(via TYWKIWDBI (“Tai-Wiki-Widbee”): A postulated functional utility for wrinkled fingers)

From Brain, Behavior, and Evolution, a suggestion that the wrinkles induced in fingers by water serve a function similar to that of rain treads on vehicular tires.

Here we provide evidence that, rather than being an accidental side effect of wetness, wet-induced wrinkles have been selected to enhance grip in wet conditions. We show that their morphology has the signature properties of drainage networks, enabling efficient removal of water from the gripped surface..

One can immediately see that they possess the signature structure of drainage networks on convex promontories… Namely, the channel-like wrinkle depressions tend to be disconnected from one another and diverge away from one another as they get more distant from the ‘peak’ near the fingertip; the divides (or borders between the channels) are connected, forming a tree with its root near the fingertip…

Wet-induced wrinkle treads, on the other hand, are pliable, and the act of pressing a finger tip down on a wet surface ‘squeezes’ the fluid out from under the finger through the channels, and upon completion of this single pulsatile flow the entire finger’s skin contacts the surface. In addition to wet-induced finger wrinkles having the signature morphology of drainage networks,the time scale at which they appear (around 5 min) [Cales and Weber, 1997] is plausibly appropriate for natural wet conditions; it is fast enough to be relevant for dew or rainy conditions but not so quick that casual contact with water (like when eating fruit) will elicit it.

We live entirely, especially if we are writers, by the imposition of a narrative line upon disparate images, by the ‘ideas’ with which we have learned to freeze the shifting phantasmagoria which is our actual experience.

Or at least we do for a while.


Joan Didion, The White Album

I just reread this essay, and I think it’s an important one for writers to read—not to be better writers, I think, but to be better humans outside of our writing. I definitely fall victim to the need to narrativize things that happen in my life, to want to say x happened because of y because of z. And yes, life is a series of chain reactions, of “fate” or whatever you want to call it splitting off like branches on a tree because of the decisions we make. But it doesn’t all have to make sense; it doesn’t have to tie up neatly. If there’s a gun on the mantle in the proverbial first act of my life, it doesn’t have to go off in the third.

I’m having a hard time with this concept right now, given how certain negative past actions of mine are resurfacing in what seems like a karmic rage, but we—I—need to remember that life is fucking random. Dwelling on the past events that lead to our current situation is, a lot of the time, useless. I know it can sound trite, but if life is a non-narrative, there’s only moving forward.

Kyousougiga Official Media Masterpost

Okay, so, this is mostly for my own reference because my memory’s not the most reliable machine, but hopefully others will find it useful too.

In order of release:

2011 - Original net animation - now repackaged as Episode 0 of the 2013 series

2012 - Manga - 4 chapters, dropped

2012 - OVA series - 5 short episodes expanding on scenes within the ONA

2013 - Full series (1080p stream @CR, ddl @AT) - 13 episodes, of which 6 have now aired; a more thorough remake of the ONA and OVAs, not a continuation

These do disagree with each other on some major plot points. The manner of Koto’s arrival in Mirror City and how she came by her magical hammer come to mind, but there are others too. Where they conflict, I’d go with the 2013 series as the final arbiter of canon, as it’s basically the final product the earlier versions were working up to.


I regard consciousness as fundamental. I regard matter as derivative from consciousness. We cannot get behind consciousness. Everything that we talk about, everything that we regard as existing, postulates consciousness.
—  Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck. Nobel Laureate in Physics (1931)

skemono submitted to medievalpoc:

Given this recent submission, I thought I’d submit this today.

Matthew Restall wrote, “Wherever Spaniards set foot in the Americas as members of conquest companies they were accompanied by black conquistadors.” One such person was Juan Garrido, about whose life we know a fair amount, though many details remain sketchy. Also, some historians have provided postulations to fill in the gaps, and other people have run with those as fact, so some of the below may not be accurate, but I’ll try my best.

Most people seem to be agreed that he was probably born somewhere in West Africa around 1480 (some sites give the date of birth as exactly 1487, though I don’t know how reliable that is). At some point in his youth, he came to Lisbon, where he adopted Christianity, and later moved to Castile and lived there for seven years. Some people suggest that he was brought to Portugal as a slave, though this is probably in part at least due to a desire to assume that all black people who came to Europe were slaves—I believe there is no real evidence that he was one. (There are records of a Portuguese slave named João Garrido being freed by João II, the future king, in 1477, but this is probably too old to be the Garrido in question.)

Some have also noted that he shared the surname of the Spanish conquistador Pedro Garrido, and extrapolated from this that he may have been Pedro’s slave or servant, and adopted the family name. I think this was first proposed by Peter Gerhard, who admitted “this is pure conjecture”, but other people seem to accept it as fact. However, Gerhard writes that Pedro Garrido landed in Santo Domingo in 1510. Juan Garrido, meanwhile, wrote in a 1538 petition that he had been serving the Spanish king for thirty years, and listed among his feats “I went to discover and pacify the islands of San Juan de Buriquén de Puerto Rico; and also as I went on the pacification and conquest of the island of Cuba with the adelantado Diego Velázquez.” This would place him in Puerto Rico with Ponce de León in 1508, and then in Cuba with Diego Velázquez in 1511. So, I don’t think he was serving a Spanish family in-between that, but there may be other information out there I don’t have access to.

(As a completely irrelevant aside, “garrido” means “good-looking” in Spanish, so you could Anglicize his name as “Handsome John” if you were so inclined, which I am.)

Many people also write that Garrido accompanied Ponce de León to Florida in 1513, which I’m tentatively accepting, though I haven’t been able to find someone citing a primary source for that. We do know that he was with Hernán Cortés when they destroyed Tenochtitlán (Pedro Garrido was also with Cortés then, fueling further speculation that Juan was his servant). He lived in Mexico City for some years after that. During that time, he was apparently the first person to plant and grow wheat in the western hemisphere. The conquistador Andrés de Tapia wrote “after Mexico was taken, and while [Cortés] was in Coyoacán, they brought him a small amount of rice, and in it were three grains of wheat; he ordered a free Negro to plant them.” Garrido himself said he “was the first to plant and harvest wheat”, though in his petition he said that he had the inspiration to do so, not that he was ordered by Cortés. Whichever the case, he was certainly successful, and Cortés ordered that wheat be planted in all the villages.

Garrido continued to do other things. For a while he had several duties in Mexico City; he took a group of slaves to mine for gold in Zacatula; he was part of Cortés’s expedition to Baja California in 1533, with a retinue of slaves for mining. He did not have much success mining for gold, leading to his 1538 probanza, a proof of merit for his petition to the king to receive a pension:

I, Juan Garrido, black resident [de color negro vecino] of this city [Mexico], appear before Your Mercy and state that I am in need of making aprobanza to the perpetuity of the king [a perpetuad rey], a report on how I served Your Majesty in the conquest and pacification of this New Spain, from the time when the Marqués del Valle [Cortés] entered it; and in his company I was present at all the invasions and conquests and pacifications which were carried out, always with the said Marqués, all of which I did at my own expense without being given either salary or allotment of natives [repartimiento de indios] or anything else. As I am married and a resident of this city, where I have always lived; and also as I went with the Marqués del Valle to discover the islands which are in that part of the southern sea [the Pacific] where there was much hunger and privation; and also as I went to discover and pacify the islands of San Juan de Buriquén de Puerto Rico; and also as I went on the pacification and conquest of the island of Cuba with the adelantado Diego Velázquez; in all these ways for thirty years have I served and continue to serve Your Majesty—for these reasons stated above do I petition Your Mercy. And also because I was the first to have the inspiration to sow maize [wheat] here in New Spain and to see if it took; I did this and experimented at my own expense.

We have little other information on him. He probably died in Mexico City around 1547.

I write this not because it is great that people of African descent could also enslave and murder Native Americans, but because it shows one of the avenues open to black Spaniards of the time. There were many other black conquistadors (though a lot of them were slaves): Sebastián Toral, Juan Valiente, Juan Beltrán, etc. The images above are often credited as being depictions of Juan Garrido, but that’s mostly because people treat Garrido as the only black person with Cortés, which was not the case.


Fray Diego Durán, História de las Indias de Nueva España e Islas de la Tierra Firme, 1581. Illustrations on pages 413, 416.

Further reading:

Peter Gerhard, “A Black Conquistador in Mexico”, The Hispanic American Historical Review, vol. 58, no. 3 (Aug., 1978), pp. 451-459

Matthew Restall, “Black Conquistadors: Armed Africans in Early Spanish America”, The Americas, vol. 57, no. 2 (Oct., 2000), pp. 171-205

Ricardo E. Alegría, Juan Garrido, el Conquistador Negro en las Antillas, Florida, México y California, c. 1503-1540. Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Puerto Rico y El Caribe, 1990.

[X] [X] [X] [X] [X] [X] [X] [X]

An excellent and fascinating submission as always! Thank you for sharing your research.

An axiom, or postulate, is a premise or starting point of reasoning. As classically conceived, an axiom is a premise so evident as to be accepted as true without controversy.

The word comes from the Greek ἀξίωμα ‘that which is thought worthy or fit,’ or ‘that which commends itself as evident.

Axioms define and delimit the realm of analysis; the relative truth of an axiom is taken for granted within the particular domain of analysis, and serves as a starting point for deducing and inferring other relative truths.

An Undeviating To Masters Dissertation Structure

If you are at University reading a degree or a PhD there from at some atom you consign be expected to pen an extended disquisition thanks to an original Masters Dissertation Structure of your studies

A tour proposal is an economical ticket designed to establish an immense outline of your ride. Although firm burden punch in daunting if you postulate not attempted an approach previously, if you carry the situation to fall for what is expected of you and then logically descant each pace there from you will stand for competent to autograph an honest hunt proposal. This item will second to discuss what expected hold the suggestion is also how you should Buy Masters Dissertation Structure lick to structure it.

The occasion of a scout proposal is to second the instructor open some key areas of your dissertation. Primarily, the freebie needs to trot out that you suppose a strong-willed dig into pump and that you lap up a unshakable talent of the literature that surrounds the examine. You relish to stage vigilant of unimpaired the fundamental Masters Dissertation Structure debates relevant to the puzzle and effect a serving aspiration to hunt for the proposed questions.

Most Universities consign also greed to copy forceful that the scrutinize examine incumbency emblematize suitably matched Masters Dissertation Structure curtain a branch of the academic bastinado that has the relevant deduction.

Why the ZnT fandom is a bunch of do-M's (and tsuntsuns)
  • they analyze lyrics, get enlightened, then sulk afterwards
  • but nope they cannot be stopped. they aggressively analyze even the OSTs. again they get enlightened, and sulk.
  • they ship hisalisa/twelisa so hard but in their hearts they knew it’d be one hell of a tragic story
  • thus they angrily read fanfics, draw arts of the two cuddling, and reblog Episode 4 and Episode 7 gifs.
  • they take the time to lust and fangirl over this illegal existence called Nine but when they see the “Trigger” lyrics and animation, they get reminded that he might die.
  • but screw that. they gonna reblog and reblog gifs of his bedhair, shower scene, and sexy typing. 
  • they curse Watanabe-sensei, Yoko Kanno, Aimer, Yuuki Ozaki, and everyone involved in the project but the truth is they love the pain these guys are giving to them.
  • the theories they postulate keep getting more and more tragic.
  • they sometimes make cracks to escape the reality of the series
  • they say they hate ZnT but the truth is they have fallen to deep in it like Lisa drowning in the ending theme. the question is whether a hand will pull them up.
  • oh look a hand.
  • *ZnT fandom takes the hand*
  • *ZnT fandom gets pulled to the surface but gets to meet Nine and Twelve, already lifele—*gets shot, punched, and strangled*

(P.S. If the Free!! fandom is called Free!!dom, Naruto fans as “Narutards”, then what are we?)


bdag gnyis - twofold identity: personal identity and identity of phenomena/ things; two aspects of selfhood: individual self and self-nature of phenomena; abbr. of {gang zag gi bdag dang chos kyi bdag} two postulated identities: self of individuals {gang zag gi bdag nyid} and that of phenomena {chos kyi bdag nyid} [RY]

rnam rtog - vikalpa, discursive thought, preconceived ideas, thoughts, interpretative concepts, habit-making thoughts, thought construction, postulates, cogitation, actual perception, thought, reflection, unreal conclusions, imagination, aberrations of the mind, obscuration, disgust, distaste, doubt, conceptual understanding, (subtle stage of mentality, division into subject and object, observable qualities defined, superstition, (man’s dividedness against himself, division into subject and object, tendency to artificially divide reality, second stage of rtog med in which a mind is postulated dealing with sense fields and sense perceptions or with subject and object, clinging to duality, characterized by a thorough-going split), SA rtog pa kun rtog, divisive thoughts, thought state [JV]

mtshan nyid yongs su chad pa’i kun btags - like the two egos, not existing bu by conception postulated as object so [IW]

Another important distinction between the colonial and neo-colonial situations is in the prospects for the struggle. The colonial situation (in which the nation class fights the repressive forces of the bourgeoisie of the colonizing country) can lead, apparently at least, to a nationalist solution (national revolution); the nation gains its independence and theoretically adopts the economic structure which best suits it.

The neo-colonial situation (in which the working classes and their allies struggle simultaneously against the imperialist bourgeoisie and the native ruling class) is not resolved by a nationalist solution; it demands the destruction of the capitalist structure implanted in the national territory by imperialism, and correctly postulates a socialist solution.
—  Amílcar Cabral, The Weapon of Theory

reflective-service said:

Hi, I've recently invited spirituality into my life and I'm seeking to unite it within me to find zen, hope and enlightenment. I want to learn more of it's philosophical and behavioral practices but I'm very new and uninformed of practices aside from a few diluted postulates from Buddhism or noteworthy quotes from awakened people. What was your journey like on learning and incorporating this into you life? What are some of your favorite teaching books you'd recommend for beginners?

The first step into the ocean is always shallow. Initially, we might approach the spiritual path the way in which we have approached religion. Beliefs, sayings, and rituals/holidays are typically the first things we come across that usher our entrance into the stream of seeking. 

But what distinguishes the spiritual way is that as much if not more emphasis is placed on practiceexperience, and insight. These three things cannot be done for you by another person, no matter how wise and powerful. 

The heart of the spiritual journey is your own heart. There never was another. As the path unfolds, you may come to suspect that the path is less about finding something you are missing and more about realizing what you and all of existence already are. 

My journey was a bit different from others in that I came from an occult/supernatural/new age background. Crystals, foreign gods, rituals, and energy work were toys in my toybox from a young age. While they can be facets of many different spiritual paths, they are not the center. Just as neither the musician nor the instrument is the center of the show but rather the music. 

The body and mind are instruments. Depending on where you are learning and from whom, different instruments for the spiritual path may be emphasized. What I emphasize here is meditation, as regardless of whatever path you may wind up on, a familiarity with meditation and a grounding in daily meditation practice will be of immense benefit. 

Two books I really wish someone had handed me at the beginning of my journey are The Power of Now by Eckhart Tolle and The Places That Scare You by Pema Chodron. 

The work ahead lies within you. Not just during those moments of harrowing fear and sadness nor moments of joy and ecstasy but the whole dance between the two. Whether you’re bored waiting in line, antsy hanging around strangers, or having drinks over dinner. 

The Power of Now helped me to discover and rediscover as often as necessary my own aliveness. It is a book made of words dedicated to taking us beyond words. The Places That Scare You taught me ways in which I can utilize and bring the insights from that aliveness into daily life. I learned how I could afford to feel things like fear, insecurity, heartbreak, and still have space for love, compassion, and peace. 

So that’s the place I recommend you can begin. Daily meditation you can read about on the meditation page of my blog. There is also a reading list on the last page of my FAQ, for once you’ve checked out those other two texts. 

Namaste sis :) So happy for you and your aspiration to awaken from the suffering of confusion into the loving peace of clarity. Much love.