Zhou Guizhen (86) in 2007 shows her bound feet.

During the Song Dynasty’s (960-1279) foot binding was used to control women, and deprive them of any independence. It is believed that 1 billion Chinese women had their feet bound since the practice started.

In the the 1980s photographer Joseph Rupp photographed some women with bound feet in the Bound feet project and asked these women to tell their stories. Lu Zhen-lan told him “Washing and rebinding is not something others should see. I am happy to tell you about myself and foot binding, but you may not write about me or take a picture if you plan to publish them in a pornographic magazine”.

Most of the remaining women with bound feet have relatively moderate deformities compared to those of a century earlier, as the practice of foot binding became more clandestine after the 1911 ban. That meant many of these women were older when the binding started. Also, those who unbound their feet under communist rule often saw the length of their feet grow over time. Within a decade or two, the last living examples of foot binding will be gone, and all that will remain are the tiny lotus shoes.

ahh drawing vamp teefs made me think of marceline, I need to draw fanart of her eventually > w <

(also, thank you guys for the lovely uplifting messages you sent! especially to the anons since I can’t directly message back //going to try to message back to all the non-anons tho, really appreciate the moral support!)

As more companies focus on employee retention and engagement, it is important to note that a new employee’s complete experience with a company starts at the very beginning, that is, the recruitment stage.

Without a doubt and as current trends in the talent space clearly indicate, the unprecedented need for growth after recession is now turning into a challenge for talent acquisition teams. In most cases, this means that meeting hiring goals and deadlines while identifying and attracting the best talent are now the most dominant human resource activities in growing organizations. How does this impact employee retention?

10. Self-care is HOIST

12-step programs talk about HALT: Don’t let yourself get too
or you’re at risk for using.

Lately, I’ve been thinking that HOIST puts me in an emotional tailspin. Too
Sick (or sore) or
and my life feels terrible

So when I’m feeling crappy and I don’t know why, I run down the list, and then I do that thing.

Openings and Conclusions 6 on Flickr.

On the horizon, then, at the furthest edge of the possible, it is a matter of producing the space of the human species-the collective (generic) work of the species-on the model of what used to be called “art” ; indeed, it is still so called, but art no longer has any meaning at the level of an “object” isolated by and for the individual.

Henri Lefebvre, Openings and Conclusions. from On Installation and Site Specificity (introduction) Erika Suderburg

Collage on paper,written fragments and images from Peter Greenaway, Josef Albers and Robin Evans. Photo montage of The Physical Self (Greenaway) and Waverley Abbey UK.Visual research as part of The Waverley Project/Obscura and Reading Room. 

New Post has been published on http://blog.jannews.net/2014/04/the-place-of-fungi-in-aboriginal-economic-practices/

The place of fungi in Aboriginal economic practices

We were privileged at this year’s Fungimap Conference to have so many informative and fascinating speakers. Among them was Dr Gary Presland, an authority on Aboriginal history and natural history in Melbourne, Australia and a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society of Victoria. Dr Presland has kindly permitted us to republish his talk here. [Eds.]


The place of fungi in Aboriginal economic practices

 by Dr Gary Presland

 Talk given at Fungimap 7 Conference

 Rawson, 24 May 2013.

Aboriginal economic practices were regular and considered, they were, in fact, an integral part of the human role of maintaining the world as it was given. The movements of Aboriginal people within their estates were time-honoured and measured to take advantage of seasonal occurrence and abundance. But Aborigines were pragmatic and would opportunistically exploit food resources wherever and whenever they were encountered.

It is within these contexts in mind that we should look at the place of fungi in Aboriginal life and economy.

I should say at the beginning, that in Victoria and Tasmania—indeed, in most parts of Australia—there is a dearth of evidence regarding use of fungi by Aboriginal people; looking at Victoria in particular, there are a number of reasons for this:

(1) the rate and extent of disruption to Aboriginal society in  Victoria was such that there was no opportunity to carry out detailed studies on the day-to-day practices of Aboriginal groups in this part of Australia .  There were no anthropologists or the like, that is observers who were trained make sense of a lifestyle that appeared to lack everything that held European society together.

(2) while there was much written during the 19th century about what Aborigines were eating, there is little detail about exactly how it was gathered, when, and where. And there is even less information, of course, relating to species. Moreover, the recorded observations were of a much-changed situation; one in which Indigenous people were fighting to maintain something of their traditional ways and at the same time find a place for themselves in a vastly changed world.

(3) This situation is often exacerbated in the case of Aboriginal use of fungi, and a number of other resources, because the process of gathering the food or material was mostly women’s work.  I say, that not to diminish the economic role of women (which in fact, one can easily show to be paramount), but rather as a comment about the observers. Even those white people who took an interest in Aboriginal matters, paid far less

       attention to what women were doing and more to the activities of men. This was partly because all the observers were themselves men and partly because what the men were doing was more obvious – for eg. hunting, fishing, or cutting bark from trees.

We have, thus, only a partial picture of what Aboriginal people were doing.

What can be said, however, is that within Aboriginal economic practices there were a couple of elements of relevance to any study of Aboriginal use of fungi (Presland 2010). Firstly, seasonal movement was a central feature of the yearly round. Thus bands of perhaps 12 to 20 individuals would work their estates in a way that took them to particular locations at specific times of the year. In Autumn—the time when most fungi were collected—people were moving upwards along river valley, heading toward the higher parts of their territories, where they could shelter from the winter wind and rain.

The second relevant feature of Aboriginal society was that, as hunters and collectors, they applied a sexual division of labour. A part of each day’s economic activity was spent in women gathering plant foods and men hunting game, generally in separate locations. Contrary to popular thought, it was the women who provided the bulk of the day’s foodstuffs, as a result of their gathering. However, almost all the food obtained by either group was brought back to camp for communal consumption.

Considering the size of groups and amount of fungi available suggests that fungi were eaten mostly where and when they were found; we might think of it as something in the way of a snack food. Fruiting bodies may have been taken back to the camp (perhaps if they were abundant) but more likely, they were consumed in the field.

It is probable that there were a number of species—perhaps even a large number—of fungi that were eaten by Aboriginal people. I say eaten because in this part of Australia that’s what observers saw them doing; people weren’t seen using fungi as a source of colour, or as a medication, as recorded in other areas.

Not surprisingly, getting at which species were being used is, in most cases, not an easy matter. As Kalotas (1996) says, in the most-often-referenced piece on the subject of Aboriginal use of fungi, ‘There are only a few fungi in Australia which have been well-documented as being considered edible by Aborigines.’ It is interesting that all of the examples he gives following this quote come from other parts of Australia. However, in this connection he mentions the Beech Orange Cyttaria gunnii.Now, I may be wrong but I think this species fruits in late spring and summer, in which case we have to ask if Aboriginal people were exploiting this source were they doing so in the lower-lying parts of their estates, where nothofagus occurred, or were they moving into high country for the purpose.

The most documented fungus exploited by Aborigines was, of course, Laccocephalum mylittae,often referred to in the past as Blackfella’s bread, or native bread.  There are many references in historical sources to this species in both Tasmania and Victoria. The most interesting references from Tasmania are to be found in the journal of George Augustus Robinson.

On 30 May 1829, in commenting on the acuteness of the Aborigines’ sight, Robinson wrote:

                I observed them knock off the fungus from the gum tree, which they eat. It has the appearance of wood and has a sweet flavour not unlike mushroom.   There is another sort of fungus belonging to the same tree but which they do not eat.  There is also another sort of fungus which belongs to the she-oak, resembling sponge, of which they also eat.

Referring to native bread which some of his Aboriginal companions had brought him, Robinson wrote on 2 July 1831:

            The natives procure this fungus from under dead or fallen timber, to which it adheres, and  growing in the ground. In size it is as large as a big turnip and in taste it resembles boiled rice.’  He also mentions ‘another fungus from the peppermint tree …; also a white fungus, quite transparent and resembling jelly.

Three months later, Robinson recorded in his diary (on 25 Oct 1831):

            … the natives showed me a dead tree where there was native bread growing: I saw no signs          myself; they smelt the wood and said the plant was a long way in the ground.

In Victoria, similarly there are a number of references to Aboriginal fungi use in 19th century publications. Brough Smyth (1878) wrote that ‘the native truffle (Mylitta Australis) a subterranean fungus, was much sought after by the natives’.  In a passage about  the feeding of children, he wrote:
                 And while very small—but yet able to move about only on hands and knees—it [a child] has a   little stick put into it s hands and, following the example of elder children, it digs for roots, for the   larvae of ants … and sometimes for the native bread (Mylitta Australis) where it is plentiful, and when the elder children are willing to help the little one.

James Dawson (1881) a western district squatter wrote:

                Mushrooms, and several kinds of fungi, are eaten raw; and a large underground fungus, about the   size of an ordinary turnip, called native bread by white people, is eaten uncooked and is very good.

 One of the tree fungus species which Dawson says was eaten by Aborigines has been identified by Beth Gott (1985) as probably a yellow jelly-fungus species, such as Tremella mesenterica.

 Henry Tisdal, sometime president of the Field Naturalists Club of Victoria wrote (1886) that Native Bread (at that time called Mylitta Australis):

                are very common in Gippsland, but they are difficult to be obtained, as they only grow underground, and leave, as far as I know, no distinguishing mark to show their whereabouts. I    say as far as I know, but as Mr. Howitt assures me that they are eaten in large quantities by  Aboriginals, they may have some way of finding them.

Well, it can be taken as read that they did. No doubt, in addition to other strategies, Aborigines would have noticed the relationship between fire and the fruiting of this fungus, and made a point of looking out for it.

The fact that this fungus fruits after fire has led (or more correctly mis-led) some people to suggest that Aboriginal firing was aimed at this result. For example, one contributor to the website Australian bushfoods and native medicine forum saw the connection as ‘yet another reason/symbiotic dynamic involved in Aboriginal burning of country.’

On a page of the website Tall trees and mushrooms we can read the statement ‘One can easily imagine that the Aboriginal people would have swept through areas they had burned a couple of days earlier to harvest the scelorotia, which can be quite numerous.’

It is outside of the scope of this paper to explain how wrong these suggestions are. Suffice to say that the burning practices of Aboriginal people at maximizing the yield of a particular range of herbaceous species.  If people saw the occurrence of Native Bread as a result there should be no doubt that they would take advantage of it, but that was not their main intent.

In conclusion, I cannot pass by an example of a web of interconnections involving a number of species, including a fungus.  Gott (1982) notes that one particularly important food orchid for Aboriginal people on the western plains was Gastrodia sesamoides R.Br., called ‘native potato’. This plant is completely saprophytic, depending on a fungus for its nutrition. Its position is marked only by the early summer flowering stalk, but when not in flower it was located by Victorian Aborigines by observing where bandicoots had dug for it. Dawson (1881) noted this and was told by local Aborigines that the plant was called ‘puewan’.


Australian bushfoods and native medicine forum http://www.bushfood.net/forum/

Dawson, J (1881) Australian Aborigines (Melbourne: Walter May & Co.)

Gott B (1982) The ecology of root use by Aborigines of southern Australia. Archaeology in Oceania 17: 59-67 

Gott B (1985) Plants mentioned in Dawson’s Australian Aborigines. The Artefact 10: 3-14

Kalatos, A C (1996) Aboriginal knowledge and use of fungi Fungi of Australia vol. 1B Introduction — fungi in the environment  (Canberra: Australian Bureau )

Presland, G (2010) First people: the Eastern Kulin of Melbourne, Port Phillip and central Victoria (Melbourne: Melbourne Museum Publishing)

Tall trees and mushrooms http://morrie2.wordpress.com/2011/02/04/polyporus-mylittae-an-ancient-edible/

Tisdall, H T (1886) Fungi of north Gippsland. Part II.  The Victorian Naturalist 3: 106–109


My life the past few days. (Excluding my thesis).

I was doodling when I realized I dunno how to draw butts. After ProjectTiger’s suggestion, I went and Google-image-searched butts by which I got an embarrassing display of a screen full of bikini’d butts.

Either way, I proceeded to draw butts, but it ended up more like an anatomy practice than a butt-drawing practice, because really… Disembodied bottoms aren’t gonna help me.

When I gave up on that I decided to practice faces and facial expressions. I realized making things consistent while changing facial expressions is actually really hard, and frankly I suck at it.

So I tried it with a stagnant pose (and using an “original” character this time,) in hopes of making them more consistent. Unfortunately that left me with a very bland and uninteresting set of expressions and I just became bored.

After that I also realized that my previous (and childish) aversion from drawing noses has really hindered my progress in the long run, and now I think I will practice drawing different types of noses.

That is, before I decide to just quit drawing, and I’ll roll over and pity myself cause I’m a loser like that and I’ll never be as good as other artists out there.


These are the card values I use when reading.

You want to do some cartomancy? Okay. This is what you need. A list of card values, any deck of playing cards you can get your hands on, a spread, and a question.

You do not have to cleanse or attune your cards or whatever. Some people like to. I didn’t. I use the cards a lot and they have naturally attuned with me to the point where I am the only person who can use the deck. It’s up to you how or if you do it.

Some notes for this list:

  1. You do not have to use the JOKER. It’s purely preference. 
  2. When you gen an inverse card, you can see it as any of the following: opposite in meaning, that card is particularly important, nothing, or no change in meaning or importance.
  3. The words “man” and “woman” do not specifically mean biological sex. It could mean gender, appearance, or dominant personality characteristics.
  4. The word “business” almost never stands for actual business [buying, selling, trade]. When business shows up, it is usually referring to any sort of interaction held between two or more people. i.e. meeting for coffee to talk about life, killing someone, preforming a specific action, a phone conversation, a text message. Literally anything could be considered “business”.

Values are under the read more.

Read More

Where would I go if I love and praise my Beloved Prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon Him)?
—  Jannah - or- Hell?
Isn’t it this simple to decide and avoid confusions?
Even if it is every day, one day in a year, or once in entire life!
It’ll definitly make Prophet  (Peace and Blessings be upon Him) Happy!
And what makes Him happy, is not Haram.
The ordinary practitioners of the city live “down below,” below the
thresholds at which visibility begins. They walk-an elementary form of this experience of the city; they are walkers, whose bodies follow the thicks and thins of an urban “text” they write without being able to read it. These practitioners make use of spaces that cannot be seen; their knowledge of them is as blind as that of lovers in each other’s arms.

Michel de Certeau - Chapter ‘Walking the City' in 'The Practice of Everyday Life' (1984)



Other People - shout outs to four-sided-triangle and velocimonster if you’re around - what role do you think shrines/altars/an offering space should have in the practice of an Other Person? Is it a necessity for every Person to establish a shrine to worship at? Is it not? Reasons/explanations/personal experiences are great & encouraged.

(I’ll be starting up a Sunday question session, which will begin tomorrow, if anyone has big questions to ask.)