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If asked, would you rank polio among the world’s most severe infectious diseases?

No, I wouldn’t either - but it’s worth remembering that it took a lot of hard work to get it off of that list. Poliovirus, a human enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae, has persisted throughout history with fascinating success. It can be seen everywhere from ancient Egyptian paintings and carvings of otherwise healthy people with withered limbs, to, more recently, the 20th century polio epidemics that became a seasonal plague, paralysing children and adults alike and causing the ultimate race for a vaccine. While 90-95% of poliovirus infections are asymptomatic, the symptoms of polio - when they present - are both devastating and deadly.

Several poliovirus vaccines have been developed to date; in particular, one live, attenuated vaccine and one IPV (inactivated poliovirus vaccine). In a recent Nature News article, "A war not yet won", the financial implications of poliovirus - which is still endemic in developing countries, despite a worldwide push for eradication - were examined alongside various strategies for moving forward with changes to the proposed eradication scheme. One such change was the use of the injectable IPV vaccine in conjunction with the oral vaccine - the live, weakened attenuated virus - that’s currently being used to treat poliomyelitis in endemic populations.

Although the fight to eradicate poliovirus is far from over - and it’s definitely too early to start congratulating - complementing the inexpensive, highly effective oral vaccine with its injected dead-virus counterpart is a promising start. With sufficient funding and a better global understanding about the benefits of vaccination, we’ll see the end of poliomyelitis in our lifetimes. 

Top Image: Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of clusters of polio viruses, the cause of poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis). There are three serotypes of the polio virus; pictured here is type 1, which causes most epidemics.

Bottom Image: A computer’s 3D rendering of poliovirus virions.

Polio: Mutated virus breaches vaccine protection

Polio: Mutated virus breaches vaccine protection


Polio: Mutated virus breaches vaccine protection- The polio epidemic in the Congo in 2010 was especially serious. 445 people were verifiably infected, mostly young adults. The disease was fatal for 209 of them. This high mortality rate is surprising. Also important was the fact that many of those affected had apparently been…

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5

Bagian paling favorit dari textbook-bukan materi pelajarannya haha-tapi tulisan singkat tentang penulis nya (biasanya setelah cover). Entah kenapa seneng aja baca bagian ini karena bisa tau lebih dalam tentang seluk beluk penulisnya. Seperti buku Fisiologi Guyton, jadi tau perjalanan hidup penulisnya, dr.Arthur Guyton, ahli fisiologi terkemuka di dunia (meskipun superfisial). Jadi tau klo beliau meninggal karena kecelakaan di tahun 2003. Trus tau klo ayahnya dr.Guyton itu dokter juga (dokter THT dan pernah jd dekan di FK Universitas Missisipi sana), trus dr.Guyton punya 10 anak yg semuanya jadi dokter juga (8 diantaranya lulusan Harvard). Trus ternyata dr.Guyton mengidap poliomyelitis, akibatnya beliau mengalami kelumpuhan dan menunda medical trainingnya. Tapi dari kelumpuhan akibat polio ini beliau malah menemukan “motorized weelchair” pertama yg dikendalikan via joystick. Dan beliau menerima penghargaan atas penemuannya ini.
Trus jadi tau bagaimana dr.Guyton sebagai guru dan sebagai ayah yg sukses. Melibatkan secara aktif “learning by doing” anak2nya mendesign dan konstruksi rumah mereka. Bagaimana pengertiannya beliau pada mahasiswa2 yg masih “cupu” (yahh kaya sayalah, haha) yg masih merangkak klo baca textbook, beliau bilang “Many textbooks of medical physiology had become discursive, written pri-marily by teachers of physiology for other teachers of physiology, and written in language understood by other teachers but not easily understood by the basic student of medical physiology.” (kyakya) dan emang, guyton salah satu buku yg enakeun klo dibaca (kata temen2 saya, haha). Keahlian beliau di bidang fisiologi yg emang ga diragukan lagi, bahkan utk konsep fisiologi kardiovaskular akan sulit dibahas klo tanpa memakai konsep dr.Guyton (kata bukunya. Yah jd wajarlah yaa klo nilai CVS saya…… Haha *alesan). Kontribusi aktif beliau dalam penelitian, melahirkan lebih dari 600 paper dan 40 buku, menerima lebih dari 80 penghargaan, buku Fisiologi nya yg ditranslate ke 13 bahasa, menjadikan beliau one of the greatest physiologists in history.
Dan dokter2 lainnya juga : dr.Harrison, dr.Netter, dll
*selalusukabacasejarahorangoranghebat *emangdasarnyahobingepoinorangsihyaahahaha *seandainyabacamaterinyasemenarikbacabagianini

I used to think vaccination is unnecessary, thinking that human have our antibodies that are capable for protection. 

but you know what? I WAS WRONG.

Your antibodies is not enough. Viruses are extremely dangerous.

THEY HAVE PARASITIC NATURE.

Think about your children, have you seen people who are infected by rabies? or poliomyelitis, encephalitis? Don’t learn the hard way.

The are countless of viral diseases out there.

Countless.

PROTECT YOUR CHILD. GET VACCINES. before its too late.

Why you shouldn't refuse a vaccine

Why you shouldn’t refuse a vaccine

Hello, everyone! ♥

Recently I had a disscusion on the internet and I was asked what was my opinion on vaccines. And I said I have a totally good opinion about vaccines and that every year I take the flu vaccine in order to avoid getting flu. I told you before that I once had flu and I had 40ºC fever and I will never want to repeat this experience. And that person I discussed with seemed to have…

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Oncolytic poliovirus immunotherapy of glioblastoma.

Oncolytic poliovirus immunotherapy of glioblastoma.

Neuro Oncol. 2014 Jul;16 Suppl 3:iii41

Authors: Gromeier M, Dobrikova E, Dobrikov M, Brown M, Bryant J, Threatt S, Boulton S, Carter K, Herndon J, Desjardins A, Friedman H, Sampson J, Friedman A, Bigner D

Abstract
BACKGROUND: With the exception of Burkitt lymphoma, almost all solid cancers are susceptible to infection with poliovirus, due to widespread ectopic expression of the poliovirus receptor, the onco-fetal cell adhesion molecule Necl5/CD155. We engineered a profoundly CNS-incompetent and genetically stable variant of polio through recombination of the cognate internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) with its counterpart from human rhinovirus type 2. The resulting PVSRIPO chimera is incapable of causing poliomyelitis or encephalitis in non-human primates or human subjects, even after high-dose intracerebral inoculation, but retains excellent cytotoxic properties in malignant cells. This is due to constitutively active signal transduction pathways via Raf-Erk MAPKs to the MAPK-interacting kinase, Mnk, and the translation apparatus.
METHODS: Raf-Erk-Mnk signals favor translation of mRNAs with highly structured, encumbered 5’ untranslated regions, typical for mRNAs encoding potent biological response modifiers, survival factors, growth factors or oncogenes. They afford an enormous advantage to PVSRIPO translation, causing irreversible lethal cytotoxicity as early as 60 min after infection. PVSRIPO infection of GBM produces drastic, violent cytotoxicity and a wide range of pro-inflammatory and immunogenic host responses. These are due to virally-induced ‘immunogenic cell death’, forceful activation of innate antiviral type 1 interferon responses, non-lethal infection and pro-inflammatory stimulation of tumor-associated macrophages/dendritic cells and stimulation of cytotoxic T-cell responses directed against the tumor.
RESULTS: A currently accruing Phase-1 clinical trial of PVSRIPO with intratumoral, CED-mediated infusion in recurrent GBM is showing promise with the first patients experiencing durable complete clinical and near-complete radiographic responses >20 months post PVSRIPO infusion. The key to PVSRIPO oncolytic immunotherapy is the early acute phase of viral cytotoxicity after intratumoral infusion. Unhinged translation control, enabling unfettered viral, IRES-mediated initiation, is independent of the notorious intratumoral and inter-individual heterogeneity of advanced, treatment-refractory cancers. To define the molecular mechanism of PVSRIPO-mediated immunogenic cell death, we unraveled a signaling network centered on Raf-Erk-Mnk signals and their control over the Ser-Arg-rich protein kinase.
CONCLUSIONS: Provided a solid mechanistic rationale exists for their use, oncolytic viruses such as PVSRIPO may induce tumor-cytotoxic, immune-modulatory and immune-stimulatory effects with an extent and biological range that are difficult to achieve with any other type of anti-cancer agent.
SECONDARY CATEGORY: Preclinical Experimental Therapeutics.

PMID: 25165326 [PubMed - in process]



via pubmed: lymphoma daily http://ift.tt/1sObhQr
True

Being a student in a medical field makes you see things that you shouldn’t need to see.

E.G.

A handsome guy with unusual gait = poliomyelitis.

Acquaintance who is somehow weird = schizophrenic.

A lady who is smiling and whispering to her self = psychotic.

*insert awkward seal here*

Mutiertes Polio-Virus durchbrach Impfschutz im Kongo - derStandard.at


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Mutiertes Polio-Virus durchbrach Impfschutz im Kongo
derStandard.at
Kinshasa/Bonn/Libreville - Wissenschafter haben ein mutiertes Poliomyelitis-Virus (Kinderlähmung) entdeckt, das den Impfschutz vor der Erkrankung durchbrechen kann. Der neue Erreger wurde von Forschern aus Bonn und dem afrikanischen Staat Gabun …
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