eye , nasal , throat samples )

Mueller Hinton agar 
Used for sensitivity tests

DNase Agar
Biochemical test
used for differentiate between Staph.aureus and Staph species

T.C.B.S medium
for Vibrio Species
The high of PH in this media allows growing of vibrio SSP

Thyer Martin Medium
For Neisseria gonorrehea
samples from vagina and penis
and in uncommon area like oral cavity and anal canal



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Sterilization of Media
تعقيم الأوساط الغذائية بواسطة الأخ الفارس


*All media are sterilized by moist heat only; there is no dry heat sterilization (160c/2hours) or (170c/1.5 hour).
*The most common sterilization of media by autoclave (121c/15minute).
Autoclave is part of moist heat sterilization.
*Sterilization by inspissations (80c) for example: L J media.
*membrane filtration for thermolabile for example: Christian media for urease test.
*most of the selective media are sterilized by boiling (No autoclave)

onceuponanexus asked:

ϟ ϟ ϟ ϟ Pie about Janeene

She’d fallen asleep on the couch again. Pyogenes looked down at the papers on the coffee table and then back to Janeene, the faintest of smiles turning up the corners of his metal mouth. She was pretty, that was for certain, and even though he knew better, he thought the human looked delicate. Sometimes he worried that she might break, going out to fight the way she did. Other times (times he would never admit aloud) he wondered just how resilient a little thing like her might be. And that didn’t have to do with fighting. He found himself blushing and stood, bumping his shin on the coffee table and managing not to trip and wake her up. He didn’t even curse. Instead he picked up an afghan from the nearby chair and put it over her, eyes lingering on her face . . her lips. What would it be like to kiss her?

He put the thought out of his mind and gathered up the papers and crime scene photos, moving to the chair to continue working.

onceuponanexus asked:

For any that want to answer, how many lovers have you had and is there anyone in particular you'd like to take on as a lover now?

Niesseri blinked. “How many? Okay… so I’ve been alive for like… almost a hundred years, right? How many do you think?” She paused, sighing. “Fine. If I’ve gotta actually answer that… three… if we’re not counting one night stands. Four if we are.” The Mordesh gave a frown, hunching her shoulders. “There’s one guy. Number Four in fact. I’d have liked to keep him…but that’s not gonna happen.”

_

“Lovers,” the Mechari tilted her head in an oddly jerky movement and her black eyes somehow managed to look distant as she thought. “I have taken a number of lovers in the time in which I have lived. The precise number would be sixteen. Six were Mordesh, eight were Cassian, and two were Draken. Strangely enough I have never been with one of my own kind.” Deliha frowned, considering this a moment. “I think I would enjoy finding out what that was like… I have no designs on anyone in particular, but I would enjoy a Mechari lover.”

-

Pyogenes’ cheeks darkened. “I suppose I must be truthful here. The answer to the first question is none. I have always been too busy… no… that is not true. I have always been too shy. That, or too socially awkward.” He looked down at his hands. “I do have someone I am fond of, but it would not be my place to even consider her in such a manner. It would be impolite to think of her and I…” The blush deepened. “That is your answer.”

_

“I have had a good many lovers. It has been over a hundred years, after all.” The thin Mordesh leaned back in his chair, his lips curled into an almost endearing smile. “Twenty five … or was it more? I’ve lost count. I believe I stopped counting at twenty five.” He flashed sharp teeth as he thought of the next half of the question. “I have seen a few about who I would certainly be interested in taking… I suppose it depends on one’s idea of what the word ‘lover’ means.”